Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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might transplant the house and Post, since all vessels which come through the
inland waters must pass that way. . . . they decided that the fittest place
was where the horse-dealers from Orinoco generally moor their boats in the
Riyer of Moruka, called in the Indian language Accouiere, . . . The unfor-
tunate state of affairs in Europe having been taken into consideration, it was
resolved to establish the house and Post of Wac(£uepo upon the aforemen-
tioned site as soon as possible, and thus have an opportunity of being kept well
informed of the hostile boats that had any intention of coming to disturb this
river. B. C, II, j-d.



MS BOUNDARIES.

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-THAT MORUCA WAS A FRONTIER

POST-(Continued).

1728. Court of Policy in Essequibo.

Resolved to reinforce the aforesaid Post of Wacqnepo with two soldiers,
and to direct Jan Batiste to have the necessary coast-guards posted, so that we
may receive the earliest information in case the Spaniards shonld send any
armed vessels to this Colony in accordance with the rumours afloat.

B. C, II, 7.

1728. Secretary Gelskerke to Postholder at Wacquepo.

You are ordered to have proper coast-guards posted, where such are neces-
sary, so that we may be informed luetimes slionld the Spaniards wish to send
any vessels to this Colony to molest the same. Same, p. S.

1730. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The Commandant of the Post which I have between the OriiKK'o and this
river [Essequiboj. Same, p. 11.

1735- [1897] George L. Burr.

[In 1735] the French still traded in the Barima ; nor is there in the pro-
ceedings, as reported, or in the contemporary correspondence with the Com-
pany, any questioning- of their rig-ht to do so. V. C.-C, II, 127.

1744. Court of Justice of Essequibo.

Two Spaniards on their way hither from Orinoco had been arrested at the

Company's Post in "VVacyuepo, and [the Commandeur] asked if they would be
allowed to arrive in the Colony or be sent back.

It was resolved to allow them to come here this time, but that this must not
be taken as a precedent. B. C, II, 4J.

I'/^'b. West India Company.

You will do well by driving- away again out of the Wacquepo and Moruka
the Indian nation which came down from far up in the Orinoco and tear down
what you find they have made there, and thus maintain the Company's
territory. Same, p. 46.

1747. Commandeur in Essequibo.

In Wacquepo and Moruka all is again still, as the nation v/hich arrived
there with the intention of killing the Caribs dwelling there was received by them
reasonably, and thereupon they again retired back up the Orinoco. But the un-
dertakings of the Spaniards go so far that, if proper measures be not taken
against them, they may, in the course of time, lead to the total ruin of the Colony.

Saf/ie, p. 4S.

1749. Commandeur in Essequibo.

This ship had been stranded at Peehy, and therefore on the territory of
Spain, and I had no right to touch it.

Note by Prof. Burr.
In reporting the affair to the West India Company Storm van 's Gravesande
had described the location of the wreck as " between Camoeni and Peche, about
1.5 [Dutch] miles below [/. e. west of] the Post in Mornca." . . . The bay
of Peche, according to the Bouchenroeder map, ( V. C. a//as, map 46) is a little
east of the mouth of the Waini. V. C, II, 103.



BOUNDARIES. 149

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-THAT MORUCA WAS A FRONTIER

POST-{Contlnued).

1754. Court of Justice in Essequibo.

[Resolved] 2. That an armed boat be placed at Monika to keep aruard,
. . . with instructions, at the first signs or suspicion of the approach of the
enemy, to come and inform the Director-General as soon as possible.

[Resolved] 3. That ... a safe conduct be sent to one . . . Meyer,
. . . at present amongst the Indians in Barima, for him to arrive safely
here. B. C, //, pj.

1754. Director-General in Essequibo.

I have also sent order to Moruka to cause all inland waters and passages
to be closed, so that they [Spaniards] may not be able to pass with small vessels.

Safne, p. g6.

Two small vessels are being made ... to keep watch between
Moruka and Pomeroou, and the Arawaks of the Post are spread along the sea-
coast in corrials so as to be able to give timely warning. Same, p. gj.

1764. Director-General in Essequibo.

A very good and fit barque of Mr. Dudonjon has also been equipped to go
and lie by the angle of the Pomeroon. Same, p. gS.

1765. Memorial of Shareholders of Zeeland Chamber.

Demerara ... is situated between the two most extreme trading-
places or posts in Essequibo — namely, the one, to the north, on the River
Moruka, and the other, to the south, on the River Mahaicony, both of w^hich
rivers, as well as the others situate between, pertain to that Colony — which of
course, shows undeniably that Demerara is one and the same Colony with Esse-
quibo. B. C. , ///, I2J.

1766. Director-General in Essequibo.

Having . . . inform [edj your Lordships in one of my former letters of
the barbarous mode of life of some of our colonists in Barima, and hearing that
this was getting gradually worse, I charged the Postholder of Moruka, . . .
to proceed thither in order to prevent all further mischief, and ... to order
the evil-doers to come to the fort.

[After convicting Rose] the Court made a further order forbidding- any
one to stop in Barima, and charged the Postholder of Moruka to see that
this was carried out, because in time this would become a den of thieves, and
expose us to the danger of getting mixed up in a quarrel with our neighbours the
Spaniards. Same, pp. iji-ij2.

1767. West India Company (Amsterdam Chamber).

The natural meaning of the expression " Essequibo and adjoined or subordin-
ate rivers " is not that which the Zeeland Chief Participants attribute to it
(namely, that all the places which are situate on the mainland of the so-called
Wild Coast, between the boundaries which the Chief Participants themselves
have . , . defined as extending from Moruka to Mahaiconj', or from Rio
Berbice as far as the Orinoco, are " adjoined, subordinate to, and inseparable
from " the Colony Essequibo), but, on the contrary, only this, that under that
description are comprehended the various mouths and rivers, originating from
Rio Essequibo or emptying into it, which are marked on the map, such as, for
instance, Cuyuni, Massaruni, Sepenouwy, and Magnouwe. Same, p. 147.



150 BOUNDARIES.

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCHTHAT MORUCA WAS A FRONTIER

POST-(Continued).

1777. Court of Policy in Essequibo.

There lies ... on the frontier and in the direction of Oronocque, a
Post in the creek of Morocco and Wacquepo. B. C, IV, 184-183,

1777. Commandant at Fort Zeelandia.

The objection might be raised here that, when a post [in Moruca] of soldiers
is stationed so near to those Spanish frontiers, it is more exposed to desertion
of those soldiers ; . . . But the condition and life of the Spanish troops
having been wafted over from Rio Orinoco to this river, by the testimony of
those who have heretofore deserted, the desire to desert thither seems to have
greatly diminished. Same, p. 186.

1778. Manager of Plantations.

But the Post lies far in the Maronca, so that I, in a fast row boat with an
awning, manned by twelve oarsmen, was obliged to travel full six hours from
the mouth before I could reach it. Thus almost two (lays elapse ere tidings
of the desertion can come to the Postliolder ... so that the runaways,
who presumably made all speed, could be long in the Spanish territorial
jurisdiction before the Postholder Is acquainted thereof. Same, p. IQ4.

1779. Venezuelan Case.

This reconnoissance ... of 1779, . . . by . . . Inciarte . . .
examined the whole coast region ... far into the Ponieroon ; . . .
Tlie Dutcli Governor of Essequibo was informed of the presence of the Span-
iards in the Pomeroon, and even of his intention to build a fort there ; but he not
only made no effort to arrest him, but reported the matter to the Company
without so much as a protest ; and no protest was made by that body to the
Dutch government, or through it to that of Spain. V. C, 146.

1784. West India Company (the Ten).

In order that ... no occasion be giv-en to the Spaniards to have much
communication with our negroes in the Colony, it would be well to make the rule
that when such Spaniards have any negroes as aforesaid, they must bring them
to the Post at Moruca, and there hand them over, in return for payment of the
established price, to a person to be appointed therefor. B. C, V, 2j.



1790. Report of Commissioners on Condition of Essequibo and Demerara.

It behooves us to say a word here of the so-called Postholders. These are
employes of the Company who dwell on the various frontiers in order to foster
the good understanding with the Indians. Same, p. Si.



1794. Governor-General in Essequibo.

We went on as far as the Creek of Moruca, which up to now lias been main-
tained to be the boundary of our territory witli that of Spain, upon what
basis I do not know. It will be of the utmost necessity to define that boundary-
line once for all. Same, p. 14^.



BOUNDARIES. 151

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-PASSES REQUIRED AT MORUCA.

1 701. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

April 18, [1701]. . . . there arrived . . . Pieter Faull, and Abraham
Baudaart, requesting the Commandeur to issue a pass to Orinoco for Mr.
Aarnout van Groenewegen, which was granted and delivered to them.

B. C.-C, App., 131.

1719. West India Company.

We uuderstaiKl it to be necessary and just that satisfaction be 8:iven the
CiJoveruor of Orinoco, but that, one free planter having wronged him, the trade
to Orinoco should therefore be forbidden to all others, cannot receive our ap-
proval ; on the contrary, we charge you to grant passes to all others, withhold-
ing them from the offender or offenders until the necessary satisfaction has been
given. B. C, I, 2J2.

1760. Director-General in Essequibo.

I have . . . sent an order to the [Moruca] Post to let no Spaniards

pass this way on any account whatever, except a single one who might be the
bearer of letters from the Government. B- C, II, igy.

1762. Director-General in Essequibo.

In the Commission given . . . to . . . Lopez I have seen that the
corsair had alleged that the boat which he took at the mouth and even in the
River Demerary had no passport — a very frivolous excuse and an ungrounded
one, since passports are never giyen to boats going from one plantation to an-
other, and which are going to board vessels in the Colony itself, and since this
is only done for boats which go from one country or from one colony to another.

On the other hand, . . . the Company's boat from which he took the
salt fish at the month of the Wayni, and which he afterwards smashed, and
that of our colonist, Andries Heyse, which he pillaged, were both provided with
passports in due form. Satnc, p. 220.

1764. Director-General in Essequibo.*

In all passes issued by me, I only grant permission to pass the Posts and to
trade amongst the Indians, without mentioning any place. B. C, III, 114.

1766. Provisional Instruction for the Post of Moruca.

Every white who shall resort to \\\q Orinoco not holding a licence from
the Director-General, shall be detained in the said post, and sent to Essequibo,
as well as all slaves, both Indians and Dutch negroes, and in case any Spanish
craft should arrive there laden with produce, she shall be detained, and the said
Deik shall embark in the said craft so detained, and shall proceed with her, not
allowing anything to be sold before reaching the said Essequibo.

B. C.-C, App., 255.

1767. Director-General in Essequibo.

He [Moruka Postliolder] shall allow no one to pass the Post without a
passport. B. C, III, 134.

He [Moi'uka Postholder] shall bear in mind that the passports issued shall
be valid for one voyage only, as they are put to misuse. Same, p. /jj.

* Note by editor of British Case. There is some reason to doubt the authenticity of this extract.



152 BOUNDARIES.

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-PASSES REQUIRED AT MORUCA-

(Continued).

1768. Director-General in Essequibo.

I had strictly forbidden Jan la Riviere to settle between Essequibo and Ori-
noco, and for greater security I had this inserted in his pass ; he was also forbidden
by the Court to settle in Barima. B. C, III, 176.

1770. Director-General in Essequibo.

Air. Tullekin, having asked for a permit to go to Maroco, and having obtained
the same, I now hear that he went farther and that he was arrested, and is now
a prisoner in Orinocque. V- C., II, 216,

, British Case.

Passports . . . often contained conditions as to the conduct of the
holder in the district beyond the Post. B. C, 8j.

1774. Director-General in Essequibo.

Both from English captains leaving the Essequibo (formerly the Colony) in
their barques or vessels and from private individuals the Governor receives for a
pass 7 guilders 10 st. and 5 guilders for a permit to barter or trade in Indians
outside the Post, which for some time was not observed, but in 1774 I again in-
troduced or renewed it by reason of the necessity. B. C, IV, i2j.

1775. Government Journal in Essequibo.

Gave to the Carib Owl named Awamerie, with his people, a passport for
Barima. Same, p. 189.

1789. Journal kept in Essequibo.

December 7. A passport granted to the Indian Carwe to go to the coast of
Essequibo, and to pass the Post of Maroco. B. C, V, 73.

1793. Journal kept in Essequibo.

Pass g-ranted to the free Indian Frederik in order to get, in Pomeroon or
beyond the Post Marnca, corials for " den Heraut" in exchange for other wares.

Same, p. 14J.

1796. Governor of Essequibo.

A pass is applied for . . . for four Spaniards . . . who recently
arrived here with horned cattle from Orinoco, in order that they may return
thither ; . . . the Governor has issued the desired pass. Same, p. i6j.

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-TOLLS AT MORUCA.

1707. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I have likewise thought of submitting to you [W. I. Co.] whether it were not
right necessary to lay a toll on the traders from Berbice, who traffic on
the Orinoco for vessels, balsam, red slaves, and cocoa, in the Rivers Marocco
and Pomeroon. B. C, I, 22g-2jo.

1708. Commandeur in Essequibo.

As regards the (proposed) tolls in Marocco and Pomeroon ... I will
reply . . . that such could not be properly carried out, especially the ex-
penses of doing it could not be repaid. Same, p. 2jo.



BOUNDARIES. 153

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-TOLLS AT MORUCA-^Continued).

1708. West India Company.

As for your proposal to Lay iu the Rivers of Monica and Poiueroon a toll

for the traders to Orinoco ... we can as yet give no positive answer ;
. . . you would first have to inform us whether this can just now be prop-
erly and lawfully done. B. C, J, 2ji.

[As to] laying- a toll, in the Rivers of Mornca and Poiueroon, (the Com-
mandeur is directed to) . . . carefully inquire into the aforesaid matter, and
inform us . . . what annual profit the Company might derive from impos-
ing said tolls. Same, pp. 2j 1-232.

As . . . to the laying: of a toll upon the boats, copaiba, &c., for the
dealers from Berbice who trade to Orinoco, . . . we, . . . hereby in-
struct you to . . . collect a poll-tax there, . . . from every white person
and also from ever}' slave at present in Essequibo, and who shall in future arrive
in that Colony. Same, p. 2j2.

1767. Director-General in Essequibo.

He [Postholder at Moruka] shall demand fi-om the Spaniards coming
there with tobacco, &c., 5 per cent, import duty and forward the same here.

B. C, ///, 155-

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-BOUNDARIES ON THE CUYUNI.

1746. Commandeur in Essequibo.

On the 7th of this month [March 1746] one Ignatius Courthial made an ap-
plication to the Court for permission to cut a road through the wood iu the
River Cnyuni, in order to bring mules and cows into the river overland by that
road. . . . permission was granted him on condition that there shall be
paid to the Company 3 guilders recognition money for every mule, and 2
guilders for every horse or cow, . . . it is my intention to place the Post
which lies in Demerary ... on this road instead. B. C, II, 44.

1746. West India Company.

We can approve the resolution taken by you and the Court of Policy regard-
ing the request made by Ignatius Couthial [Courthial], and the further measures
taken by you in that regard, for the prevention of all fraud in not rightly declar-
ing the animals to be brought from the River Cuynni. Same, p. 44.

1754. Director-General in Essequibo.

The common ramour was that one of our colonists had been near by there
[the mission destroyed by the Caribs and Panacays] and ... I caused
him to be apprehended and brought to the fort. Because such a matter would
be of consequence, and ivould afford the Spaniards real and well-founded
reasons for complaint, I have always taken punctilious care therefor.

Same, p. g6.

1759. Director-General in Essequibo.

If the Spaniards remain in possession of Cuyuni . . . there will be no
safety at all in this Colony. . . . The Spaniards continue to stay where they
are, and to entrap and drive away all the Caribs living there. Same, p. ijj.



154 BOUNDARIES.

ADMISSIONS BY THE DUTCH-BOUNDARIES ON THE CUYUNI-

(Continued).

1763. Director-General in Essequibo.

It is certain . . . that this is not the time to tliink of the re-establishment
of the Post ill Cuynni. That matter will give us plenty of work to do when
. . .all is at rest and in peace, because the Spaniards, liayins? driven all the
Indians ont of the river, it will be no small matter to get all the necessary
buildings in readiness there. B. C, //, 228.

1769. Remonstrance of the States-General.

The establishment of two Spanish Missions, occupied by a strong force, one
not far above the Company's said Post in Cuyuni (apparently, however, on
Spanish territory), and the other a little higher up on a creek which flows into
the aforesaid Cuyuni River. B. C, IV, jo.

ADMISSIONS BY THE BRITISH-BOUNDARIES ON THE COAST.

1802. Commandant of Berbice, Demerary and Essequibo.

Essequibo is a particular district of the Government of Demerary. A small
creek, ... the Borassirie, . . . forms its eastern boundary.

The west sea-coast, called the " Arabian Coast," is now . . . almost
entirely settled. It is bounded by the River Pomaroon. at the entrance of
vvhicli is the furthest military post, called the Post of Morrooco.

The foregoing lines are descriptive of the whole extent of that part of the
coast of Guayana situated between the River Corantyn and the Pomaroon, and
within which are included the Colonies of Berbice, Demerary, and Esse-
quibo. B. C, V, 172.

1806. George Pinckard.

It is suggested that we may obtain a supply (of provisions) from the Span-
iards, who have great numbers of wild cattle . . . upon the neigrhboring
coast of Oronoko. V. C.-C, III, 224-223.

A party of Spaniards crossed the River Oronoko in the night of the 19th inst.
[February, 1797], and made an attack upon our outpost at Moroko, the remotest
point of the Colony of Essequibo, . . . but . . . they were defeated.

Same, p. 227.

1834. T. S. St. Clair.

The colony of Demerera ... is bounded on the east by the Albany
creek. . . . The western limits are marked by the small creek Bonnosique, a
distance of twenty miles up the great river Essequibo ; formerly the Bossicay
creek was the western boundary, but by an act passed by Governor Bentinck, in
1806, it was extended to the present limits.

The colony of Essequibo adjoins to Demerara, being under the same governor,
and is our most leeward possession in this country. The creek or river, called
Morocco, is the boundary line between this colony and the Spanish Main,
which is not far from the Pomeroon creek. Same, pp. 2J4-2JJ.

r838. Venezuelan Case.

(lovernor Li^ht in . . . 1838, wrote :

The Pomaroon River, at the western extremity of Essequibo, may be taken
as a limit lo the country. V. C, 167.



BOUNDARIES. 155

ADMISSIONS BY THE BRITISH-BOUNDARIES ON THE COAST-

(Continued).

1838. Venezuelan Case.

Speaking of the region " between the romeroou au