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GIFT OF
{ .S.Mulay







■**■ — 3vs«Aa^



AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF MADRAS GOVERNMENT
PUBLICATIONS.



IN INDIA.

Buttbbwobth A Oo. {Ltd.), 6, Hastings Street, Calcutta.

it. Cambbay A Co., Calcutta.

E If. Gopaiakrishha Kobe, Pudiunautanani, Madura.

Hartleys, Mount Road, Madras.

I1IGG1NBOTRAM8 (Ltd.), Mount Road, Madras.

V. Kalyaeabama Iybb A Co., Esplanade, Madras.

G. C. Logawadham Bkothkrb, Madras.

S. Mortht A Co., Madras.

G. A. Nathsan A Co., Madras.

The Superintendent, Nazaib Kawcw Hibd Press, Allahabad.

P. R. Rama Iybb A Co., Madras.

Ramakrishna & Sons, Lahore.

R. Sunder Panpubang, Kalbadevi Road, Bombay,

D, B. Taha voukvala Sons A Co., Bombay.
Thackku A Co. (Ltd.), Bombay.

TnACKiiB, Spimk A Co., 3, Esplanade East, Calcutta.
S. \'AB A Co., Madras.
S.p.C.K. Pbbss, Vepery, Madras.

IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

B. II. Blackwkll, 50 and 51, Broad Street, Oxford.

Constable A Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, London, W.C.

Dkighton, Bicll A Co. (Ltd.), OambridKe.

I. Kihhbb Ubwiw (Ltd.), 1, Adelphi Terraee, London, W.C.

Guimulay A Co., 54, Parliament Street, Loudon, S.W.

Kbgan Paul, Tbbnch, Tr'ubnbb A Co. (Ltd.), 68—74, Carter Lane,

lioiKion, k.C., and 36, Museum Street, London, W.C.
Hbnby 8. Ktng A Co., 65, Cornhill, London, B.C.
P. S. King A Sow, 2 and 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, London,
Luzao A Co., 46, Great Russell Street, London, W.C. S.W.

B. Qua hitch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W.
W. Thaokbb A Co., 2, Creed Lane, London, E.Ci
Oliver and Boyd, Tweeddale Court, Edinburgh.

E. Pohbobby (Ltd.), 116, Grafton Street, Dublin.

W. Wbslby A Sob, 28, Essex Street, Strand, London.

ON TBE CONTINENT.

Bbbbst Lbboox, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris.
Martihcb Nijhovb, The Haffue, Holland.



^ A NOTE-BOOK



OF



AGRICULTURAL FACTS kM
FIGURES



COMPILED BY



R. CECIL WOOD, M.A.,

MADRAS AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT.



THIRD EDITION.



MADRAS:
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, (iOVERNMENT PRESS

Price, 1 rupee.} 1 9 20.

Fasli 1330.



rfl






£47/



First Edition, 1,000 copies, 1915
Second Edition, 1,500 copies, 1916.
Third Edition, 2.500 copies, 1920..



644094



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.



"THE few years since this book was first published in
1915, have seen a considerable increase in the interest
taken by the man in the street in Agriculture and
the production of grain, and the increased demand
for the present publication has necessitated a third
edition. Opportunity has been taken to revise and
correct it where possible, but the work has had to be
done intermittently and in my scanty leisure, and
I trust its users will pardon the many mistakes. 1
have not altered the figures for costing : all values are
shifting relatively and actually, and I have thought
it better to stick to the pre-war figures, which at any
rate represent a fairly well-defined standard.

I am responsible for the arrangement of the
matter, but I need hardly say that without the
generous assistance of my colleagues on the staff of
this department the book could not have been com-
piled. I desire to express my thanks to Mr. Cecil
Fischer, of the Indian Forest Service, for the notes
•on the timber trees of the Presidency. I wish also
to express my thanks to the Government of Madras,
for the generous way in which they have recognized
my efforts.

Madras,
■January 1920. R. CECIL WOOD.



CONTENTS









PAGE


Weights and Measures




i


1


Mensuration and Surveying ..


. ... ,


19


Build tngs and Roads


... ..




28


Machinery


... ».




30


Labour


...





36


Soils






46


Manures


...


.


49


Crops


...


...


... 58


Foods and Feeding




...


... 93


Live-Stock






106


Dairying


...




151


Common Insect Pests




...


156


Horticulture


...


••„


161


Timber Trees


...


...


170


Statistics


... ..




177


Calendar


... ••


...


188


Index


... ..




189



A NOTE-BOOK



OF



AGKICULTUKAL FACTS AND HGUKES.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Imperial Avoirdupois Weight.

27*34 grains (gr.) = 1 drachm (dr.)

16 drachms =1 ounce (oz.).

16 ounces ,7,000 grainsl ... = 1 pound (lb.).

14 pounds = 1 stone (st.).

28 pounds = 1 quarter (qr.).

4 quarters ... =1 hundredweight

(cwt.\

112 pounds ... = 1 hundredweight.

20 hundredweights = 1 ton.

Imperial Indian Weight.
(Used in Railways.)

10 tolas = 1 chittak.

8 chittaks = 1 seer.

40 seers = 1 maund.

A tola is the weight of a rupee and is "414 oz. or 180 grains.
One seer weighs 2*057 lb. Avoirdupois, and one maund
82-28 lb.

Madras Weight.

3 tolas... — 1 palam.

8 palams = 1 seer.

5 seers = 1 viss.

8 visses = 1 maund.

20 maunds ... =» 1 candy.

A viss is 3*0857 lb. A Madras maund is thus nearly 25 lb.
Avoirdupois (24*68), and a candy is generally taken at 500 lb.
1 lb. = 38*88 tolas.



2 . WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The table used by European merchants in Madras is
slightly different from the above and is as follows : —

1 palam = 1£ oz. avoirdupois.

40 palams = 1 viss = 3£ lb.

8 vis&es = 1 maund = 25 lb.

zO-niaumls = 1 candy or baram =

500 lb.

Imperial Measures of Capacity.

5 fluid ounces of water ... =1 gill.

4 gills ... ™ 1 pint (pt.L

2 pints ... ... = 1 quart (qt.-.

4 quarts •= 1 gallon f gal.).

2 gallons = 1 peck (pk.).

4 pecks — 1 bushel (bus.).

8 bushels ... =1 quarter (qr.).

A gallon contains 277*463 c. inches and equals 10 lb. of
distilled water at 62° F.

6'25 gallons = 1 cubic foot.

1 gallon = '16 cubic foot.

1 fluid ounce pure water weighs 1 oz. avoirdupois.

41 A pint of pure water weighs a pound and a quarter."

Madras Measures of Capacity.

These are extremely variable, and only a few of the most
widely known are given.

8 ollocks =1 Madras measure

(M.M.\ pucka
or padi.
8 Madras measures ... =1 marakkal.

1 marakkal = £ cub. foot ... = 500 fluid oz.

The type Madras measure is 108 inches cubic capacity,
contains 62*5 fluid ounces and is usually 4'5 inches in diame-
ter and 6*75 inches deep.

In Madras and Saidapet it is struck : elsewhere it is
heaped.

The seer when used as a measure is about 80 tolas : but
▼aries with the commodity that is being used.

Imperial Linear Measure.

3 barleycorns =1 inch (in.).

12 inches = 1 foot (ft.).



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

LOCAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.





ANANTAPUR.


Table of Weights.


21 tolas (or *4114 of an oz.) = 1 seer.


li seers
2 sava seers
2 adi seers
12 seers
4 dhadiyams
ara seer


...


.. = 1 sava seer.
... — 1 adi seer (3 seers).
... = 1 panch seer (6 seers).
... = 1 dhadiyam.
... = 1 maund (25*92 lb.).
... = \ seer.


pavu
ara pavu
chattak ...


•::


... = \ seer.
... = \ seer.
... = T Vseer.


A seer of gold or


silver weighs, as elsewhere, 24 tolas.




Gratn


Measure.


1 seer = 88 tolas


weight


of second sort rice heaped,



divided into ara, pavu, etc., as before.

The next largest measure above the seer is the muntha
whose capacity differs from taluk to taluk.

16 munthas = 1 thumu.

20 thumus =1 putti.

The thumu and the putti are as inconstant in value as the
muntha itself.

Liquid Measure.

The grain seer is used for milk, buttermilk and curd. Oil
and ghee are generally sold by weight.

BELLARY.

Weights.

Same as Anantapur.

Grain Measures.

1 seer = 84 tolas weight of a mixture of the 9 grains
known as navadhanya,

which seems = 86 tolas weight of paddy divided into
ara, pavu, etc.

The multiples of this seer differ in different taluks : in
Bellary taluk a putti weighs 2,560 seers.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



Liquid Measures.

Same as Anantapur.

CHINGLEPUT.



1 gundu of firewood

8 ollocks

4 M.M



= 56 lb.

= 1 M.M.

= 1 Tiruvellur jodu.



8 rupees wt .
15 palams

8 visses
10 maunds
20 maunds
12 tulams



COIMBATORE.

= 1 palam.

= 1 viss.

= 1 maund.

= 1 pothy.

=1 baram.

= 1 pothy.

A palam of 3 rupees is used for drugs.

2 M. M = 1 vallam.

33 vallams =1 selagai.

There are a number of local measures which are gradu-
ally being replaced by the standard M.M.

The Coimbatore vallam is larger than the standard one
and 30 only go to the selagai.

1 maund of jaggery ... = 26 lb.

When firewood is sold by the ton, the maund is often
taken at 28 lb., i.e., 80th of a ton.



32 M.M.

20 thumus



CUDDAPAH.



GANJAM.

Weights.



1 thumu.
1 putti.



80 tolas = 1 seer.

5 seers = 1 viss.

8 visses = 1 maund.

8 maunds = 1 candy.

For gingelly, castor, coconut-oil and ghee, 1 seer = 22
tolas.



6 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

For onions, garlic, saffron, tamarind, potatos and silk,
1 seer = 24 tolas.

For chillies 1 seer = 105 tolas.

For vegetables, etc. ... 1 seer = 180 tolas.
For camphor, spices ... 1 viss = 118 tolas.

Land Measure.

4 seers of rice and other grains = 1 thumu.

16 seers = 1 nowtie (cent).

20 nowties = 1 bharanam.

100 nowties ... = 1 acre.



GODAVARI.



Weights.



2 pampus

2 yebulams

2 padalams

2 visses

4 yettedus

20 maunds .

Fuel is sold by the following table

5 maunds

4 kavadis

1 putti dry jungle wood

1 putti green jungle wood ...
1 putti of jaggery



= 1 yebulam.
= 1 padalam.
= 1 viss (5 seers or

tolas').
= 1 yettedu.
= 1 maund (or 25 lb.).
= 1 putti (or candy),

s= 1 kavadi.
= 1 putti.
as 500 lb.
= 6121b.
= 504 lb.



129



Grain Measures.



5 tolas weight of rice

4 giddas

2 solas



2 manikas
2 addas



20 kunchams
2 yedumus
2 pandumus



= 1 gidda,

= 1 sola.

= 1 manika or seer (holds

80 tolas weight of

rice).
= 1 adda.
= 1 kuncham (320 tolas

weight of rice).
= 1 yedumu or kavadi,
= 1 pandumu.
= 1 palle putti (80

kunchams).



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



1\ palle puttis = 1 garce (garisa of 600

kuncham a or 192,000
tolas weight of rice).

1 bag or busta of paddy ... = 166 lb.



Linear Measurement.



1 nulu

2 nulu


= i inch.

= 1 pathika.




Land Measure (popular).


1 kuncham
1 yedum
1 pandum


= 10 cents.

= 2 acres.

= 4 acres.




MALABAR.



Walluvanad Taluk.
Measurement for Grain and Liquids.



2 azhakus
2 ozhakus
2 uris
4 nazhia

6 nazhis
10 narayams
24 nazhis



1 ozhaku.
1 uri.
1 nazhi.
1 edangali.
1 narayam.
1 para.
1 chottana.



NOTE.— One Madras measure = 7 nazhis ; 1 narayam paddy weighs
90 rupees weight.

Linear Measurements.



8 ellammanies
8 thoras
24 virals

2,000 muzhakoles
4 nazhikas ...



1 thora.
1 viral.

1 muzhakole or carpen-
ter's kole.
1 nazhika.
1 kathom.



Measurements by Timber Merchants.
576 perukams .. ... = 1 candy.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



Weights.



4 nellummanies = 1 kunni.

2 kunnis = 1 manjadi.

2 manjadis = 1 panathookam.

10 panathookams = 1 kazhanchu.

12 kazhanchus = 1 palam.

100 palams = 1 thulam.

20 thulams = 1 bharam.

NOTE.— Grain is measured struck. There are palams of different
weights.

Bazaar drugs, 1 palam = 5 rupees weight.

Jaggery and tobacco, 1 palam ... =10 „

Pepper, ginger, sweet 1
potatos, etc., 1 palam J



= 15



Ernad Taluk.

5 Walluvanad nazhis = 1 edangali.

10 edangalis = 1 para.

1 kole of sawed timber = i kole x 1 viral

y 1 viral.

lkole =2 ft, 3^ in.

NOTE.— 24 local virals make 1 kole.

Ginger is sold by the thulam of 35 lb. weight.

Chiraklcal Taluk.

Measurements for Grains.

4 nazhis ... = 1 edangali or seer.

1 edangali =1 Madras measure

very nearly.

10 edangalis or seers =1 para.

3 nazhis =1 kongayi.

In the hills, 1 mada =25 seers.

NOTE.— All are heaped measures.

Liquid Measures.

6 small nazhis =1 kutti.

1 kutti = 4 quart or big

bottles.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



Weights.



1 palam = 9 rupees weight.

40 rupees weight =-• 1 lb.

281b ... = 1 thulam.

20 thulams =1 bharam.

Tellicherry.

32 lb. =1 thulam.

20 thulams = 1 bharam.

Cannanore.

301b. = 1 thulam.

20 thulams = 1 bharam.

Note— In all the above three cases 1 lb. = 40 rupees weight.

MADURA.

Weights.

6 tolas ('4114 oz.) = 1 palam (nearly "2\ oz.).

20 palams = 1 viss.

6 visses = 1 thulam (about 18£ lb.).

8 visses = 1 maund (about 25 lb.).

Grain Measure.

1 heaped measure contains =132 tolas rice.

4 measures = 1 marakkal.

12 marakkals =1 kalam.



NILGIRIS.

Land Measure.

28 adis or country feet ... =1 kole =24 English ft.

1 square kole = 1 guli = 576 sq.ft.

100 gulis = 1 cawny = 57,600 sq.ft.

or 1*322 acres.

1 balla = 3*82 acres = 166,464 sq.ft.

60 X 40 feet or 2,400 sq.ft. = 1 manai or house-site.

#
Measures.

2 ollocks = 1 ullock.

8 ollocks =1 padi or measure.



10 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

8 measures =1 marakkal.

5 marakkals = 1 para.

400 marakkals = 1 garisa.

50 jodis (i.e., double measures

or 100 Madras measures). = 1 palla.

Weights.

3 rupees weight (tolas) ... = 1 palam.

8 palams = 1 seer.

5 seers (3 1 rattal) ... ... =1 viss.

50 palams (1| viss) = 1 tuk.

8 visses = 1 maund.

20 maunds ... =1 bharam or candy.

SALEM.

Measures.

2\ M.M = 1 vallam.

40 vallams =1 kandagam.

The vallam varies up to 3 M.M.

Weights.

The tuku is used, but varies from 1\ viss to 2£ viss accord-
ing to the commodity.

1\ tukus =1 thulam.

16 thulams ... ... =1 sattai.

In Namakkal, 16 vallams. = 1 moda.

6 modas =1 podi.

NORTH ARCOT.

Weights.

3 tolas = 1 palam.

8 palams =1 seer (kaccha).

5 seers ... ... ... =1 viss.

2 visses ... ... ... = 1 dhadiyam.

4 dhadiyams =1 maund.

20 maunds = 1 candy.

The pucka seer of Chittoor and Vellore is 72 tolas.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 11

Measures.

8 padis =1 marakkal or toom.

12 marakkals = 1 kalam.

400 marakkals =1 garce.

40 kalams = 1 candy.

The toom or marakkal differs in different places of the
district.

Milk, curds and buttermilk are sold by measure.

Ghee, oils and honey are sold by measure as well as by
weight.

Land Measure.

1 kole or rod =24 feet.

1 square kole ... .. = 576 square feet = 1

kuzhi (Tamil) or
gunta (Telugu).
100 kuzhis or guntas .., = 1 kani = 57,600 square

feet = 1'32 acres.
Same as cawny of
Tanjore.

SOUTH ARCOT.

Weights.

3 tolas = 1 palam.

8 palams = 1 seer.

40 palams (5 seers) ... =1 viss.

50 palams = 1 tuk.

12 palams and a fraction (varying in different localities) =
1 rattal (for indigo).

The 4 French ' pound is "5 kilo. The groundnut candy ia
240 kilos = 529-2 lb.

In the Salt Factories.

80 tolas ... = 1 seer.

40 seers =1 Indian maund.

120 maunds ... ... = 1 garce (4*39 tons).

Grain Measure.

( Officially recognized. )

132 tolas of rice = 1 heaped Madras-

measure.
2 Madras measures = 1 marakkal.



12 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



The marakkal however varies in size in different taluks
though at all places 12 marakkals = 1 kalam and 24 kalams
are generally held equal to a cartload. Near Palur, a kalam
= 36 Madras measures and 12 kalams go to the cartload.



Liquid Measure.

Usually as fractions and multiples of a Madras measure,
ghee and oil are retailed by weight by the seer and palam
above.

Arrack is sold by gallons and drams.

Linear Measure.

9 angulas (thumb's breadths) = 1 jan (span).

12 „ " == 1 adi (foot).

18 „ . .. = 1 molam (cubit,

length from elbow
to tip of middle
finger).

2 molams ... = 1 gaja (yard).

2 gajas = 1 mar (distance be-

tween tips of the
two middle fingers
measured across
the chest with the
arms horizontal) .

Land Measure.

24 feet — 1 kole (rod).

1 square kole (576 sq.ft.). = 1 kuli.
100 kulis = 1 kani (132 acres).

SOUTH KANAKA.

Mangalore.
Weights.

24 tolas =1 seer.

48 seers =1 maund.

20 maunds = 1 candy.



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



13



Grain Measures.



1 pavu

2 pavus

14 seers

3 kalasikays

42 mudas

NOTE.— One muda paddy seed is generally 4 kalasikays.



i seer.
£ seer.
1 kalasikay.
1 muda.
1



Liquid Measures.



1 kututhay .
9 kututhays

2 kututhays
10 kuttis



= 12 rupees weight.
= 1 kutti.
= 1 seer.
= 1 maund.



Udipi — L iquids.
12 kudukthas = 1 baylay.



llsidhay
l^manikay ...



Coondapoor.



= H kututhay.
= 1 muda.



Bantwal side, Mangalore Taluk

7 kuttis

10 kuttis

4 doddays



= 1 samma mana or

maund.
= 1 thodda mana or

maund.
= 1 maund.



1 varah
1 duddu

1 pie

12 duddus

2 chakras



Money and Gold.



= 4 rupees.

= 4 pies.

= 2 chikas.

= 1 chakra = 4 annas.

= 1 chavala = £ rupee.



14



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



TANJORE AND TRICHINOPOLY.

Weights.

16 pies ss 1 palam or 3 tolas.

8 palams == 1 seer.

5 seers = 1 viss.

8 visses =1 maund.

20 maunds . =1 candy.

Hides and leather are weighed in terms of a rattal of H
seers.

Vegetables, tamarind, etc., in terms of Ihukku or -edai of
Gi seers.

Measures.



2 padis

12 marakkals

2 kalams

5 somais

4 urais ...
120 coconuts
40 marakkals of onions
32 palams of oil (vegetable)
16 sombus



= 1



marakkal.
1 kalam.
1 somai (load).
1 urai.

1 bandy load.
1 somai or load.
1 podi or pack.
1 sombu.
1 adam.



A small padi, of which four go to the marakkal, is still
largely used by the ryot. A seer, one-fifth of a padi, is used
for measuring milk, etc The kalam itself varies from taluk
to taluk.



Land Measure.



144 sq. feet.
100 kulis ..,

3 ma's ..

4 ma's . ..
20 ma's ...



= 1



1 kuli.
1 ma.
1 acre
1 kani.
veli (6-£



acres) .



TINNEVELLY.

Weights.



144 palams



12 tulams
2 pothis



rupees weight



= 1 palam.

= 1 tulam (100

palams — 1 tulam
in the south).

= 1 pothi.

= 1 candy (500 lb.).



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



15



1 tulam
16 tulam s

12 tulams
16 tulams



72 palams
25 palams
20 palams



4± palams

In the cotton
to 10* lb.



= 20* lb.

... = 1 podi in Ramnad

district.

= 1 podi of seed.

= 1 podi of Kappas — in

cotton tracts north
of Sattur.
.. = 1 edai in cotton tract.
... = 1 edai in the south.

= 1 edai in Silvilliput-

tur taluk of
Ramnad district.

= 1 seer (Rs. 25

weight),
tracts in the south 1 edai is equivalent



Weights used for weighing Gold and Silver.



20 manchadis
f kalanji
3£ varagan idai



2 half mahanis
2 mahanis
2 ollocks ...



2 ullocks
4 ullocks



]\ seers
96 Madras measures

112 Madras measures

120 Madras measures

4 Madras measures
48 Madras measm*es

In some parts of RSmnad-
3 Madras measures
90 Madras measures



= 1 kalanji.

— 1 varagan idai.

... = 1 rupee weight =
1 tola.
Grain Measures.



. = 1 mahani Cy 1 ^ mea-
sure).
.. = 1 ollock (£ Madras
measure).
= i ullock fj| Madras
measure).
.. — i Madras measure.
.. = 1 nali (1 Madras

measure).
. — 1 Madras measure.
= 1 kottai (Koilpatti
tract).
.. tm 1 do. (in Tinne-
velly).
= 1 do. (Ramnad
district).
.. = 1 marakkal.
.. = 1 kalam.



1 marakkal.
1 kottai.



or-



16 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Land Measurement.

Wet Land.

8 seer padi = 1 marakkal (nearly

8 cents).
21 marakkals = 1 kota (163 cents).

Dry Land.

21 kurukkams is the area which can be ploughed by on*

pair in a day.
8 kurukkams =1 sangili

3 Madras measures ==1 marakkal.

30 marakkals =1 kottai.

12 marakkals = 1 acre.



VIZAGAPATAM.

Weights.

2 chatakas ... = 1 nantak ... = 1} oz.

8 nantaks .., = 1 seer as 10 oz.

5 seers ... = 1 visam or viss = 3 J lb.

8 visams ... = 1 manugu or maund = 25 lb.

8 manugus ... = 1 kantlam ... = 200 lb.

20 manugus ... = 1 putti or candy = 500 lb.

The following table is also used side by side with the
first : —

2 yebalams ... — 1 padalam ... = 1^ lb.

2 pad.ilams = 1 visam .. ... = 3 lb.

8 visams ... = 1 manugu ... = 24 lb.

8 manugus ... = 1 kantlam — 192 lb.

20 manugus ... = 1 candy = 480 lb.

Grain and Liquid Measure.

4 giddas ... =■ 1 sola =

2 solas ... — 1 tavva ... ... — 2£ pints.

2 tavvas ... = 1 adda or manika. = A\ pints*

4 addas ... = 1 kuncham ... = 17 pints.

20 kunchams ... = 1 buri putti ( in Kondakerla firka).

80 kunchams ... = 1 pedde putti an rest of taluk}..

600 kunchams ... = 1 garisu (garce).



Weights and measures



17



OTHER WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Cotton.



1 skein


=== 120 yards.


7 skeins


= 1 hank.


18 hanks


= 1 spindle.


The number of hanks to 1 lb. ... = "counts."




Angular Measu k e.


60 seconds {)


=1 minute (/)•-


60 minutes ...


= 1 degree (°).

= 1 right angle.


90 degrees ...




Metrical System.




Linear Measure.


10 millimetres


= 1 centimetre.


10 centimetres


... = 1 decimetre.


10 decimetres


= 1 metre.


10 metres ...


= 1 decametre.


10 decametres


... = 1 hectometre.


10 hectometres


=-1 kilometre.


10 kilometres


= 1 myriametre*.

= -039370 inch.


1 millimetre


1 metre


= 328084 feet.


1 kilometre


= -62137 mile.



Square Measure.
1 hectare = 1 square hectometre = 2*4711 acres.

Weights.
1 gramme = "03527 oz. (Avoirdupois).



1 kilogramme



== 2-20146 lb. (Avoirdupois).



Dry Fluid Measure.

1 litre = 21998 gallons.

The metrical system is based on the metre which is the
ten millionth part of the quadrant of a terrestrial meridian.
The litre is the cube of the tenth part of the metre, and the
weight of a litre of distilled water at its greatest density is a
kilogramme.



18



weights and measures
Useful Numbers.



For converting.


Multiply by


Converse.


Linear.






Feet into links

Yards „ „

Chains,, miles ...

Feet „ metres

Yards ,, „ ...

Chains,. „ ...


1-5151

4-545

•0125

•3048

•9144

20-117


•66
•22

80
3-2809
1-0936
•049


Square.






Square yds. into sq. metres

Square „ „ acres

Square miles ,, „


•8361
•0002066
640


1196
4,840

•001562


Capacity.






Cubic ius. into bushels

Cubic ft. „ „

Cubic ,. „ gallons

Cubic „ „ Madras Measures ..

Gallons „ litres

Litres „ cub. ft.


•00045

•778
6-228
16-0
4-543

03532


2219-7
1-285
•1605
•0625
•220
28-33


Weights.






Lb. into cub. ins. of water ...
Lb. „ „ ft.

Cubic ft. of water in tons

Lb. into kilogrammes


27-74
•01605
•0278
•4536


•036
62-2786
35-9
2-2


Money.






Dollars iivto Rs.

Francs „ „


3-1245
•58665


•32
1-70



MENSURATION AND SURVEYING



1!)



MENSURATION AND SURVEYING.

Area of rectangle — length X breadth.

Area of square = any side X itself.

Area of parallelogram = base X perpendicular height.

Area of trapezoid = half the sum of the parallel sides X
perpendicular height. »

Area of trapezium or any quadrilateral = sum of the two
triangles of which it is composed.

Area of triangle = half the product of the base into the
__. , . , . ABXC5
perpendicular height or k~ *






ADBADB AB D

or if s = half th e sum of the three sides o, h. e, the area =
-/ s (s - a) (» — b) (s - c)
(a) Area of a circle = diameter 2 x '7854.

To multiply by '7854, multiply by 7 and then by 2
moving the rows one place to the right, as shown below : —

865

7



6055
6055
12110
12110



7

14
14



079-3710



7854



22

7



or the dia-



The circumference = twice the radius X
22

7
(6) Area = circumference X half the radius or if r



meter X



the radius.^area



, 22



29



r*



7 ^ 2 "~ 7
(c) Area = (the circumference) 2 x "08

Area of a sector of la circle = length of the arc X half th<*
radius.



20 MKNSUKATION AND SURVEYING

Area of a segment of a circle—



/'



L



ii



4H



Area of an ellipse —



3 V iQ X T




' AB CD 22

Area = ^— x — «- x~~-

Cube -



A B

Surface = 6 (AB)2 or 6 (BD)2
Volume = (AB)3 or (BD)3

Rectangular solid or parallelopiped



— D



I)




Surface == 2 AB X BC 4- 2 BD X BC + 2 AB, BD.
Volume = AB X BD X BC.
Solid cylinder-
Surface = area of both ends + length X circumference.
Volume = area of one end X length.



MENSURATION AND SURVEYING 21

Solid cone or pyramid —
Surface of cone = area of base + circumference X h

the slant height.
Surface of pyramid = area of the base + areas of the

side triangles. J

Solid content = area of the base X one third of the
perpendicular height.
Sphere —
Surface = diameter 2 X 3' 14159
Solid content = diameter^ X '6236
Wedge —
Solid content = area of base X £ perpendicular height if
all the edges are equal.

A Priamoid is a solid whose ends are parallel but unequal
in area, e.g., a bund whose extreme heights are unequal, a
cutting whose extreme depths are different, a gravel heap on
the roadside, a pond, etc.

NOTE.— A prismoid includes a cone and a pyramid : but if the ends
besides being parallel are also equal and similar so that the solid is uni-
form from end to end it is a prism.

Solid contents of a prism = area of one of the parallel ends


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