CITRUS AND TROPICAL
a /monograph on
PLANTING, CULTURE AND CARE
These trees shall be my books,
And in their barks my thoughts I '11 character."
At You Like It. Hi, 3.
THE R. M. TEAGUE NURSERIES
SAN DIMAS, CALIFORNIA, U.S. A.
LOS ANGELES COUNTY
'Cltfl'OS AND TROPICAL FRUITS
FOR HOME PLANTING
For those desiring a combination of citrus and tropical
fruit trees that will furnish the home with these fruits all
the year, we are offering the following collection:
CITRUS FRUITS ONLY
Collection No. 1. Three citrus trees 5/8 to 24 > nc h
caliper, consisting of 1 Washington Naval, 1 Valencia Late
and 1 Eureka Lemon.
All for $3.50 f. o. b., San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 2. Five citrus trees 5/8 to % inch
caliper, consisting of 1 Washington Naval, 1 Valencia Late,
I Eureka Lemon, I Marsh Seedless Pomelo, and 1 Willow
AH for $5.75 f. o. b., San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 3. Seven citrus trees 5/8 to % inch
caliper, excepting Tangerines and Satsumas which caliper
|/2 to 5/8: 1 Washington Navel, 1 Valencia Late, 1 Dancy
Tangerine, I Satsuma, 1 Tangelo, 1 Marsh Seedless Pomelo
and 1 Eureka Lemon.
All for $8.00 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 4. Seven new and rare varieties of
citrus trees consisting of the following: 1 Golden Nugget
Navel, 1 Lue Gim Gong Orange, 1 Algerian Tangerine, I
Algerian Mandarin, 1 Sampson Tangelo, 1 Citron of Com-
merce and 1 Citrus Limonium (Dwarf Lemon).
All for $15.00 f. o.b. San Dimas, Cal.
TROPICAL FRUITS ONLY
Collection No. 5. Three Avocados and 1 Feijoa, all
2 to 3 ft. stock as follows: Avocados 1 Fuerta, 1 Puebla
and 1 Northrup; 1 Feijoa choiceana.
All for $12.50 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 6. Five Avocados and 2 Feijoas, all 2
to 3 feet stock, as follows: Avocados 1 Fuerta, 1 Puebla,
1 Spinks, I Sharpless and 1 Dickinson; Feijoas 1 Choice-
ana and 1 Superba.
All for $21.00 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 7. Five Avocados, 2 Feijoas, 1 Sapota
and 1 Cherimoya as follows: Avocados i Puebla, 1 Sharp-
less, 1 Dickinson, 1 Northrup and 1 Ganter; Feijoas 2
Choiceana, 1 White Sapota and 1 Cherimoya.
All for $24.00 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
CITRUS AND TROPICAL COMBINATIONS
Collection No. 8. Three citrus trees, 2 Avocados and
1 Feijoa as follows: Citrus 1 Washington Navel, 1 Valen-
cia Late and 1 Eureka Lemon; Avocados 1 Fuerte and 1
Puebla and 1 Feijoa choiceana.
All for $12.50 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 9. Five citrus trees and 3 Avocados as
follows: Citrus 1 Washington Navel, 1 Valencia Late, 1
Willow Leaved Mandarin, I Marsh Seedless Pomelo and 1
Eureka Lemon; Avocados 1 Fuerte, 1 Sharpless and 1
AH for $16.00 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Collection No. 10. Seven citrus trees, 4 Avocados and
2 Feijoas as follows: Citrus 1 Washington Navel, 1 Val-
encia Late, 1 Dancy Tangerine, 1 Willow Leaved Mandarin,
1 Tangelo, I Marsh Seedless Pomelo and 1 Eureka Lemon;
Avocados 1 Fuerta, 1 Puebla, 1 Sharpless and I Dickin-
son; Feijoas 2 Choiceana.
All for $26.00 f. o. b. San Dimas, Cal.
Note: Those desiring a different selection of oranges
may substitute any of the following: Navelencia, Thomson
Improved Navel, Mediterranean Sweet, St. Michael or
Homosassa; also the Northrup or Ganter Avocados may be
substituted in the Avocado list.
Terms: Cash with order.
A CALIFORNIA FRUIT
ON the re-verse side of this sheet is pic-
tured the Washington Navel Orange
in all its glory. No one product has
done more toward increasing the
fame of California horticulturally than this
orange. At the same time California must be
given credit for its part in making this orange so
well known throughout the world, for in no
other orange-growing section does it reach the
high state of perfection, both in quality and
production, that it does here.
Its superb eating qualities are unexcelled.
Possessing a flavor peculiarly its own, with
abundance of juice, fine grain, freedom from
rag and being absolutely seedless, together with
its good shape, smooth, high-colored peel and
good keeping qualities, it is truly the peer of all
RINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF CIT-
RUS AND TROPICAL FRUIT CUL-
TURE FROM THE NURSERY TREE TO
THE FULL BEARING ORCHARD, TO-
GETHER WITH TIMELY SUGGES-
TIONS ON HARVESTING, PACKING AND MAR-
KETING, BASED ON THIRTY-THREE YEARS'
EXPERIENCE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
FOUNDED IN 1889 BY R. M. TEAGUE
TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE, POSTOFFICE AND EXPRESS ADDRESS
THE R. M. TEAGUE NURSERIES
SAN DIMAS, CALIFORNIA.
Copyrighted in 1921 by R. M. Teague.
PRICE 50 CENTS
ORIGINAL TO BE
TEAGUE QUALITY BUD AND ROOT-SELECTED TREES.
IF there is one thing more than another that has tended to improve quality and
bearing capacity of fruit trees, it is the selection of buds from record bearing
trees in the propagation of citrus and tropical fruit plants. It is a subject that
has been exhaustively studied by the 'Department of Agriculture and Experiment
Stations, and of late years has found practical operation in the Fruit Growers
Supply Company (a subsidiary corporation of the California Fruit Exchange), which,
after years of close observation, has now sufficient record trees under its observation to
form a reliable source of supply for selected citrus buds. In addition the Avocado
Association is pursuing a similar line of action. Having for years been a consistent
advocate of bud, selection, and being keenly alive to the work already accomplished,
we are growing'- ^IJ- our '-attfu^r'&Od'. Avocado trees only from certified selected buds
obtaind from th^Fruit Growers^ S.uppLy Company and the California Avocado Asso-
ciation, thereby; ilTslipftg quality ia&l quantity bearing trees to all our patrons.
But this of itself will hardly insure a profitable tree the bud must have a good
foundation; in other words the root stock and its proper development must be right.
Here we put in force the elimination of the unfit. Every seedling tree that exhibits a
weak or faulty root development is discarded; and when we discard fully forty per cent
of our seedling trees every year because of faulty devlopment the reader will appreciate
that we practice root selection as well as bud selection. These two basic principles
rigidly enforced give us the nucleus or foundation for growing good trees. Then comes
intelligent care proper culture and training, so that the tree will be of good form and
habit, capable of functioning along lines that will prove a pleasure and a source of
profit to their owners. That our efforts have been appreciated by planters in general,
is evidenced by the ever-increasing demand for Teague trees, not only in California,
but throughout the citrus growing sections of the world : Old Mexico, South America,
Cuba, Porto Rico, the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippines, Australia, South Africa,
China, Japan and India.
Realizing the importance of some of the more desirable tropical fruits, we have
lately added the growing of such varieties as give promise of having a commercial future
in California horticulture, and their propagation is being carried out in the same pains-
taking manner that has made Teague citrus trees so well and favorably known.
We have endeavored to make the articles on care and culture explicit,
so that those just engaging in this line of work will understand the procedure
necessary to properly care for their trees. As stated elsewhere, the varying conditions
both as to climate and soil, make it impossible to lay down any hard and fast rule, and
the planter must rely on his own judgment, in cases where these two conditions make
cultural changes necessary.
CITRUS AND SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS
THEIR CULTURE, CARE AND MARKETING
IN presenting this treatise on Citrus and Sub-
Tropical fruits, it is our aim to give those inter-
ested in the culture of these fruits, such infor-
mation and advice as our experience and obser-
vation, covering a great many years of active work
along these lines, will warrant.
While space in a book of this kind necessitates be-
ing brief, we shall endeavor to touch on the essential
points necessary to give the novice an insight into the
habits, requirements, culture and care of those vari-
eties we enumerate to enable him to at least start
right in laying the foundation for a successful com-
mercial orchard, or in growing the few trees neces-
sary to supply the home with those fruits peculiar to
our California climate.
It is with pardonable pride that we point to the
many acres of profitable citrus orchards planted to
Teague trees during the past thirty-three years, and
we want to here thank our many friends and patrons,
whose continued trade throughout all these years has
not only enabled us to keep increasing our business,
but has spurred us on to increased efforts in the pro-
duction of better and more prolific stock. Starting in
business we adopted the slogan, "When better trees
are grown, Teague will grow them," and to that end
we have and shall continue to put forth every effort
to grow the best trees that experience and money can
To within the last year we have devoted our entire
time and attention to the growing of citrus fruit
trees, but with the advent of some of the more prom-
ising sub-tropical fruits into the commercial fruit-
growing industry of California, and realizing that
there was a wide field for the propagation of these
fruits if handled along the same lines that have
proven so successful with us in citrus propagation, we
decided to take up the growing of such varieties as in
our judgment give promise of possessing commercial
Knowing that for the successful propagation of the
sub-tropical fruit trees, we must have land practically
free from frost where the most tender plants can
be grown in the open the year around, we have re-
cently purchased a ninety-acre tract in La Habra
Heights, northwest of the town of La Habra and
just across the county line in Los Angeles County.
This tract of land is particularly well located for
nursery purposes, being partially surrounded by low
hills, which practically isolates it from the valley
proper, removes the danger of damage from heavy
winds, and being an entirely new sub-division reduces
the danger of scale infestation to a minimum.
The elevation is sufficient to make it practically
immune to frost damage to even the most tender-
plant, and the soil, a deep rich loam, washed in from
the adjacent hills in ages past, insures a perfect and
most vigorous root system which is really the founda-
tion, of all successful plant life. With this location
we know we can produce and deliver to our cus-
tomers the most perfect specimens of both citrus and
While we shall in the future grow most of our
stock in this new location, the many years of success-
ful dealings and association with planters and dealers
from the different citrus growing sections of the
world, having been transacted from our San Dimas
office, we deem it advisable to maintain our head-
quarters here, where we are perfectly equipped to
handle and pack stock in the best possible condition
for local or long distance shipment and where we are
always glad to meet those interested in horticulture,
show our stock and explain our methods of growing
and selling trees.
4 Citrus and Tropical Fruit Culture
A Fruit Growers Supply Company Washington Navel performance record tree
It seems unnecessary to go into detail regarding
the early introduction of citrus fruits in California;
however, for the purpose of enlightening those not
familiar with early events in the citrus history of the
state, it will probably not be out of place to recite
some of the more important occurrences connected
with the industry that have added so much to Cali-
fornia's horticultural wealth.
It is said that California owes the introduction of
horticulture to the Mission Fathers who, first of all,
planted fruit-bearing trees on the Pacific Coast.
Coming north from Lower California in 1769,
they established their first Mission at San Diego and
worked northward, locating Missions wherever con-
ditions warranted. In all they established twenty-one
Missions, and it is said that at all but three of these
gardens and orchards were planted. These plantings
ranged from just a few trees to several hundred and
consisted chiefly of oranges, figs, grapes and olives.
It is interesting to note that all of these fruits are
now important industries in California horticulture,
although a hundred years elapsed after they were
first introduced before they attained commercial im-
It is said that the most extensive orange orchard of
early planting was at the San Gabriel Mission, in
this county, planted by "Father" Thomas Sanchez
in the year 1804. Other small plantings were made
in and around Los Angeles, the most notable of which
was planted by William Wolf skill in what is now the
heart of Los Angeles city, in the year 1841, and con-
sisted of two acres. This acreage was added to from
time to time, but as late as 1862 it is recorded that
there were but 25,000 orange trees in the entire state,
and fully half of these were in the Wolfskill orchards.
Other sections of the state were also credited- with
some of the early plantings, all of which were grown
from seed. These sections ranged from San Diego on
the south to as far north as Shasta County.
R. M. Teague Nurseries, San Dimas, Cal.
A record bearing Valencia Late orange tree: a source of our selected bud supply.
It was not, however, until about 1870 that exten-
sive acreages began to be planted at Riverside and
elsewhere, when citrus culture gave evidence of be-
coming an important commercial enterprise.
The real foundation for California supremacy in
citrus culture was laid by the introduction of the two
historical Washington Navel orange trees, from
which sprang the vast acreage of Navel orchards that
now grace the landscape of California.
This variety was introduced into the United States
by the Department of Agriculture in 1870 and propa-
gated in the orange house at Washington, D. C.
Two of these trees were sent to Mrs. L. C* Tibbets,
of Riverside, in 1873. These two trees are now the
most celebrated fruit trees in Riverside and are
guarded with the most tender care by its citizens. In
1913 one was transplanted to the grounds of the
Mission Inn by the late Colonel Roosevelt during
one of his visits to Southern California, the other
still stands at the head of Magnolia avenue, where
it enjoys the distinction of an enclosure with a tablet
telling of its accomplishments.
While the Washingon Navel played a most im-
portant part in California citrus culture, it remained
for the Valencia Late to complete the fame of Cali-
fornia as an all-the-year shipper of citrus fruits.
Ripening just as the shipment of Navels is about over,
its fine keeping qualities enables us to continue ship-
ments over a period of four or five months, or until
the first of the new Navel crop is ready for market.
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Culture
Thus we are able to give the consumer fresh oranges
every month in the year. These two varieties are the
only ones grown on an extensive scale.
The Ruby Blood, Paper Rind St. Michael, Medi-
terranean Sweet, Joppa, and some of the Mandarin
types are grown to a limited extent commercially,
while the Seedling orange of the early days is fast be-
coming a thing of the past, many of the older or-
Referring to the superiority of the foreign lemon
at that time he says: "Years ago my attention was
drawn toward the apparent truth that California
could not produce a good lemon, for the San Fran-
cisco market quoted foreign lemons at $5.00 and
$6.00 per box, domestic, at $1.00 and $2.00, and
even less. These last were always overgrown Seed-
ling lemons, which should have left the trees months
A Eureka lemon performance tree from which Fruit Growers Supply Company buds are cut
chards having been either taken out or budded over
to Navels or Valencies, and no Seedling orchards are
Lemon growing did not become an important factor
in California horticulture until some years after the
orange. While there were scattering trees here and
there, and even some small orchards, it was not until
the early nineties that the industry began to assume
- In referring to a report issued by the State Board
of Agriculture in 1891, we find an article by G. W.
Garcelon of Riverside, entitled "Fifteen Years with
-the Lemon," in which he describes his efforts to work
out the lemon problem so that California lemons
could successfully compete with the foreign importa-
before. But they grew larger, made fewer to the
box, and made yes, made those who used them,
profane over their efforts to extract any juice from
Mr. Garcelon's efforts were confined principally
to working out methods for holding over the winter
lemons so that they could be marketed in the sum-
mer, which, at that time, was the only season of the
year lemons were used.
Thanks to the efforts of Mr. Garcelon and others,
whose faith in California lemons prompted them to
spend their time and money in studying out successful
methods of growing and handling this fruit, we' are
now able to give the consumer a better lemon than
the imported ones.
On account of lemons being more tender than
R. M. Teague Nurseries, San Dimas, Cal.
oranges they are not so generallly planted, but the
planting on the higher and more protected lands of
the five southern counties, viz., San Diego, Orange,
Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Barbara, has as-
sumed quite extensive proportions. There has also
been able to successfully compete with the Florida
fruit in the Eastern markets. This is due to two
reasons; first, sufficient care has not been exercised in
selecting types of fruit particularly adapted to our
soil and climatic conditions ; and secondly, we have
A fine type of bud supply Marsh Seedless pomelo tree.
been considerable lemon planting in the protected
sections along the east side of the San Joaquin Valley.
The present moneyed value of California's annual
lemon crop is about $12,000,000.00, so it will be seen
that lemon culture has become an important factor
in our horticultural outputs.
Pomelos (Grapefruit) are not being planted as ex-
tensively as either oranges or lemons. While they do
extremely well and are prolific bearers, we have not
always insisted on trying to market our fruit before
it is thoroughly mature, thus giving the consumer the
impression that we cannot grow a good pomelo.
With the advent of bud selection and state laws
prohibiting the shipment of immature fruit we hope
to put a superior quality of pomelos on the market,
and thus demonstrate that we can supply the con-
sumer with fruit equal to the best. Pomelos will
grow wherever oranges do well, but reach a higher
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Culture
state of perfection in the interior valleys, where the
day and night temperature during the summer months
is more nearly uniform.
Another feature favorable to pomelo culture is the
fact that they, in common with oranges, are being
more generally used throughout the entire year, thus
increasing their consumption to a great extent. This
is particularly favorable for California, as our
pomelos are at their best during the summer months
when the Florida fruit is off the market.
With the improvement in types, and by holding
our fruit until it is mature, we can establish a reputa-
tion for quality that will not only increase the con-
sumption in the United States, but may lead to a
large export trade to foreign countries where pomelos
are at present very little known.
It will be of interest to note the increase of citrus
products in this state. Beginning with the year 1883,
when there were shipped out of Southern California
150 carloads of oranges; in 1886 the output had in-
creased to 1,000 carloads; in 1890-'91 there were
shipped 3920 carloads, and in 1898-'99 a total of
15,006 carloads were sent out. Of this amount
1.500 cars were lemons
Ten years later, for the season 1908-'09, there
were 6,196 cars of lemons and 31,895 cars of oranges,
a total of 38,091 cars from Southern California and
2.501 cars of oranges and lemons from points north
of the Tehachapi:
For 1920 the total production of oranges was
18,700,000 boxes, and of lemons 4,500,000 boxes;
the combined value of which was $54,125,000.
The present annual income from California's
citrus crop is something like $50,000,000.00, and the
value of the orchards themselves is approximately
GROWING TEAGUE QUALITY TREES
It will no doubt be of interest to those engaged in
citrus culture to know how we grow our nursery
trees. We feel that the buyer is entitled to know
what care and attention has been bestowed upon the
trees he is paying out good money for and on which
he expects to spend more money and time in bringing
them to a profitable bearing stage. For upon the
proper methods of budding, growing and handling of
the young trees in the nursery row, largely depends
the success or failure of the planter to realize a prof-
itable orchard (it being assumed that he is going to
do his part in caring for the orchard), we are sure
that every planter wants to feel assured that the
nurseryman has left nothing undone that might affect
the future growth and productiveness of his orchard.
With that idea in view, we shall briefly describe the
essentials in the production of Teague quality trees.
As far as possible we grow our own seedling stock
and for this purpose select the best sour orange seed
available. In order to insure hardy plants, we sow
our seed in the open and allow it to come up and
make its first season's growth under natural condi-
tions. In transplanting the young seedlings to the
nursery row, we select only those showing the most
vigor and hardiness, the remainder being discarded.
Every care is exercised in digging to secure all the
fibrous roots possible and extreme precaution is used
in protecting the same from the sun and air while
moving them from the seed-bed to the nursery row.
We plant all of our stock fifteen inches apart in the
row and the rows four feet apart. This allows plenty
of room for irrigating, cultivating and hoeing and
insures a strong, vigorous tree. Only such pruning
is done as is necessary to keep the trunk of the young
tree free from sprouts and side branches up from the
surface of the ground some 6 or 8 inches.
The seedlings are allowed to make two summer's
growth in the nursery row before they are budded.
This gives us a seedling with sufficient strength and
vigor to force a good thrifty bud. In budding, we
aim to get the bud from six to eight inches above
the surface of the ground, which allows plenty of
room so that with ordinary care in planting there is
no danger of getting the bud set below the level of
the soil a condition that is almost sure to be fatal
to all varieties of budded citrus trees, especially if
planted on heavy land.
The budding is done in the fall and spring, Octo-
ber and November being the two falls months in
which it is done and April and May the usual time
for spring budding. The advantage of fall budding
is that they heel in, but do not make any growth until
spring, when they are ready to start with the first
flow of sap and are usually a foot or more high before
it is possible to begin the spring budding.
One of the most important parts in the growing of
good nursery stock, and one which we have always
given very close attention, is the matter of selecting
good buds and we point with pardonable pride to the
many profitable orchards in different parts of Cali-
fornia grown from trees of our own raising. Realiz-
ing that in order to produce trees yielding good crops
of high grade fruit, it is necessary to select buds
from the best and most prolific types of the varieties
desired, we have always exercised every precaution to
get only the best.
With the advent of what is known as pedigreed or
selected buds, that is the selection of buds taken from
trees having a record for quality and quantity pro-
ductiveness, we have decided to use only this kind
of buds. For the purpose of enabling the reader to
realize the importance of this feature, we will give
a brief history of the events leading up to the estab-