to the last extremity. I have just sent awa^y the women
and children, that I may be able to act without encum-
brance. Be satisfied : 1 hope to do mv duty. The exam-
pie set me by my revolutionary kindred is before me let
me die rather than prove imworthy of their name."
On the first of August, General Proctor made his ap-
pearance before the fort. His troops consisted of five hun-
dred regulars, and about seven hundred Indians of the
most ferocious tribes. But one hundred and thirty-three
effective men were in the garrison, and the works covered
an acre of ground. The pickets Vv^ere about ten feet high,
surrounded by a ditch, with a block-house at each angle
of the fort, one of wliich contained a six-pounder. This
was the exact state of the post at the time the enemy a.p-
peared. The first moven^.ent made by the enemy, was to
make such a disposition of his forces, as to prevent the
escape of the garrison, if they should be disposed to at-
tempt it. Re then sent Colonel Elliot with a flag, -to de-
mand the surrender of the fort. He was met by Ensig-n
Shipp. The British officer observed that General Proctor
had a number of cannon, a large body of regular troops,
and so many Indians, wiiom it was impossible to control,
t]iat if the fort was ta,ken, as it must be, the whole of the
garrison would be massacred. Shipp answered, that it
was the determination of Major Grogiian, his officers, and
men, to defend the garrison, or be buried in it, and that
thev misfht do their best. Colonel Elliot addressed Mr.
Shipp again - You are a fine young man, I pity your
situation : for God's sake surrender, and prevent the dread-
ful slaughter which must follow resistance." Shipp turned
from him with indignation, and was immediately taken
hold of by an Indian, who attempted to wrest his sword
3Iajor Croghan's Defence at Lower Sandusky, Ohio, August, 1813.
Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, September lOth, 1S13. P. 453.
GEORGE CROGHAN. 417
from him. Major Croghan, observing what passed, called
to Shipp to come into the fort, which was instantly obeyed,
and the action commenced. The firing began from the
gun-boats in the rear, and was kept up during the night.
At an early hour the next morning, three six-pounders,
which had been planted during the night, within two
hundred :uid fifty yards of the pickets, began to play on
the fort, but with little effect. About four, P. M. all the
enemy's guns were concentrated against the north-west-
ern angle of the fort, for the purpose of making a breach.
To counteract the effect of their fire, Major Croghan caus-
ed that point to be strengtliened by means of bags of flour,
sand, and other materials, in such a manner that the
picketing sustained little or no injury. But the enemy,
supposing that their fire had sufficiently shattered the
pickets, advanced, to the number of five hundred, to storm
the place, at the same time making two feints on different
The column which advanced against the north-western
angle, was so completely enveloped in smoke, as not to be
discovered until it had approached within eighteen or
twenty paces of the lines, but the men being all at their
posts, and ready to receive it, commenced so heavy and
galling a fire as to throw the column into confusion ; but
being quickly rallied, 1 iieutenant-Colonel Short, the leader
of the column, exclaimed, " come on my brave fellows,
we will give these d d yankee rascals no quarters," and
immediately leapt into the ditch, followed by his troops ;
as soon as the ditch was entirely filled by the assailants.
Major Croghan ordered the six-pounder, which had been
masked in the block-house, to be fired. It had been load-
ed with a double charge of musket balls and slugs. This
place completely raked the ditch from end to end. The
first fire levelled one half in death ; the second or third
either killed or wounded every one, except eleven, who
were covered by the dead bodies. At the samiC time, the
fire of small arms was so incessant and destructive, that
it was in vain the British officers exerted themselves to
lead on the balance of the column ; it retired in disorder
under a shower of shot, and sought safety in an adjoining
418 GLORY OF AMERICA.
wood. The loss of the enemy in killed was about one
hundred and fifty, besides a considerable number of their
allies. The Americans had but one killed, and seven
slightly wounded. Early in the morning of the third,
the enemy reti^ated down the river, after having abandoned
The garrison was composed of regulars, all Kentuckians ;
a finer company of men was not to be found in the United
States, perhaps not in the world. They were as humane
as coura2:eous. This is proved by then- unceasing atten-
tion to the wounded enemy after their discomfiture ; durinof
the niofht they kindly received into the fort, throuofh the
fatal port-hole of the block-house, all those who were able
to crawl to it : to those unable to move, they threw canteens
filled with water. They even parted with their clothes to
alleviate the sufferings of the wounded.
Notwithstanding his disobedience of orders, for the
successful defence of this post, "^lajor Croghan was raised
to the rank of Lieutenant- Colonel.
In the beginning of July, an expedition for the recap-
turing of 3Iichilimackinac, was intrusted to his command.
This was fitted out from Detroit.
On the 20th of July, the troops were landed at St.
Joseph's ; and the fort, which had been evacuated, set on
fire. Major Holmes was then ordered to the Sault St.
Mary's, for the purpose of breaking up the enemy's esta-
blishment at that place. He arrived the day after ; but the
North-west agent had received notice of his approach,
and succeeded in escaping with a considerable amount of
goods, after setting firelo a vessel above the falls ; the
design of this latter measure was frustrated. The vessel
was brouo-ht down the falls on the 2.5th. but having- bilsfed,
was destroyed. Considerable property belonging to the
enemy Avas taken.
On the 4th of August, a landing of the troops under
Croghan and Morgan was effected, at Mackinac : but the
strength of the enemy's works rendered it impossible to
carry the place by storm, with a small number of troops ;
and. after a severe conflict, a retreat became indispensable,
and was accordingly effected.
GEORGE CROGHAN. 419
Though this expedition proved unsuccessful in its issue,
its failure was not ascribable to any misconduct on the
part of the commanding officer. Every- thing was done
that vigilance, bravery, and perseverance could achieve.
The American loss was thirteen killed, fifty-one wounded,
and two missing loss of the enemy not known.
After this affair, Colonel Croghan determined to remain
on Lake Hnron for a time, with three companies, for the
purpose of breaking up any depots which the enemy
m.ight have on the east side of the lake.
He learnt that the only line of communication from
York to Mackinac, was by the way of Lake Simcoe and
Nautawasaga river, which empties into Lake Huron about
one hundred miles s. e. of Cabot's Head.
On the 13th of August, the fleet anchored off the mouth
of that river, and the troops were quickly disembarked on
the peninsula formed between the river 'and lake, for the
purpose of fixing a camp.
On reconnoitering the position thus taken, it was dis-
covered that the enemy's schooner Nancy was drawn up
in the river a few hundred yards above, under cover of a
block-house, erected on a commanding situation on the
, On the following morning, a fire for a few minutes was
kept up by the shipping on 'the block-house, but with little
effect. At twelve o'clock, two howitzers being placed within
a few hundred yards, commenced a fire, which lasted but
a few minutes, when the block-house blew up : at the same
time, fire was communicated to the Nancy, by the bursting
of one of our shells, which was so quickly enveloped in
flames as to render any attempts which might have been
made to save her, unavailing, giving the enemy barely
tnne to make his escape, before an explosion took place.
The loss of the Nancy was severely felt by the enemy ;
her cargo consisting, at the time of her beino; on fue, of >
several hundred barrels of provisions, intended as a six
months supply for the o^arrison at Mackinac.
Colonel Croghan afterwards returned to Detroit.
Colonel Croghan continued in active service during the
remainder of the war, and some time after the reduction
420 GLORY OF AMERICA.
of the army he resioqied his commission. In May, 1817,
he was married to a^daughter of John R. Livingston, Esq.,
at New York. , r .-u
Colonel Croghan is now Inspector-General ot the army,
and resides at the seat of government.
Is a descendant from one of the first settlers of New
Hampshire, who emigrated from Devonshire county, m
Eno^land. . -, i . ^
He received a medical education under the nistruction
of Dr. Hall Jackson, of Portsmouth, who was a distm-
o-uished sur2:eon in the revolutionary army, and justly
Selebrated as one of the most able physicians which New
Eno-land has produced. Dearborn was settled m the
practice of phvsic at Notting-ham-Square, m New Hamp-
shire three years previous lo the commencement of the
revolutionary war, where, with several gentlemen ot the
neio-hbourhood. he emploved his leisure hours m military
exercises; 1)ein^ convinced that the time was rapidly ap-
proachino-, when the liberties of his country must either
be shamefully surrendered, or boldly defended at the point
of the sword. ^
This band of associates determined to be prepared lor
the worst, and equipped themselves for the last resort of j
On the mornino- of the 20th of April, 1775, notice by an
express v.^as received of the affair of the preceding day at
Lexington. He assembled with about sixty of the in-
habitants of the town, and made a rapid movement for
Cambridge, whire they arrived the next morning at sun-
risehaving luarched a distance of fifty-five miles in less
than twenty-four hours. After remaining several days,
and no immediate occasion requiring their services they
MENRY DEARBORN. 421
J etumed. It being determined that a number of regiments
should be nnmediately raised for the common defence,
Dearborn was appointed captain in the first New Hamp-
shn-e regmient, under the command of Colonel John Stark.
Such was his popularity, and the confidence of the people
m his bravery and conduct, that within ten days from the
tune he received his commission, he enlisted a full com-
pany, and joined the regiment at Medford, on the fifteenth
of May. Previous to the battle of Bunker Hill he was
engaged m a skirmish on Hog Island, whither' he had
been sent to prevent the cattle and other stock from beino;
carried ofi" by the British, and soon after took a part in an
action with an armed vessel near Winnesimet ferry.
On the morning of the glorious 17th of June, information
was received that the British were preparing' to come out
from Boston, and storm the works which had been thrown
up on Breed's Hill the previous night by the Americans.
The regiment to which he was attached was immediately
paraded, and marched from Mystic to Charlestown Neck.
Dearborn's company composed the flank guards of the
regmient. They crossed the neck under a galling fire
from the British men of war, and the floating batteries,
and having sustained some loss, arrived at Bunker's
heights. The enemy were landing on the shore opposite
to Copp's hill, when Stark advanced and formed his regi-
ment on the declivity of Breed's hill, in rear of a rail-fence
which ran from the redoubt, commanded by the gallant
Colonel Prescott, to Mystic river. The action soon com-
menced, and the Americans stood their ground until their
ammunition was entirely expended. Dearborn was posted
on the right of the regiment, and being armed with a
fusee, fibred regularly with his men.
In September he volunteered his services to join the ex-
pedition of Arnold up Kennebec river, and through the
Avilderness to Quebec. He was permitted to select a com-
pany from the^New Hampshire regiment for this arduous
service. Thirty-two days vv^ere employed in traversing
the hideous wilderness between the settlements on the
Kennebec and the Chaudiere river, during Novem]3er and
December, in which every hardship and fatigue of which
422 GLORY OF AMERICA.
human nature is capable, was endured indiscriminatelyj
by the officers and troops, and a large portion of them
starved to death. On the highlands between the Kenne-
bec and St. Lawrence, the "remnant of provisions was
divided among the companies, who were directed to make
the best of their way in separate divisions to the settle-
ments on the Chaudi'ere. The last fragment of food in
most of the companies was soon consumed, and Dearborn
v^as reduced to the extremity of dividing his fa four it e dog
anions: his suftering men. '"Wlien they reached the Chau-
diere.^from colds, extreme hardships, and want of suste-
nance, his strength failed him, and he was unable to walk
even a short distance, without wading into the water to
imicrorate and stimulate his limbs. With great difficulty
he reached a poor hut on the Chaudiere, when he told his
men he could accompany them no farther, and animated
them forward to a glorious discharge of their dut\^ His
company left him with tears in their^eyes, expecting to see
him no "more. Dearborn was here seized with a violent
fever, during which his life was m jeopardy for ten days ;
vrithout medicine, and with scarcely the common neces-
saries of life. His ffiie constitution at last surmounted the
disease, and so soon as he was able to travel, he proceeded
to Point Levi in a sleigh crossed over to Vv'olfe's Cove,
and made his unexpected appearance at the head of his
companv, a few days before the assault on Quebec. At
four o'clock in the' morning, on the thirty-first day of
December. 1775, in a severe snov.^ storm, and in a climate
that vies with Norway in tempests and intense cold, the
attack was commenced. Dearborn was attached to the
corps under General Arnold, who was wounded early ill
the action, and carried from the field. Lieutenant Colonel
Green succeeded to the command. They stormed the first
barrier, and entered the lower town. Montgomery had
already bled on immortal oround, and his division having
made a precipitate and most shameful retreat, as soon as
their sfeneral fell, the corps under General Green was ex-
posed to a sanguinary, but unavailing contest.
From the windows of the houses, which being con-
structed of stone, each was a castle, and from the tops of
the parapets, a destructive fire was poured on the assail-
ants, wiiich threatened inevitable destruction to every one
who should appear in the streets. The American troops
maintained this desperate warfare, until at last they were
reduced to the necessity of surrendering in small parties.
The whole corps led on by General Arnold were killed
or made prisoners of war. The officers were put into
rigid confinement, and every day were tauntingly told,
that in the spring they would be sent to England, and
hanged as rebels.
In jNIay, 1776, Majors Meigs and Dearborn were per-
mitted to return on their parole. They were sent round
to Halifax in the frio:a,te Niofer, and treated with the usual
contumely and hauteur of English officers. On their
arrival at Halifax, they were put on board another ship of
war, and the commander instructed by General Howe, to
land them in some port in New England. After the ship
had cruised with them on board for upwards of thirty
days, during which period they met with the grossest
insults, they were put on shore in Penobscot bay, from
whence they proceeded to Portland by land.
In the fore part of the follovv'ing IMarch, Dearborn was
exchanged, and appointed a major to the third Nev/
Hampshire regimxent, commanded by Colonel Alexander
Scammel, and early in May arrived with the regiment at
On the 6th of July, the post of Ticonderoga was aban-
doned on the approach of General Burgoyne's army.
General St. Clair retreated with the main body of the
troops, by land, through Vermont to Hudson riA^er, near
Saratoofa, and soon after continued to retreat until the
army had crossed the Mohawk river, near its junction
with the Hudson, where considerable re-enforcements were
met, and General Gates assumed the command of the
Soon after the capture of the British detachment under
Baum at Bennington, by General Stark, and the retreat
of General St. Legfer from Fort Stanwix. General Gates
advanced to meet the enemy, who was encamped near
Saratoga. When the army arrived at Stillwater, a corps
424 GLORY OP AMERICA.
of light infantry was formed, by detachments from the
hne, consistino- of five full companies, and the command
given to Major Dearborn, with orders from General Gates
to act in concert with Colonel Morgan's regiment of rifle-
men, which had joined, the army a few days previous. A
strong position was selected, called Bemis' Heights, and
immediatelv occupied by the American army. The rifle-
men and Dearborn's corps of light infantry, encamped in
advance of the left of the main line. The British army
had advanced from Saratoga, and encamped on the bank
of the river, within tliree miles of General Gates' position.
On the morning of the 19th of September, the advanced
pickets amiounced that the right wing of the British army
was in motion, when Morgan and Dearborn, who com-
manded separate corps, received orders from General
Arnold to make a forward movement, to check the ap-
proaching colunm. These orders were promptly obeyed,
and the advanced guard, consisting of tories and other
irreofulars, was soon met and attacked with spirit, in which
conflict they killed and wounded a considerable number
of the enemy, and made twenty-two prisoners. The action
soon after became general, and continued until the dusk
of the evening, on the same ground on which it com-
menced ; neither party having retreated more than twenty
or thirty rods, and that alternately, so that the dead of
both armies were mingled together.
Dearborn, with his^light corps, covered the left of the
main hne, while Morgan covered the right. The loss
was severe on both sides, and especially in the New
Hampshire line. Lieutenant-Colonels Adams and Col-
burn beinof killed, Dearborn was promoted to be a lieu-
tenant-colonel, and was at that time in the twenty-seventh
year of his age. As his light corps was constantly em-
ployed in reconnoitring, frequent actions occurred be-
tween the pickets and advanced parties of the enemy.
In the campaign of 1778, Dearborn served with the
main army, and in the battle of Monmouth, the spirited
conduct of Ciiley's detached regiment, of which Dearborn
was lieutenant-colonel, attracted particularly the attention
of the commxander-in-chie
HENRY DEARBORN. 425
After Lee had made a precipitate and unexpected re-
treat, Washington, among other measures which he took
to check the advance of the British, ordered Cilley's regi-
ment to attack a body of troops which was passing through
an orchard on the right wing of the enemy.
The regiment advanced under a heavy fire, with a rapid
step and shouldered arms. The enemy filed off and form-
ed on the edge of a morass. The Americans wheeled to
the right, received their second fire, with shouldered arms,
marched up within eight rods, dressed, gave a full fire,
and charged bayonet. The British having sustained con-
siderable loss, fled w4th precipitation across the morass,
where they were protected by the main body of the enemy.
Colonel Dearborn was then despatched to the Com-
mander-in chief, to ask what further service was required;
when he approached, Washington inquired, with evident
pleasure at their gallant conduct, ' What troops ore those ?"
"Full-blooded Yankees from New-Hampshire, Sir," rephed
Dearborn. Washington expressed his approbation in ex-
plicit terms, and directed that they should fall back and
refresh themselv^es, as the heat was very o])pressive, and
the troops much fatigued.
In the general orders of the next day, Washington be-
stowed the highest commendation on the brilliant exploit
of the regiment.
In 1779, Dearborn accompanied General Sullivan in his
expedition against the Indians, and liad an active share in
the action of the 29th of August with the united forces of
tories and Indians at Newtown. During the campaign
of 1780, he was with the main army in New Jersey.
In 1781, he was appointed Deputy duarter-Master
General, vv^ith the rank of Colonel, and served in that ca-
pacity with Washington's army in Virginia. He was at
the siege of Yorkto wn, and the capture of Lord Cornwallis
and his army. Colonel Scammel being killed during the
siege. Dearborn succeeded to the command of the" first
New Hampshire regiment, and was ordered to the frontier
garrison at Saratoga during the campaign of 1782. In
November he joined the army at Newburgh.
After the American Independence was secured, and ac-
426 LORY OF AMERICA.
knowledged by the King of Great Britain, Colonel Dear-
born, with his companions in arms, who had survived the
fatio^nes, hardships, and dangers of the war, returned to
the pursuits of private life.
In June, 1784, he remx.ved from New Hampshire to
Kennebeck, in IMaine. In 1787, he was elected Brigadier-
General of the militia, and soon after appointed a ^lajor-
General. President Washington appointed him Marshal for
the Maine District in the year 1789. He was twice elected
to represent Kennebeck in the Congress of the United States.
On the accession of Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency, he
was appointed Secretary of War, and continued in that
office until 3Iarch, 1809, when he resigned, and was ap-
pointed Collector for Boston, and in February, 1812, he
received a commission as senior Major-General in the army
of the United States.
The shameful surrender of General Hull at Detroit,
and subsequent unfortunate transactions on the Niagara at
Q,ueenston Heights, frustrated the plans of the campaign
of 1812. Notwithstanding these severe checks, General
Dearborn did not relax in activity : for so soon as he had
ordered his arnw into winter-quarters at Plattsburgh and
Burling-ton, he was unremittingly employed in recruiting
the army, and makino; preparations for opening the cam-
paign early in the following spring. .
Previous to the General's departure from Albany, in
February. 1813, he had ordered Generals Lev>^is and Boyd
to the Niao-ara frontier, directing the former to prepare
boats and scows, erect batteries, and make every necessary
arrangement for an attack and descent on Fort George.
General Dearborn, after givino" these orders, repaired to
Utica and Whitestown, There made arrangements for the
transportation of troops down the Oswego to Sackett's
Harbour, and gave the necessary directions relative to all
the military stores for the ensuing campaign. These
accomplished, he proceeded to Sackett's Harbour, agi*eea-
bly to a plan of operations which had been submitted to
the consideration of the Secretary of War, and which
was left to the discretion of Major-General Dearborn to
carrv into effect.
The projected plan was to capture and destroy Little
York ; this would give Commodore Chauncey the com-
mand of the lake, render it impossible to furnish their
troops and Indians with stores, and cut off all communi-
cations betAveen Kingston and Maiden.
The plan was disclosed at the Harbour, to Commodore
Chauncey and General Pike only. General Lewis, then
at the Niagara, was also advised of the movement, and
ordered to be in readiness for an immediate attack on Fort
George. After the capture of York, the troops were to be
transported to Niagara, and make an itistant attack on
Fort George. This being effected, the army was to have
been transported back to Sackett's Harbour ; whence, with
an additional number of troops collecting by previous
orders, they were to make an attack on Kingston m its
rear ; while the fleet would batter the town, fortifications,
and the fleet in front. -
With this system of operations in view, General Dear-
born sailed with sixteen hundred men, as soon as the ice
permitted the fleet to leave the harbour. York was taken
on the 2rth of April, with all the stores of the British
army ; a ship of thirty guns burnt, and the Duke of Glou-
cester, of fourteen guns, made a prize. The Earl of Moira