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during these four years.

In the regular session of 1864 he was on the
committee on incorporation and on banks, and was
chairman of the committee on the state library.
In this latter committee he had charge of the bill,
which finally became a law, placing this library
upon a substantial basis, and it now stands the
fourth best in the United States, the tabular state-
ment of state libraries being New York, Massachu-
setts, Pennsylvania, Iowa artd California.

For his persistency in the advocation of his bill
Mr. Hurley was bitterly assailed by the partisan
press for the expense incurred, but all now admit
the genuine worth of the possession of the library,
and it has justly become the pride of the state.

Mr. Hurley was elected president of the agricul-
tural society of Louisa county in 1866, which at
that time did not possess one dollar of property.



At the end of four years he turned the office over
to his successor, and property to the amount of
four thousand dollars.

About this time he conceived the idea of organ-
izing a railroad from Burlington to Cedar Rapids
to connect with the road then being built from
Cedar Rapids north, and at a meeting called for
that purpose at Burlington he presented his articles
of incorporation, which were adopted and the com-
pany formed, of which he became a director and a
member of the executive committee, in both of
which capacities he served until the road was com-
pleted.

In the fall of iSdg he was again elected to the
state senate for a term of four years. In the first
session he was placed on the judiciary, constitu-
tional amendments and banks committees, and was
chairman of the committee on public lands. In
the second session, commencing in January, 1872,
he was chairman of the judiciary committee and
member of the committee on elections, congres-
sional districts and compensation of public officers.
During this session he introduced the bill enlarg-
ing the powers o^the circuit judges, reducing the
number in each judicial district and increasing their
salaries, which became a law ; also a bill for the
increase of salaries of the supreme judges, which
became a law. He also introduced the bill regulat-
ing taxation of railway property in the state, which
became a law. This regular session adjourned to
a consideration of the revision of the laws, which
resulted in what is known as the code of 1873.

In 187 1 Mr. Hurley made a copartnership with
Mr. John Hale, of Wapello, which copartnership
is still continued. It enjoys a very large business,
practicing in all the courts of the state and in the
federal courts. His mother died at Wapello in
1874, leaving eight children. His eldest brother
is a physician, the other two brothers are farmers.

Of the Hon. James Simpson Hurley it may with
strict justice be said that he was untiring in his
services in the various committees upon which he
served, and was- the author of bills of immense im-
portance to the present and future welfare of his
state. In his double term of senatorship, passing
through a period of eight years, we find him ever
on the alert to secure wise and wholesome legis-
lation. His record will be found to be as purely
devoted to the interests of the whole state as that
of any public servant known to the annals of Amer-
ican legislation.



628



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARr.



Mr. Hurley was married in May, 1857, to Miss
Martha M. Garrett, of Garrettsville, Portage county,
Ohio, by whom he has had nine children, five boys
and four girls. Four of the former are demised.

His early political affinities were with the whig
party. He assisted in the formation of the repub-
lican party in the State of Iowa, and has always
voted with that party.

Mr. Hurley is a great lover of fine-bred cattle.



He has a stock farm of four hundred acres near
the limits of the city of Wapello, where, since 1872,
he has raised large herds of fine steers.

Being of Quaker descent he naturally inclines to
that persuasion. His general manner would be-
speak his religious proclivities. He is very unde-
monstrative in his style, but very incisive in all he
undertakes, and he holds to any expressed opinion
with wonderful tenacity.



DARIUS SCOFIELD, M. D.,

WASHINGTON.



DARIUS SCOFIELD, was born at Hadley,
Saratoga county. New York, on the 31st of
July, 1834, and is the second son of William Sco-
field and Susannah nh Bishop. His father was a
native of Stainford, Connecticut, where the ancestors
had resided for five generations previously, the first
of the line in America having emigrated from Eng-
land and settled in the last-named place about the
year 1730, where they have been*generally tillers of
the soil. From this stock, so far as we can learn,
have descended all the men now bearing that name
in the United States, though some of them have
varied the orthography of the name to that of Scho-
field.

The grandfather of our subject was Neazer Sco-
field, a soldier in the revolutionary war, and about
the year 1800 moved from Stamford, Connecticut,
to Saratoga county, New York, where he died in the
year 1846, in the ninety-fourth year of his age. He
was a pensioner of the government up to the time
of his death. He was also a leading member of the
Presbyterian church, and a man of considerable in-
fluence in the community where he resided.

Although the father of our subject, William Sco-
field, was a hard-working, industrious and frugal
man, with excellent habits and refined tastes, yet it
was chiefly through the influence of his mother, a
woman of much ambition and energy, that he and
his brothers attained, what might be termed at that
early day, a liberal education. Darius was from an
early period a diligent student, and very soon de-
voured all the historical and scientific works in the
family library. Books were not then as attainable
as now, a circumstance which led to the more thor-
ough appreciation and study of those possessed.

Our subject was prepared for college at the Cam-



bridge Academy, in Washington county. New York,
reading for a classical course and for entering col-
lege two years advanced ; quite usual for students
of that academy.

At the close of his academic course, under the
advice of medical friends, who saw in him talents
especially adapting him to the medical profession,
he abandoned his contemplated collegiate course,
and in the year 18154 commenced the study of medi-
cine under the tutorship of Dr. J. H. Bartholf, then
of Cambridge, afterward of New York city, and still
later connected with the medical department of the
regular United States army. After the removal of
Dr. Bartholf he pursued his studies under the di-
rection of Dr. J. B. Busneson, of Luzerne, Warren
county. New York, and was graduated from the Al-
bany Medical College in December, 1858, after
which he located, for the practice of his profession,
at Corinth, Saratoga county. New York, where he
remained, with marked success, until August, 1863,
when he entered the medical department of the vol-
unteer service of the United States army.

At first he was placed on duty at the rendezvous
on Ricker's Island, New York harbor, where he re-
mained several months, and in October, 1863, he
was assigned to the 176th New York State Volun-
teers, and proceeded to Bonne Carre, Louisiana,
about forty miles from New Orleans, where his regi-
ment was then stationed. Here he remained till
February, 1864, when he was transferred to Madi-
sonville, Louisiana, and from there was, by order of
the secretary of war, assigned to the 8th Louisiana
Colored Volunteers (afterward the 47 th United
States Colored Infantry), under the command of his
brother, Colonel Hiram Scofield, which was then on
duty at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and where he re-



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART.



629



ceived his commission as assistant surgeon of the
regiment from the secretary of war, thus becoming
an officer in the regular army. He remained on duty
with his regiment until July, 1864, when he was de-
tailed to United States General Hospital No. 3
(then known as "Old Marine "), at Vicksburg, Mis-
sissippi, as the executive officer of that institution,
and was afterward placed in sole charge, but was re-
lieved in a few months, at his own request, in order
that he might accompany his regiment, which had
been ordered to join the expedition of General
Canby against Mobile, pending which he was for a
time detailed as assistant surgeon at the " parole
camp," in the rear of Vicksburg, to aid in the care
of the sick and disabled prisoners of war, which
were received from Cahawba and Andersonville
prisons, Georgia. At the breaking up of this camp
in May, 1865, he proceeded to his command at Mo-
bile, where he was soon afterward smitten down
with a severe attack of pleurisy, which compelled
him to relinquish duty for a period of twenty days.
In June, 1865, he moved with his regiment to New
Orleans, and thence to Alexandria, on Red river,
where he remained on duty until December, 1865,
when he was ordered to Baton Rouge, where he was
mustered out of the service on the 6th of January,
1866.

During the period of his military service, which
was of the most arduous and laborious character, he
was never excused from duty more than three days,
except as specified above.

In May, 1866, his father sold the old homestead
in New York and removed to Iowa, where two sons
had preceded him. The father having determined
to make Iowa his home, our subject was induced to
follow the example, mainly for the pleasure of keep-
ing the family as near united as possible. Being at
this time in ill health, it became very much a ques-
tion whether he should ever be able to resume the
practice of his profession. In the autumn of that
year, however, he was so far restored as to be able
to open an office at Daytonville, Washington county,
where he was soon favored with an extensive patron-
age (more, in fact than his strength was equal to),
so that in 1871 he was constrained to move into a
new field, that he might, for a time at least, enjoy
that relaxation which seemed necessary for his com-
plete recovery, but which was otherwise unattain-
able. Accordingly, in the month of March of the
last-named year, he located in Washington, which
has since been his home, where he soon again as-



sumed a leading position, and his health being now
restored, he enjoys the largest and most lucrative
practice in the city.

He has held the position of local surgeon for the
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Com-
pany for four years past. For the past two years he
has been physician to the commissioners of insan-
ity for Washington county, and has been for the
same period examiner for several life insurance com-
panies. He has also been several times president
of the Washington County Medical Society, and
also president of the Eastern District Medical So-
ciety of Iowa. He is likewise a member of the State
Medical Society of Iowa. He enjoys the fullest con-
fidence and esteem of his neighboring physicians, by
whom he is frequently called upon as counsel or to
assist in the performance of critical surgical oper-
ations. He is, moreover, a gentleman of large lit-
erary attainments, a great student, and frequently
employs his pen in the domain of science, and espe -
cially on subjects pertaining to his own profession.
His essays on the more intricate and complicated
questions of disease and its treatment, read before
the various societies with which he is in union, are
always highly appreciated by his brethren ; and while
they evince a remarkable familiarity with the sub-
jects discussed, demonstrate at the same time the
possession of talents of the very highest order on the
part of the writer.

He has been a Master Mason for about eleven
years, having been initiated in Dayton Lodge, No.
149, in 1866. He took chapter degrees in Cyrus
Chapter, No. 13, at Washington, Iowa, in 187 1, and
is still a member of both bodies, in one or both
of which he has been constantly an officer since he
became a member. He has also been for four years
past a member of the Ancient Order of United
Workingmen at Washington, and medical examiner
for the order at that point.

He has served repeatedly on school boards in
Iowa as president or director, and was elected three
terms in succession as councilman from the first
ward in Washington, and is a gentleman of consid-
erable executive ability.

He is not in communion with any religious de-
nomination, but having been raised in a Presbyte-
rian family, he prefers that branch of the christian
church.

He has always been a republican in politics, hav-
ing cast his first vote for the martyred Lincoln.

He was married in i860 to Miss Caroline G. Her-



630



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.



rick, a native of Hadley, New York, who died in
Washington, Iowa, in December, 1874, leaving two
children surviving her, the eldest of whom, Willie,
died in May, 1875, at the age of five years; a little
girl, three years old, named Caroline, still lives.

The doctor is tall and slender, but of active, nerv-
ous organization ; is grave, dignified and somewhat



reserved ; slow to form acquaintances, but strongly
attached to friends and home, and is seldom from
home except on professional business. He is, how-
ever, spending the current winter (1877-8) in Belle-
vue Hospital Medical College, where he is undergo-
ing a supplemental course of instruction in medicine
and surgery.



JOSEPH D. PUTNAM,

DA VENPORT.



JOSEPH DUNCAN PUTNAM, entomologist and
J corresponding secretary of the Davenport Acad-
emy of Natural Science, was born at Jacksonville,
Illinois, on the i8th of October, 1855, and is the son
of Charles E. Putnam and Mary Louisa nee Duncan.
His father is a lawyer of the highest standing in
Davenport, and his mother is daughter to the late
Governor Joseph Duncan, of Illinois. Both families
are descended from revolutionary stock of great dis-
tinction, and have always occupied the foremost
social positions.

Charles E. Putnam was the son of a farmer in
affluent circumstances ; his mother's maiden name
was Eunice ne'e Morgan. He received an excellent
private school and academic education, and after-
ward read law in the office of Hon. Augustus Bockes,
judge of the supreme court in New York, and sub-
sequently in the office of Beach and Bockes, in Sara-
toga, New York. Hon. W. A. Beach has since be-
come famous as the principal lawyer in the Tilton-
Beecher case. He was admitted to the bar on the
■ 20th of May, 1847, being then twenty-two years of
age ; practiced law for several years in Saratoga,
susequently in New York city, and, during the sum-
mer of 1850, in Georgia. In the autumn of 1853
he removed to the west, and the following spring
formed a copartnership with the late Judge G. C. R.
Mitchell, at Davenport, which continued until the
election of the latter to the bench of the fourteenth
judicial district in the fall of 1857. He subsequently
formed a partnership with Joseph B. Leake, now
General Leake, of Chicago, which continued until
the latter entered the military service. In i860 his
present partnership with the Hon. John N. Rogers
was formed.

Through life Mr. C. E. Putnam has been devoted
to literary pursuits. In his youth he was for a num-
ber of years secretary of the Saratoga Literary So-



ciety, composed of the 61ite of both sexes of the
village. He has since been a diligent student, and
possesses not only a good law library, but one of the
finest private collections of miscellaneous books in
the west. Mr. Putnam is possessed of a moderate
fortune, and occupies a high social position in the
community. He has been president of the Daven-
port Savings Bank since its organization, and was
for a time president of the First National Bank. He
is also president of the Davenport Plow Company,
of the Davenport Gas Light Company, and director
of many other enterprises. He has, by his business
ability and integrity, secured the confidence and
esteem of his fellow-citizens, and is regarded as
among the' most benevolent, generous and useful
citizens of the place.

On the 9th of December, 1854, he was united in
marriage to Miss Mary Louisa Duncan, daughter of
Governor Joseph Duncan, of Illinois. The Duncan
family is of Scotch origin, the American ancestor
having settled in Virginia early in the eighteenth
century. On the maternal side, Mrs. Putnam is the
great-granddaughter of the Rev. James Caldwell, the
well-known revolutionary patriot, of New Jersey, who
was shot by a British sentinel, at Elizabeth, on the
24th of November, 1781, whose memoirs form a part
of the annals of his country, and to whose memory
and that of his wife, Hannah, who had been previ-
ously murdered by the British on the 25 th of January,
1780, a monument was erected at Elizabeth, New
Jersey, in 1846.

Mrs. Putnam is a graduate of the Jacksonville
Female College, of which her father was the princi-
pal founder. She is a lady of rare mental gifts and
of the highest literary attainments, and naturally
takes the highest social position. Her home is the
center of refinement and elegance, and is the syno-
nym of all that is generous, affectionate and hos-



THE UN^ITBD STATES BWGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.



63'



pitable. She has also taken a very active interest
in various patriotic and charitable causes, among
which may be named the Washington Monument
Association, Ladies' Educational Society, Mount
Vernon Association, Soldiers' Aid Society, Presby-
terian Church, Academy of Natural Sciences, etc.

Joseph D. Putnam, the first-fruits of this marriage,
received his rudimental education at his home. Be-
tween the ages of ten and seventeen he attended the
public schools of Davenport, and became proficient
in the ordinary English and mathematical studies, to
which were subsequently added a slight acquaintance
with the Greek, Latin, German and French languages.
He also derived much aid in his studies from the large
and well selected library of his father. He early de-
veloped a taste for drawing. He always displayed
great talent for systematizing and arranging, and
rarely left anything unfinished.

At the age of eleven or twelve years he began col-
lecting fossils, minerals, coins, postage stamps, auto-
graphs, plants, shells, insects, etc., but gradually nar-
rowed down the scope of his efforts in this direction
to the item of insects alone, and has ultimately con-
fined his attention to but a few families of these.
During the years 1868 to 1870 he was in the habit
of taking long walks with Mr. W. H. Pratt in quest
of shells and insects, thereby greatly augmenting his
collection. In 1871 he made a visit to Saratoga
county, New York, on a like mission, and in 1872
accompanied Dr. C. C. Parry to Colorado, where,
during three months spent high up in the mountains,
near Empire City, large collections were made. The
season was spent in a log cabin, where they did their
own cooking, etc., and made numerous excursions
to the surrounding Alpine summits and to Middle
Park, always on foot.* Here they were visited by the
two most eminent American Botanists, Dr. John
Torry and Dr. Asa Gray. The winter following was
spent in hard study. In 1873, again in company with
Dr. Parry, he was attached to Captain Jones's expe-
dition to the Yellowstone as meteorologist, and car-
ried a barometer for over one thousand miles on
muleback, through some of the roughest districts of
northwestern Wyoming and the National Park, as-
cending lofty and dangerous peaks to measure them,
making many hair-breadth escapes and meeting with
thrilling adventures. In his report of the expedi-
tion Captain Jones makes frequent and honorable
mention of young Putnam, and the important and
valuable service which he rendered to the cause of
science. He was absent five months on this occasion,
65



and, in addition to his duties above described, col-
lected a large number of insects.

After returning home he resumed his studies with
the intention of entering Harvard College the next
year, but taking a severe cold, which settled on his
lungs, his health became so impaired that he was
forced to give up all idea of a college course. The
following year was spent in Colorado for the benefit
of his health, and the summer of 1875 was spent in
company with Dr. Parry among the Mormons, near
Mount Nebo, Utah. In October they removed to
San Francisco, whence he was brought home in
November, in a very critical state of health. He
has remained under the parental roof ever since,
except during a visit to Cambridge, Philadelphia and
other eastern cities, in 1876, where he formed the
personal acquaintance of many eminent entomolo-
gists and other naturalists.

During Mr. Putnam's various expeditions he col-
lected over twenty-five thousand specimens of insects,
many of which have been catalogued and classified,
besides a large collection of fossils. He also discov-
ered many new species of grasshoppers and other
insects, some four of which have been named after
himself. All the fossils and natural history specimens
collected have been presented by him to the Daven-
port Academy of Natural Science, of which, on the
2d of June, 1869, he became a member, and of which
he has since been a moving spirit. On the 28th of
April, 187 1, he was elected recording secretary, a
position which he retained until January, 1875, when
ill health caused him to resign. He was appointed
a member of the publication committee on the 26th
of November, 1875, and chairman of the same on the
26th of January, 1877, and elected corresponding
secretary on the 23d of November, 1876, which office
he still holds. In the spring of 1876 he commenced
the publication of the proceedings of the Academy,
which are contained in two large octavo volumes of
small type. During the same period he has kept up
a regular correspondence with all the principal acad-
emies of the same denomination in Europe and
America, in all over four hundred, much of the
foreign correspondence being conducted in German
and French, and all this by a man so delicate in
health and constitution that he seems only a fit sub-
ject for the ward of a lung hospital.

His success as a student and original investigator
is in great measure due to that painstaking industry
that only gives over when work is accomplished or
physical powers exhausted. There was a rapid de-



632



THE UNITED STATES BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARr.



velopment of his intellectual character in connection
with the geographical explorations in which he was
engaged from his sixteenth to eighteenth years, in
Colorado, Wyoming and Utah, and the opportunities
so well improved, for enlarged observation, soon
showed that the seed had fallen upon good soil, giv-
ing promise of a rich and abundant harvest.

Recognizing, when quite young, the important uses
of the printing press as the readiest means of com-
municating and fixing definitely the fleeting forms of
knowledge, he gave attention to its practical details
long enough to master its difficulties ; at the same
time his instinctive desire for accuracy made him an
excellent proof reader.

His correspondence with strangers when a mere
lad elicited answers which showed an appreciation



of his early maturity, and justified the encomium
bestowed upon him by Professor Asa Gray : " Though
young in years, in sage experience oldr"

The names of the other members of the family, of
which Joseph Duncan is the eldest, are, Charles
Morgan, John Caldwell, Henry St, Clair, William
Clement, George Rockwell, Elizabeth Duncan, Ed-
ward Kirby, and Benjamin Risley, each a natural
born genius, and already well up in the arts and sci-
ences. They own a printing press, with a large
stock of types of every variety. They draw, paint,
engrave, compose, etc. ; they published a quarterly
magazine called the " Star of Woodlawn," devoted
to the development of amateur and domestic litera-
ture. Such is a brief sketch of one of the most
remarkable families in the country.



JOHN A. DRAKE,

CENTERVILLE.



JOHN ADAMS DRAKE, banker at Centerville
and Drakeville, came to Iowa the year after it
was set off, with Wisconsin, from the territory of
Michigan, becoming a town builder the year Iowa
became a state. In his seventy-fifth year he is quite
active for a man of that age, and takes great un-
abating interest in public matters. The Drakes are a
wealthy family, and descendants, remotely of course,
from Sir Francis Drake.

James Drake, a Virginian by birth, and grandfather