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as far as the River Barima, where in old times a Post existed ; but these say-
ings give not the slightest certainty. Same, p. jS.

1750. Commandeur in Essequibo.

It is ncessary that the limits of the Company's territory should be known, in
order successfully to oppose the continual approach of the neighbouring Span-
iards. Because the limits are unknown, we dare not openly oppose them.

Same, p. 6j.

1750. Report of Committee on Commandeur's Report.

The determining' of the limits being an object of His Highness' attention,
to whom in this connection a certain small map, mentioned in the Commandeur's
Memorial, had been handed by him, the Committee was of opinion that his advice
thereon should be awaited. Same, p. 68.

1750. Acting Commandeur in Essequibo.

The last Mission which is being constructed is in a certain little river called
Imataca, situated far off in Orinoco, and which (in my opinion) is directly far out-
side the concern of this Colony.

And concerning' that [Mission] which are said to have been constructed up
in the River Cuyuni, I am instructed that they are very much nearer to the
side of the Spanish than to our territory. Same, p. 6g.

1754. Court of Policy.

I . . . await . . . your Honours' orders respecting- the so long
sought definition of frontier so that I may go to work with certainty.

Same, p. gj.

1755. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

We would we were able to give you an exact and precise definition
of the real limits of the river of Essequibo, such as you have several times
asked of us ; but we greatly doubt whetlier any precise and accurate definition
can anywhere be found. . . . Neither in the Treaty of Munster, (con-
cerning which you gave us your own opinions), nor in any other is there to our
knowledge anything to be found about this [limit of the Colony].

For which . . . reasons . . . one ought to proceed with all cir-
cumspection in defining the Company's territory, and in disputing about its
jurisdiction.

Still, . . . we have . . . thought it our duty in the present case, and
in our uncertainty . . . to make certain needed provisions. Same, p. 102,



1G6 BOUNDARIES.

IGNORANCE AS TO BOUNDARIES-BY THE DUTCH-(Continued).

1758. Stephen Hiz, Postholder in Cuyuni.

Asked if he was aware whether those places where he was posted [in
Cnyuui] belonged to the jurisdiction of Essequibo, and what length of time
this post had been maintained, he answered that he did not know whether it

be or not in the jurisdiction of Essequibo, but that the post had been maintained
in that place for many years. B. C, II, 166.

1758. Juan Bautista Brum.

Asked if he knew that place [Dutch Cujnni Post] to be in the jurisdiction
of Essequibo, and what length of time his Governor had maintained a guard
there, he answered that he did not know, but that the guard had been main-
tained for many years. Same, pp. 167-16S.

1759. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

We should like ... to be exactly informed where the aforesaid Post
on the River of Cuyuni, was situated ; for in the latest map made by you of the
Colony we have found, indeed, that river, but have not yet succeeded in finding
the Post itself. Furthermore, Avhat g-rouuds you niig'Iit be able to give us to
further support our riglit to the possession of the aforesaid Post. . . . We
should also like to have a more specific description of the Map of America by M.
d'Anville, to which you appeal ; for that gentleman has issued many maps deal-
ing with that continent, and in none of these which have come to our notice have
we been able to discover any traces of what you mention. Same, p. 77^.

1794. Governor-General in Essequibo.

We went on as far as the Creek of Monica, which up to now has been main-
tained to be the boundary of our territory with that of Spain, upon Avhat
basis I do not know. It will be of the utmost necessity to define that bound-
ary-line once for all. B. C, V, 147.

IGNORANCE AS TO BOUNDARIES-BY THE BRITISH.

1836. Instructions given Schomburgk by the Royal Geographical Society.

The expedition is to have two distinct objects, viz. — first, thoroughly to inves-
tigate the physical and astronomical geography of the interior of British
Guiana, and, secondly, to connect the positions thus ascertained with those of
Mr. Humboldt on the Upper Orinoco. V. C.-C, III, 242.

1850. Governor Barkly.

This Colony, where rivers of equal magnitude yet remain to be explored.

B. C, VI, 1S4.

1857. Lieutenant-Governor, Demerara.

As . . . Point Barima . . . is at the entrance of the only channel of
the Orinoco navigable by vessels of any great burthen, it is obviously desirable
that all doubt should be removed as to its rightful possession.

I have been as yet unable to trace any memorandum of the data upon
which Sir Robert Schouiburgk bused his survey, but no doubt such exists in
the archives of the Colonial Office. In Bouchenroeder's Map . . . it is dis-
tinctly laid down that a Dutch Post existed on the right bank of the River
Barima, thus indicating that stream as the natural and actual boundary in that
locality. Same, p. 204.



BOUNDARIES. 167

IGNORANCE AS TO BOUNDARI ES-BY THE BRITISH-(Continued).

1896. George L. Burr.

I have this morning again studied most carefully with glass and with naked
eye the final map— the so-called " Physical Map "... of Schomburgk, of
1844. There is surely on it no su^^estiou of boundary anywhere and I can-
not believe there ever has been. V. C.-C, III, joj.

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED.

. British Case.

The Venezuelan contention is that tlie boundary of British Guiana must
be drawn along- the west bank of the estuary of the Essequibo from the sea
to the junction of the Cuyuui with the Essequibo, thence along- the east bank
of the Esseciuibo to a point in the neighborhood of its confluence with the
Rupuuuui, thence following the watershed, between the Essequibo and the Ber-
bice and Corentin, till it meets the frontier of Brazil. B. C, 6.

. British Counter Case.

The dominions of the Spaniards ceased above the Amakuru. B. C.-C, 6g.

1637. Jacques Ousiel.

The Governor set forth that immediately after the conquest of Tobago he
had also resolved to carry his victorious arms against Essequibo. a fort lying in
his province of Guayaua. B. C, I, 86.

1656. Conditions for colonists.

The Directors of the Zeeland Chamber of the Chartered West India Com-
pany . . . having . . . found that not only the islands lying within
their province, but also the mainland coasts, and especially the Wild Coast

... are of such situation and soil that ever)-thing can be cultivated.

Same, p. ijy.

1734. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Five [horses] which could not be got into the canoes, had remained in the
Orinoco, and the other thirteen he had been compelled to leave at an Indian
Tillage between the Orinoco and the Post of Wacquepo. B. C, II, 17.

1735. West India Company.

We have decided hereby to give you [Commandeur in Essequibo] express or-
ders that, . . . you . . . forbid each and every one ... to take
any hand-arms or material of war from the river to Orinoco, or to any other
places not under the jurisdiction of the States-General, . . . and, if any one
be found to do it a second time, that he be banished from the river all the days
of his life.

We order that you henceforth cause to be examined all boats leaving the
river which excite the least suspicion.

Considering that, perhaps, a way might be found for exporting arms from the
Colony without using the river, you must also provide against this as much as
possible ; . . . we hereby authorize and order you to exercise strict super-
vision over all the ships which come into the river.

In case . . . anybody should undertake to export slaves from the river
we order you to forcibly prevent this. B. C, II, jg-20.



168 BOUNDARIES.

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED-Con-

tinued).

1747. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Two of our rovers, . . . have been murdered in the Upper Essequibo by
the Indians. . . . The loss of those people would not be a matter of very great
concern were it not that ... I fear that those tribes between the Amazon and
this river, . . . being extremely embittered, and fearing that vengeance
will be taken for this murder, may perhaps raid our highest-lying plantations,
. . . I have long foretold such a thing, and on that account have desired to
close the River of Essequibo, but have met with much opposition on account
of the profit which some draw from there through the Slave Trade. B. C, 11,52.

1747. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

By these channels, without entering the sea, one can navigate with small ves-
sels to the blockhouse called tlie Post, which the Dutch of Essequibo maintain
with three men and two small cannon, 10 leagues from tlie Colouy towards the
CIreat Ships* Mouth. And it is by this way that the Dutch make their voyages
when they are returning from the Orinoco in small vessels. Same, p. jj".

1753. Instructions to Iturriaga.

You will carefully note . . . the distance to the territory occupied by the
foreigners of the coast ; ... the opportunities and facilities the foreigners
possess of penetrating to the interior. Satne, p. c?j.

To dislodge the foreigners outhe coast of the Province of Guayaua.

Same, p. 86.

1755. Eugenio de Alvarado.

The forests which run from north to south, and separate the Province of
Guiana from the Dutch settlements. Same, p. 118.

1755. Christiaan Finett and Adolph von Roosen.

We, . . . did in the year 1754 go to the Rivers Wiiini and Barima which
lie at a latitude of 8^ north, and did inspect the same, and found there an immense
tract of good and fertile land which could be used for sugar, coffee, cocoa, rice
and other plantations; which rivers have on the east the Hollanders to the
River Essequibo, and on tlie west the river of Orinoco belonging to tlie
Spanish Crown. B. C, III, jjj.

1757. Minutes of letter as to Iturriaga's Mission.

Fugitive negroes from the Dutch colonies on the coast. B. C, II, ij2.

1757. Director-General in Essequibo.

Careful about the said Spaniards, and if by chance they are desirous of passing
to the River Cuyuni, or into any territories of our Colony. Same, p. 168.

The Chief of the [Cuyunij Post will take . . . care in apprehending all
fugitive slaves from the Colony. Same, p. i6g.

1758. Commandant of Guiana.

There are 12 or 13 leagues of coast between it [Monica Tost] and the
Colony. Same, p. 142.



BOUNDARIES. 1G9

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED-(Con-

tinued).

1758. Stephen Hiz, Postholder in Cuyuni.

Asked what the distance was from that place [Cuyuni Post] to the Colony of
Essequibo, he answered, etc. B. C, II, 166.

1758. Juan Bautista Brum, soldier at the Cuyuni Post.

Asked what the distance was from Cuiba [Post on the CuyuniJ to the
Colony of Essequibo, he answered, etc. Same, p. i6y.

1759. Director-General in Essequibo.

These so far-reaching pretensions [to dominion over Cuyuni] being of the
most extreme importance for this Colony, I do hope, and doubt not, that your
Honours will employ all due means, through their High Mightinesses, to obtain
proper satisfaction therefor.

I take the liberty earnestly to recommend the case in Cuyuni as being of the
greatest importance to this Colony, that river forming one of the three arms of
this river, and in which your Honours' indigo and coffee plantations, and a great
portion of Duynenburg, are situated. If the Spaniards hold possession thereof we
have them in the heart of the Colony. Same, pp. 171-172.



1759. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Map of South America by M. d'Anville, to which I referred, was sent to
me last year, at my request, by the Professor, now Rector, Magnificus Allemand
at Leyden, by the " Essequibo Welvaeren," and was at that time the last by that
man. The boundaries of the different nations upon this coast of (iuiana are
there distinctly marked. I had received two of them, but have, for the second
time, sent one to Orinoco. Same, p. /So.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

The boundaries of the Province of ftuayana are, on the east, the entire
coast, on which are situated the Dutch Colonies of Essequibo, Berbice, Dema-
rary, Corentin, Surinam, and further windwards, Cayenne belonging to the French ;
on the north, the banks of the Orinoco, which separates the Provinces of Cumana,
Barcelona, Caracas, Barinas, Santa Fee and Popayan, forming a semicircle and
turning to the east to seek its source in Lake Parime, ... on the south, by
the dominions of the Most Faithful King in Brazil, the boundaries of which are
unknown, as is likewise the said Province of Guayana, in respect of what it
contains in its centre. B. C, III, 61.

The Colony of Essequibo consists of sundry sugar estates, which the Dutch
have planted, to the distance of 30 leagues, on the banks of the River Essequibo,
beginning at its mouth, and also of some islands formed by the said river.

Same, p. 6j.

1764. Director-General in Essequibo.

There must also be considered the vast extent of the districts situated be-
tween the four Posts, without reckoning? those which are past the same, and
belonging- to the jurisdiction of the Honourable Company. Same, p. iii.



170 BOUNDARIES.

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED-(Con- \

tinued).

1776. J. C. von Heneman.

The Undersigned . . . has taken all possible pains ... to make
... a graphic map of a part of the Colony in the River Essequibo, . . .
which may be adequate and may make it possible for their Honours to take such
measures and give such orders as may conduce to the safety and the welfare of
the district and Colony of Essequibo . . . and . . . the prevention
of smuggling, together with the aid of the plantations established in this Colony
on the sea-coast, &c., &c., where ... a more accurate map . . . can
be made and the territory and rivers of the Colony of Essequibe can be
surveyed in a proper manner. Meanwhile there is provisionally appended . . .
an enumeration of what might be needed for the defending and garrisoning of
the River and Colony of Essequibo. B. C, IV, 167-168.

1784. Commandeur in Demerara.

Is of the greatest importance to this Colony and Essequibo ; a good strong
occupation post erected on the boundaries of Oronoque. B. C, V, 2j.

1788. Court of Policy.

The Court, after ripe deliberation, having noted that all the concessions of
this Colony and west sea-coast of this river possess 750 rods depth.

B. C.-C, App., 374.

1790. Governor of Guayana.
Berbice, Demerari, and Esquivo, [are] all foreign colonies situated on the

same coast at a distance of 45 leagues from the Boco de Navios of the Orinoco
River. V. C, II, 476.

1791. Court of Policy.

Petition of P. L. Diest, asking for 500 acres of land in this Colony or by
the creek Camoedi. [Note : Camoedi creek, between Essequibo and Pomeroon,
debouches into the Atlantic about 15 miles from the mouth of the Pomeroon.]

B.C-C.,App.,3S4.

1792. Court of Policy.

[Soldiers are to be sent] to the ground or boundary of Orinoco, in order to
preserve the right to our territory. B. C, V, ijj.

1793. Council of the Colonies.
He [Governor General of Essequibo] shall . . . send in ... a

circumstantial Report of all the lands granted, adding to it an accurate list of
lands not granted, and how the River Pomeroon [tiot Barima], as well as the
interior, can be turned to account. Satiw, p. 134.

1796. Spanish Declaration of War against Great Britain.

England has . . . showed . . . her views against my dominions
. . . by the conquest she has just made on the continent of South America
of the Colony and River of Demerari belonging to the Dutch. Same, p. 164.

1797. Captain-General of Caracas.
The lands which stretch from the Colony of Essequibo to Barima.

Same, p. 164.



I BOUNDARIES. 1^1

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED-(Con-
I tinued).

1803. Court of Policy.

18 silver circular collars, engraved with the lion, bearing the inscription,
" Batayian Republic of Essequibo and Demerary," around and above it, with
the necessar)' national ribbon. B, C, V, 180.

1803. G. A. W. Ruysch.

Proposed Charter for the Colonies of Essequibo and Demerara submitted to
the Council of the American Colonies and Possessions of tlie Batavian Repub-
lic. . . . June 22, 1803. Same.p. 1S2.

1804. Lieutenant-Governor Myers.

The distance from the Abari Creek on the east to the most distant mill-
, tary post at Morucco on the west is— [123 miles]. Safne, p. 186.

1823. William Hilhouse.

Give us [Indians] ... the means of self-defence, or we must follow the
Caribisce to a liappier laud beyond the falls. B. C, VI, j2.

The very existence of the Colony is precarious, except the immense belt of
forest that forms its southern boundary, be occupied by some friendly Power.

Same, p. jj.

1824. Proclamation of Lieutenant Governor.

The Militia of the United Colony shall consist of. . . . In Essequibo,
the first battalion shall consist of. . . . the second battalion, of all the in-
habitants from Schoonhoven Creek, including Tiger Island, with all the West
Sea Coast, including Pomeroon River. V. C.-C, III, 16Q-170.

1826. Court of Policy.

The Lieutenant Governor and . . . Court of Policy have deemed it
expedient to divide the United Colony of Demerary and Essequebo into ten
separate and distinct Parishes ... as follows, . . .

Parish No. 9, Saint John's. From Supenaam Creek to Capoey, on the West
Coast of Essequibo, including Tiger Island.

Parish No. 10. The Trinity. From Capoey Creek to Pomeroon, and as far
as the British settlements extend. Same, p. ij2.



1830. Lieutenant Governor.

The Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to appoint . . . Joseph
AUeyne . . . Assistant Protector of Slaves for the District from Capoey
Creek to the River Pomeroon, inclusive.

The Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to appoint . . . Major Peter

Rose . . . to be Deputy Fiscal in and over the District extending from

Capoey Creek to the River Pomeroon, inclusive. Same, p. lyj.

1833. British Case.

j In 1833 . . . the " SpJinish frontier " . . . [was] considered as sit-

I uated at the head of the Massaruni and Cuyuni Rivers. B. C, 114.

1833. Rev. L. Strong.

The Spanish frontier at the head of the Massaruni and Cayuni Rivers.

B. C, VI, JO.



1Y2 BOUNDARIES.

BOUNDARIES AS INFERRED FROM DESIGNATIONS USED-(Con.'

tinued).

1834. Win. Hilhouse.

A census of the population of this [Pomeroon] district to be taken from
the Itabo to the lowest settlemeut. B. C, VI, 32.

A Post defluitory of the jurisdiction ivcstward is indispensable, anc

. the Post of Pomeroon ought to be naaintained on a most respectabh

footing. Same, pp. 32-3J

1834. Lieutenant-Governor.

The Pomeroon district . . . includes the Morocco Creek. Same, p. ^y

1850. Combined Court of British Guiana.

County Essequibo. . . . VI. From Better Success to the limits of the
Colony, including- tlie Pomeroon river and its tributaries.

V. C.-C, III, 1S5

1856. Governor of British Guiana,

District No. i shall be subdivided into three Divisions, viz.:
Division No. 1. Tlie Arabian Coast, from the Western Extremity, iuclud
in^ Pomeroon, to the west bank of the Iterabisce Creek. Same, p. iSy



1858. Governor of British Guiana.

Division No. 1. The Arabian Coast, from the Western extremity, inclnd
ing" Pomeroon, to Plantation Good Hope, inclusive, and Tiger Island.

Same, p. 20J

1868. Governor of British Guiana.

Limits : District No. 1. The River Pomeroon and its tributaries and isl-
ands, and all settlements on the banks of the said river and its tributaries, and or
the said islands — as far as the settlements extend— and from the mouth of the
said river Pomeroon, to, and inclusive of, the village of Oueenstown, in the Parisl
of St. John. Same, p. 204.

1873. Governor of British Guiana.

Nortli Essequibo Coast. From the River Morucca, including all settlement!
on the right bank of the said river, as far as the settlements extend, and fron
the mouth of the said river Morucca, to and inclusive of the left bank of th(
Capoey Creek. Same, p. 206

1897. George L. Burr.

It is . . . clear that, from beginning to end of its existence, th(
charters of the Dutch West India Company never named the Orinoco as iti
limit. V. C.-C, II, 20

1898. E. F. im Thurn.

It appears to me that, taking the origin, history, and present state of the vari
ous tribes into consideration, the facts show that the Scliomburirk line coin
cides almost exactly with the limits within whicli the aboriginal Indian:
have been and are exclusively under Dutch and Drilish inlluence and clain
British nationality. B. C.-C, App., 408



I



BOUNDARIES.



173



;CTS OF JURISDICTION BY ONE NATION PASSED OVER WITHOUT
PROTEST BY THE OTHER.

. British Case.

After the British finally took possession of the Dutch Colonies, Magistrates
' were appointed to deal summarily with small oll'eiices, and the number cf in-
i stances of the exercise of jurisdiction, of which a record has been preserved, is
much greater, ... In the Dutcli period it was only in the case of the more
important crimes that the Dutch Courts assumed the task of trying the offender.

B. C, S6.
746. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The inhabitant C. Fmet, who has arrived from up the Cuyuni, has informed
me that the report of the Caribs made to me some months ago is true, namely,
that the Spaniards have established a Mission up in the said river, and have built
a small fort there, he himself having been there and spoken with the priest and
soldiery.

Next year, all the Indians from that direction are flying hither and praying for
protection. B. C, iJ, 4j-

[747. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

As to the forts already established in Cuyuni for the Spaniards, and those
they might wish to establish there hereafter, we have thought it best to await the
action to be taken thereon by the Assembly of Ten. Same, p. 49.

■747. West India Company (the Ten).

If . . . you can, by indirect means and without yourself appearing therein,
bringit about that the Spaniards be dislodged from the forts and bullding-s
which, according to your assertions, they have made upon the territory of the
Company, and can prevent them from spreading further in that quarter, you will
do well to accomplish this. Same, p. j/.

748. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I shall ... as soon as a favourable opportunity occurs, execute your
Honour's orders . . . concerning the Forts of the Spaniards.

Same,p.S5.
■ 748. Court of Justice.

Counsellor Buissoii having complained that one of his corials had been
unlawfully detained at the Company's trading-place at 3Ioruka, and praying to
have it returned . . .

The Indian being absent, the case is put off to next meeting. . . .
The Commandeur represented that a certain free Indian named Baraca,
belonging to the Company's trading-place in Moruka, had complained that a
person named Jean Pierre Maillard some time ago [etc.].

The Commandeur is authorized to send for the said Maillard and the Indian
woman. '5'«'«^' P- 56.

1I748. Commandeur in Essequibo.

A wanderer of the name of Pinet having gone up the River Cuyuni . . .
has made report to me that the Spaniards had not yet undertaken the building of
any forts or Missions as had been their intention lower down, but that they
cruelly ill-treated the Indians subject to us, continually taking them by sur-
prise in their dwellings and carrying them off, with their wives and children, to
send them to Florida; that he had spoken to the Chief of the Spaniards, . . .
but that the latter had replied that the whole of America belonged to the King
of Spain, and that he should do what suited himself, without troubling about
us. Same, p. 38.



174 BOUNDARIES.

ACTS OF JURISDICTION BY ONE NATION PASSED OVER WITHOUT
PROTEST BY THE OTH ER-(Contlnued).

1760. Court of Justice.

The Director-General brings to the knowledge of the Court that certain
complaiuts have reached him concerniug a certain wanderer named Nicolas
Stedevelt, who, without giving any notice, had gone to the Upper Cuyuiii,
l»a Bcroe-n Cajoeny] and . . . had not only ill-used the free Caribs, but
also bound and put them in irons, and taken a woman away.

After due delibration, it is resolved :

That as Nicolas Stedevelt never had any authority to act in such a manner,
... the Court hereby condemns Nicolas Stedevelt to pay a fine of 250
guilders. B. C, II, 1 82-1 S3.

1774. Director-General in Essequibo.

Both from English captains leaving the Essequibo (formerly the Colony)
in their barques or vessels and from private individuals the (Governor receives



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