large limbs. The length of the scion is not impor-
tant excepting that there should be at least two or
three good buds beyond where it is inserted in the
limb. Cut the lower end so as to form a wedge of
about one inch in length. Extreme care should be
used in cutting the wedge so that the sides will be
perfectly smooth and fit perfectly. Insert one scion
on each side of the split in the stump, remove the
hard wood wedge carefully so that the scions are
slightly pinched but easily moveable and then adjust
them so that the outer edge of the scion comes in
contact with the cambium layer or inner bark of the
stump. This is important in all grafting opera-
tions, unless such contact is made the scion can not
unite. After the scions are carefully adjusted re-
move the wedge completely and wrap the stump
with waxed cloth from the surface down as far as
~the split shows on the sides. With a paint brush
apply a good coating of hot grafting wax to the sur-
face of the stump and over the waxed cloth, being
sure that all parts are covered so as to exclude the
air. On large stumps where the split between the
scions is quite wide it is advisable to fill it with
paper or cloth before applying the wax to prevent it
from running off, also between the outer edge of the
scion and the waxed cloth there may be an opening
due to the difference in the thickness of the bark on
the scion and that of the stump and this should be
carefully filled with wax. The end of the scion
should be sealed with either wax or paint to prevent
its drying out.
After the grafting is complete wrap newspaper
around the stumps so that it will extend out over
the scions and protect them from the sun but not so
as to interfere with their growth. Wherever possi-
ble leave one or two limbs on each stump to keep up
the flow of sap and also one or two of main limbs
where it is not necessary to cut them all off for
grafting. These limbs should be left until the grafts
have made considerable growth. The trunk and all
exposed limbs should be well whitewashed to pre-
After the grafts start to grow they should be
carefully watched and where necessary supported to
prevent their being broken by the wind. On ac-
count of their rapid growth they are quite apt to
make more top than the union can support the first
year and as a result the graft breaks out of the stump
if not supported. This can be overcome somewhat
if the growth is kept topped back and each graft is
made to properly branch and thicken up as it grows.
R. M. Teague Nurseries, San Dimas, Cal.
THE FIFE RECOMMENDED VARIETIES OF THE STATE ASSOCIATION
Fruit. True Mexican type, skin quite thin and a beau-
tiful dark glossy purple when ripe. It is (he smallest of
the recommended varieties, weighing from six to four'een
ounces wi h a medium-sized seed which fits tigh ly in the
cavity. The flesh is yellow, smooth and of a rich flavor.
The period of eight months from blossom to maturity of
the fruit is the shorest of any of the reCDmmended varie-
ties. Ripens in December and January.
Tree. A compact grower, erect and very hardy. Has
proven to be an early and heavy bearer. Considered one
of the best types of Avocados.
History. Introduced as budwood in 1911 by West India
Gardens from Atlisco, Puebla, Mexico, under No. 13. One
of ih? two varieties selected from over a hundred that
were introduced from lhat sec. ion.
The prolific bearing Lyon avocado
Fruit. Pear-shaped, dull green in color and matures
at an exceptionally good time. Weight from ten to .six-
teen, ounces and has a medium-sized seed. Samples of
the fruit have analyzed as high as 30 percent fat or oil,
being one of the highest yet tested. This, together with
its other good qualities, gives it rank as one of the best.
Ripens January to March inclusive.
Tree. Very vigorous but of spreading habit, appears
to be a hybrid of the Mexican and Guatemalan types and
has proven to be the most hardy on the list. It bears
"early and regularly.
History. Introduced as budwood in 1911 from Atlisco,
Puebla, Mexico, under No. 15. This is the only other
variety selected from the one hundred odd varieties intro-
duced from the highlands of Mexico.
Fruit. Varies from nearly round to slightly pear shape
and weighs from sixteen to twenty ounces. ' The seed
averages large in proportion to the flesh, but fits tightly
in the cavity. The flesh is cream-colored, smooth and of
a rich pleasant flavor. When fully mature, the thick
purplish-black skin gives the fruit a very attractive ap-
pearance and makes it a particular favorite on the mar-
ket. It is considered equal to the finest flavored Guate-
malan fruits. Ripens April to June inclusive.
Tree. An unusually strong upright grower and has
proven to be hardy and quite prolific.
History. The variety is of local origin, having been
selected from a number of seedlings grown on Mr. W. A.
Spink's place at Duarte, California. True G atemalan
Fruit. Oval to abovate in form, weighing from 12 to
18 ounces. The skin is unusually thick, woody and quite
rough. When ripe the purple glossy color gives it a very
handsome appearance. The seed is medium in size and
fits tigh ly in the cavity. The flesh is a pale greenish
yellow, free from fibre and has a rich, agreeable flavor.
Ripens from May to September.
Tree. A strong rapid grower and a regular and early
History. The original tree was grown from a seed
planted in 1899 by Mrs. M. J. Dickinson, Los Angeles.
Belongs to the Guatemalan type.
Fruit. Pear-shaped and weighs from sixteen to twenty
ounces. The surface is slightly pitted or roughened and
is a beautiful bronze or dark maroon color when ripe.
The flesh is cream-colored, smooth, free from fibre and
of a very rich pleasant flavor. The seed is small and
completely fills the cavity. In direct contrast to the Puebla,
(he quickest to mature, the Sharpless requires eighteen
mon'hs from blossom to maturity of fruit. Ripens from
September to January.
Tree. A strong upright grower and trees budded from
the parent tree indicate that it will be an early and regu-
lar bearer. The difficulty in propagating this variety
makes it rather more expensive to raise and therefore it
will probably always be higher priced than other varie-
History. Introduced by B. H. Sharpless of Santa Ana,
California, where the original tree is now growing.
The Dickinson and Sharpless are not considered quite
as hardy as the first three varie:ies and should only be
planted where lemons are considered safe from frost.
Fruit of the Sharpless avocado
If the orchardist or home grower will plant these five
proven varieties, he will be assured of a succession of
fruit during every month in the year. The bearing sea-
sons given are the months during which the principal or
main crop may be marketed. Many trees will mature a
few fruits before this time and also hold fruits much
later than the months specified, but such fruits usually
represent a small percentage of the total yield.
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Culture
VARIETIES OF MORE OR LESS COMMERCIAL
Fruit. Shape pyriform, weighs from sixteen to eighteen
ounces. Skin moderately thick and somewhat rough;
dark green in color with numerous small yellowish or
russet dots. Flesh a deep cream tinged with green toward
the skin and has a rich pleasant flavor. Seed of medium
size, fitting tightly in the cavity. Ripens April to August.
Tree. Very upright in its growth but not so vigirous
as some of the other varieties. It is an early and pro-
live bearer, often setting fruit while yet in the nursery
row. On account of its tall, slender growth this variety
can be planted much closer together than other sorts;
fifteen feet apart each way being considered not too close
by some growers.
History. Originated at Hollywood from seed imported
by L. Lyon in 1913. Of Guatemalan origin.
Fruit. Pyriform, weighing froi>: sixteen to twenty
ounces. Skin thick and woody, slightly roughened and
dark green in color. Flesh a deep cream yellow tinged
with green near the skin; flavor rich and pleasant; qual-
ity good. Seed medium size fitting rightly in the cavity.
Ripens April to August.
Tree. A strong grower but its spreading tendency
necessi.ates early pruning to produce a compact head;
it is fairly hardy and a good bearer.
History. Originated at Hollywood from seed brought
in by John Murrietta and planted in 1904. First described
in the Journal of Agriculture for November, 1913, under
the name of Dickey No. 2. It has also been known as
Fruit. Obvate to pyriform ; weight sixteen ounces, skin
thick and somewhat roughened, deep green in color
Flesh cream colored, smooth and of excellent flavor. Seed
of medium size fitting tightly in the cavity. Ripens May
Tree. A rapid grower of spreading habit. Not con-
sidered sufficiently hardy to plant where there is danger
of heavy frosts. Also inclined to be rather late in coming
History. Originated at Orange, California, by C. P.
Taft from seed planted in 1900.
Fruit. Pyriform, weight one and one-half pounds. Skin
thick and woody; deep purple in color. Flesh rich clear
yellow, changing to dark green near the skin, and has a
rich nutty flavor. Seed very small, completely filling the
cavity. Ripens in early summer. This is one of the
promising new varieties.
Tree. Vigorous but of somewhat spreading growth ;
History. Introduced by E. E. Knight of Yorba Linda,
California, from budwood brought from an elevation of
5,200-feet in Guatemala.
Fruit. Nearly round, weight about two pounds. Skin
rough, thick and woody, deep purple in color. Flesh firm,
yellowish in color, with a rich nutty flavor.. Seed me-
dium size and tight in cavity. Ripens from October to
March in Guatemala.
Tree. Vigorous and hardy, productiveness good.
History. Introduced as budwood from Guatemala in
1914 by E. E. Knight as Knight's No. 39.
PICKING, PACKING AND MARKETING
The ordinary orange clipper is the best for pick-
ing Avocados. They should be clipped from the tree
at a point just above the swollen part of the stem,
usually about one inch from where the steam is at-
tached to the fruit. There has been much discussion
with regard to the proper time to pick the fruit, and
in the past not a little fruit has been picked and mar-
keted in a green state, a condition to be very much
regretted as it has a detrimental effect on the con-
sumption of good fruit. Many more people would
now be eating Avocados were it not for the fact that
the first one they tried happened to be immature and
consequently lacked the rich nutty flavor always
found in well-matured fruits.
For home use the Avocado should be left on the
tree until it is quite mature. The dark or purple
skinned fruit should not be picked until the entire
surface, especially around the stem, has changed from
green to purple. The green skinned fruit should be
left on the tree until the stem has commenced to
show a distinct yellow cast and the fruit loses its
glossy green color and assumes a dull or yellowish
For market purposes the fruit should be picked at
a somewhat earlier stage, but the most suitable time
will necessarily have to be ascertained by individual
experiments and tests until the California Avocado
Association has had sufficient time to compute the
maturity standards and dates of ripening of the differ-
ent varieties. The Association hopes to have this
data complete in the near future, at which time the
growers will be advised as to what condition the dif-
ferent varieties should be in, to comply with the ma-
turity standard. It is to be hoped that all growers
will co-operate with the Association in this work to
the end that the practice of marketing either imma-
ture or over-ripe fruit will be eliminated.
Up to the present time the local consumption has
been sufficient to take care of all the fruit raised in
California and little or no attention has been paid to
the matter of picking for shipment. In Florida, Avo-
cadoes are packed in tomato crates which are similar
to our orange boxes being 12x1 2x24. inches, divided
into two compartments. Coarse excelsior is used be-
tween the layers of fruit to prevent bruising. The
fruit is not wrapped as this tends to hasten ripening,
causing it to reach the market in a soft and unsalable
As the production increases there will no doubt be
some uniform method of packing adopted whereby
the fruit will present the most attractive appearance
and at the same time reach the consumer in the best
R. M. Teague Nurseries, San Dimas, Cal.
possible condition. With properly matured fruit put
up in attractive packages there is no question but that
there will be an ever-increasing demand for this valu-
able food product that will take care of the produc-
tion for many years to come.
The Avocado by chemical analysis contains neither
acid nor sugar and heads the lists of fruits rich in
mineral matter and protein, but its greatest food value
lies in its oil content, which, in the better varieties,
varies from 1 7 to 30 per cent of vegetable oil or fat.
Most of our fruits analyze 200 to 300 food units per
pound expressed in calories, while the Avocado aver-
ages 1,000 calories. In fact, it is nature's combina-
tion of two types of food fruit and oil.
The Avocado and the Olive are practically the
only two fruits that contain any notable amount of
fat or oil. The latter fruit has the disadvantage of
requiring processing before it is ready for consump-
tion, and should really rank as a processed fruit. The
Avocado stands higher in oil content than the olive.
It ranks with milk and eggs and is fully equal to lean
meat. It has the medicinal quality of a soothing laxa-
tive and is more easily assimilated than either dairy
butter or meat.
In Africa the Avocado, in addition to being con-
sumed regularly, is rendered like lard and butter and
in this way made to produce a commodity similar to
butter and fully as apetizing and nutritious.
ACQUIRING A TASTE FOR THE AVOCADO
THE flesh of the Avocado has a delicate,
rich nutty flavor and a smooth buttery tex-
ture which is very pleasant and satisfying.
People best acquainted with the Avocado,
especially those from the tropics, prefer it just as
nature has perfected it, without any seasoning, liking
the natural, delicious nutty flavor unchanged by
condiments. The flavor strikes the palate at once
as different, and the taste for it sometimes needs to
be cultivated. Possibly the best way for the novice
to do this is to use a little lime or lemon juice and
sugar, if preferred, which seems to bring out the
delicate flavor and the qualities of the fruit, and also
supplies the acid and sugar contents which the Avo-
cado lacks and people are accustomed to in all of our
common fruits. After a short time he will invariably
find himself thoughtlessly omitting these additions
and will commence to appreciate the natural deli-
cate qualities of the fruit. Many people prefer
simply the addition of salt, and if the flesh is first
slightly scored or slashed with the knife or fork
before adding the salt and then allowed to set for a
few minutes until the salt has dissolved and mixed
with the oil of the fruit, the rich nutty flavor seems
to be brought out more prominently.
The fruit as picked from the tree is hard and
inedible, and should not be used until it has softened
or mellowed so that when pressed it yields to the
slight pressure of the finger or leaves a slight indented
impression in the skin, showing that the flesh has
become mellow like an apple or pear. This usually
requires from seven to fourteen days after picking,
according to whether the temperature is hot or cold
where the fruit is kept. After the proper ripening
stage is reached they remain only a few days in a
fit condition to eat. Ripening may be hastened by
placing the fruit in boxes filled with straw, leaves,
or similar material. Some claim that the fruit
ripens more evenly when these boxes are kept in a
warm place. The Avocado may be served with any
course of food from soup to nuts.
Half-shell. Cut the fruit in halves and remove the seed.
Serve one half to each person, natural, or with lime or
lemon juice, or salt as previously described. The flesh
of the fruit is scooped out of the shell with a spoon. As a
breakfast dish this is very much appreciated and most
Avocado au Natural. Remove the skin and slice the
fruit as thin as desired. Serve on a plate garnished with
celery hearts or with tomatoes. To be eaten with a fork,
with or without salt as preferred.
Avocado Sandwich. One that may be recommended for
its healthfulness as well as for its flavor, has a thick
layer of well salted crushed avocado filling with very
thin slices of peeled lime or lemons.
Hawaiian Sandwich. Remove skin and seed, or scoop
out flesh from hard shelled varieties, mash the flesh very
fine, season to taste with salt, lime or lemon juice, and
spread liberally on a lettuce leaf placed between thin
slices of bread. No butter should be spread on the bread
as the Avocado is a complete and better ingredient to use.
This is a dainty and most delicious way of serving.
On Toast. Remove flesh with a spoon and mash with
a fork. Spread thickly on a mall square of hot toast.
Add a little salt. This is one of the nicest ways of serv-
ing the Avocado.
In Soups. The Avocado is used extensively in the tropics
in all kinds of meat soups. Cut in small cubes and add
to the soup just before serving. The flavor imparted is
With Nuts and Olives. Chop nuts and olives, mix with
an equal quantity of mashed Avocado. Spread between
thin slices of bread and butter, with lettuce. Mix ground
walnuts with Avocado pulp to thick paste and spread on
thin Graham bread or wafers. Also makes fine addi ion
to any salad.
Avocado Ice Cream. (1) One gallon cream, one pound
sugar, pulp of sixteen medium sized Avocados. Rub
Avocados through a seive, add to cream and freeze.
(2) Yolks of five eggs, one quart milk, green maraschino
cherries, two cups sugar, four medium size Avocados,
almond or vanilla extract. Make a boiled custard of
milk, eggs and sugar; flavor. When cool add the fruit
and freeze. A maraschino cherry on top of each dish
is an attraction.
These recipes were selected on account of their sim-
plicity, but the thoughtful housewife can enlarge upon
them and find many ways of combining and serving the
Avocado. The fruit is used very extensively in salads of
Citrus and Tropical Fruit Culture
A Montezuma tree in Guatemala, producing 3000 fruits per annum averaging 7J/2 pounds each.
MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL FRUITS
The Feijoa, (pronounced Fay-zho-a, accenting the mid-
dle syllable) sometimes called the Pineapple Guava, is
a native of South America and was first i-ntroduced into
France by Edouard Andre in 1890. From there it was
brought to California about 1900, and through the efforts
of Dr. Francheschi, of Santa Barbara, calling attention of
plant growers to its merits it has attracted considerable
The plant never attains a height of more than fifteen
to eighteen feet. The leaves are similar in form and ap-
pearance to those of the olive, the upper surface being a
glossy green, and the lower silver gray. This, together
with its strikingly handsome flowers makes it a very
attractive plant for the garden. The fruit of (he im-
proved varieties is from two and a half to four inches
long and two to two and a half inches in diameter, of a
dull green color overspread with a whitish bloom. The
skin is thin, next to which is a light granular flesh sur-
rounding a jelly like pulp containing twenty to thirty
The flavor is pleasing and suggestive of pineapple and
strawberry and has an aroma that is delightful and pene-
trating. The fruit may be eaten fresh as picked from
the tree or it may be stewed or made into jam or jelly.
It also makes excellent pies.
The Feijoa is hardier than most sub-tropical fruits and
will withstand a temperature of 15 degrees above zero
with little or no injury. It prefers a dry climate but not
R. M. Teague Nurseries, San Dimas, Cal.
one of extremely high temperature. Where planted in
the moist tropical regions it has not proven successful. It
will stand considerable hardships and is quite drouth-
resistant when once established, but reaches perfection
Specimen plant Feijoa choiceana.
only when it is properly irrigated and cultivated. It will
thrive on almost any kind of soil excepting where there
is a surplus of lime, but it seems to do best on a sandy
loam rich in humus. The plants should be set from fifteen
to eighteen feet apart and watered liberally while young.
Plants grown from seeds do not come true to type nor
are they always self fertile. To insure plants that will
produce and be of desirable types we graft all of our
Feijoas from the best fruiting sorts.
Choiceana. One of the best large fruiting sorts. Fruits
oblong about three inches in length. Is of excellent
quality and a good bearer. Ripens in the late Fall.
Superba. Fruit is nearly round and the plant not quite
so compact in its growth, otherwise it is similar to the
CHERIMOYA (Anona Cherimolia)
The Cherimoya, sometimes called the Custard Apple,
is a native of South America from where it spread north-
ward into Central America and Mexico. It is not strictly
a tropical fruit and might be better classed as sub-tropical,
as it prefers a cool, relatively dry climate and in its native
habitat it only reaches perfection at (he higher elevations
back from the coast. In Guatemala and Mexico the
finest Cherimoyas are to be found at an elevation from
3,000 to 8,000 feet where the climate is mild and no ex-
tremes of either heat or cold are experienced. Young
plants will be hurt by a temperature of 29 to 30 degrees
above zero, but mature trees will stand a temperature as
low as 26 or 27 degrees without serious injury.
The tree is erect but has somewhat of a spreading habit
and rarely reaches more than twenty-five feet in height.
The fruit is usually heart shaped but is sometimes irreg-
ular in form. It also varies in weight from a few ounces
to as high as five pounds, however, the budded or graf'ed
varieties are more regular in both shape and weight. The
surface of the fruit is usually covered with small conical
protuberances, is light green in color and has a thin skin
making it necessary to handle the ripe fruit very care-
fully to prevent bruising. The flesh is white and of a
melting juicy texture. It has a very delicate sub-acid
flavor suggestive of pineapple and banana. When ready
to pick, which is from January to April in California, the
fruit usually has a yellowish tinge. Under favorable
conditions the trees begin to bear the third or fourth year.
Only budded or grafted trees should be planned as
seedlings do not always come true and very often are light
The Cherimoya prefers a rich, loamy soil, but seems
to do fairly well on both ligh" and heavy soils, provided
climatic conditions are favorable.
Irrigations during the summer months should be
applied every two to four weeks according to weather
conditions. A thorough cultivation should follow after
It is recommended that the trees be kept pruned to
form a low compact head, as this tends to make them
longer lived and more precocious.
THE WHITE SAPOTE (Casimiroa edulis)
The White Sapote is a native of Mexico and Central
America and is one of the principal cultivated fruits of
those regions, being held in very high es':eem by the
natives. It is sub-tropical in its climatic requirements,
and in its native home it thrives best in the highlands
at an elevation of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet and is not
found where the rainfall is excessive.
It was first introduced into California in about 1810,
but until recent years has attracted very little attention.
This is no doubt due to the fact that all trees planted were
seedlings, which do not come true to type, some bearing
small bitter fruit and others being shy bearers, or not
bearing any fruit whatever.
The tree is medium sized, erect or spreading in its