Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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certain that the Guayanese, Guayquiries, Mapoyes, Agxiaricotes, and Salinas are
declared Cai'ibs, and consequently greater traitors, as they are those we have
in the Missions. The utmost excess appeared to be reached when a Salina captain
sold one of his uncles ... to the Caribs ; but this is surpassed by a chief of
these Guayquiries who has actually sold me to the Caribs of Caura.

B. C.-C, App., 172-173.

The worst is that a Guayquire Chief (not the one who sold me) through such
speeches, and through being the son-in-law of a Carib, wanted to kick me in the
presence of the said Don Feliz and the other soldiers of my escort. Same, p. 174.

1733. Government of Trinidad.

It must be borne in mind that the said Caribs are not natives of the Orinoco,
but intruders, and that Law 13, Title 2, Book 6, allows war to be made upon those
of that tribe who come to infest these provinces with armed force, and who eat
human flesh, and sanctions the enslavement of those above 14 years, except the
women. Same, p. 178.

1734. Father Joseph Gumilla.

This . . . only proved the means of aggravating the liaiig:hty and cruel
cliaracter of tlie Caribs. B. C, III, S6.

1735. Governor of Cumana.

The Carib nation, which is the most numerous and rules over all the other
nations, having arrogated to itself the title of the King of the Orinoco, and being
constantly at war with the other nations, as it has no other occupation nor way
of living, for they neither till nor cultivate their lands, but sustain themselves by
waging war against the other Indians, whom they enslave and carry away to sell
to the Dutch and other foreign nations ; there being years in which the slaves sold
by them are no less than from 600 to 700. V. C.-C, III, 42.

1739. Marquis de San Felipe y Santiago.

There are twenty leagues of river [below Angostura] on which many Caribs
are established, and especially those of Aguire, Caroni and Tacorapo, who carry
on traffic, the latter sailing up the Caroni, . . . communicate by land at no
great distance with the Indian Caribs, who are established above Angostura, on
the rivers Caura, Rio Tauca, Puruey, Curumutopo, and in other places.

B. C.-C, App., 1S6.

This Fort being taken, the garrison of soldiers will without doubt die or be
murdered, because the Caribs do not grant any kind of quarter. Same, p. iSj.

1747. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

The Caribs who dwell within the Orinoco occupy about 70 leagues of the
south bank from the mouth of the River Caroni, distant 6 leagues to the west
from Guayana, to the mouth of the River Caura. B. C, II, jj.



266 INDIANS.

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY THEMSELVES CARIBS-(Con-

tinued).

1747. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

As in the 90 and more leagues [up the Orinoco] from the mouth of theCaroni
the Caribs hold sway, the navigation is dangerous for those who are not their
friends, or who are not accompanied by a force strong enough to repulse their
attack.

The very many attacks on the Missions, their desolation and destruction, are
proofs of the dislike with which they [Caribs] regard them.

The threats of the Carib.s, which some Indians fear, their suggestions, which
perturb others, and the free life of the forest, which appeals to all those recently
settled, are likewise causes of the sudden dispersement which they have been
wont to suffer. B. C, II, 34.

1753. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

I know by experience that the Caribs of the Orinoco will not abandon their
territory to come and dwell in other parts of the banks of the river, however much
we may flatter them with advantageous offers, nor will they condescend to admit
missionaries. Same, p. go.

1755. Don Eugenio de Alvarado.

Assuming then that the savage Carib tribe is spread along the tributaries of
the Orinoco, equally towards the east and towards the west, and likewise in
the woods of the southern slope which form the defence of Essequibo, it is evi-
dent that they will be continually going to and fro through all parts, attacking
the other tribes who inhabit both banks of the Orinoco, and also in the interior,
the Missions of the Capuchin Fathers and of the Observants, in order to capture
their poitos and destroy by fire and sword those who are already reduced.

Same, p. log.

With them [Caribs] Chiefs are nothing more than a union of persons of both
sexes, composed of sons, brothers, first cousins, and nephews, who form an asso-
ciation and occupy a certain district with their ranches and he is considered the
most powerful among them who can bring together the greatest number of
people. They have no respect or subordination whatever to the Headman, and
have no other laws than those of their own fancy. Same, p. ill.

1758. Prefect of Missions.

I am unable to name all the nations which the Caribs pursue with the object
of enslaving them. But the tribes dwelling on our frontiers, and the most
generally known, are the Barinagotos, Maos, Macos, Amarucotos, Camaracotos,
and Anaos, Paravinas, Guaicas, etc. Same, p. 14^.

The Paraman where the Caribs dwell in great numbers.

This slave trade has so completely changed the Caribs that their only occupa-
tion is constantly going to and returning from war, selling and killing the Indians
of those nations already mentioned. And not only the Caribs of the forests, but
even those of the Missions participate in these wars. Same, p. 148.

1760. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

The Caribs from the Paragua had proceeded to the River Parime ; some
from Caura had likewise gone to the neighborhood of Essequibo, and the rest
were moved to follow them. Same, p. 1S4.



INDIANS. 267

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY TH EMSELVES-CARI BS-(Con-

tinued.)

1761. Prefect of Missions.

In the year 1758 the Mission of Terepi was also lost. The Caribs of whom
it was composed, 48 in number, had fled the preceding year, but were retaken,
and showed signs of perseverance. They were established in the same place;
but moved by their iucoustaut character, they again fled. V. C, II, sjg.

1 76 1. Don Jose Diguja.

The Caribs, a ferocious and warlike tribe overrunning all this extensive
province [of Guayana] and part of those of Barcelona, Caracas and Santa Fe.

Same, p. J42.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

Various separate Carib Indians, ... in consequence of their roving and
warlike nature, go long distances from their settlements.

In some of the said ranges, even of those which are below the equinoctial
line, the cold is excessive, for which reason the said Caribs trade little therein,
being afraid of getting benumbed, as they say. B. C, III, 60.

1765. Director-General in Essequibo.

I had received tidings from Upper Massaruni that the Carib nation was
at war with that of the Acuways, and that the latter had massacred all the
women and children in a Carib village on the Massaruni. Same, p. iig.

1768. Director-General in Essequibo.

We are at piesent in very precarious circumstances, the Acuways and
Caribs being now in open war. Same, p. 178.

1770. Postholder in Cuyuni.

The greater part of the Caribs have departed from Cuyuni to Masseroeny to
make dwelling places there [Moruca] and some have gone to Upper Siepanamen
to live there. B.C., IV, 76.



1776. Director-General and Councillors of Essequibo and Demerary.

Some nation which, according to old custom or their relations with us, it was
not permitted to bring to slavery, such as the Carib, Arrowak, Warrow and
Akowa nations. Same, p. 141.



1785. Diary of the Commander of Revenue Cutter in Orinoco.

I ordered them to be asked whether there were any negroes living at
Amacura with Carib Indians and they said there were none, nor even Carib In-
dians there.

At the mouth of the Barima . . . some Guaruano Indians had a hut
inland; and . . . some Guaruano Indians appeared . . . and . . .
they told me that they were Indians from Sacupana fleeing from the Carib In-
dians, and that on Barima creek and Amacuro there were about three thousand
Indians fleeing from the severity (the floods ?) of the Orinoco.

V.C.-C.,III,332-333'



268 INDIANS.

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY THEMSELVES CARIBS-(Con-

tinued).

1802. Commandant of Berbice, Demerary and Essequibo.

The interior of Guyana is inhabited by various tribes of Indians, who are gen-
erally termed " Buks." Those residing nearest the sea, and, consequently most
frequently come among the settlers, are the Arawaak, the Akawye, the Worrows
and the Charibbs. But of late very few of them have made their appearance,
and it is to be apprehended that this circumstance has arisen from dissatisfaction.
It would, however, be better policy to keep these people in good humour, and
as their wants are but few, and of the most trivial description, their attachment
may be secured at a very small expense. B. C, V, 172-17 j.

1 81 3. D. van Sistema.

The Charaibes are generally understood to be the most warlike, but they are
less numerous than the Maconcies ; it is, nevertheless, certain that they all
acknowledge the Charaibe Manerwa to be their Chief in time of v/ar.

Same, p. 21 j.

1823. William Hilhouse.

The Indian tribes within the limits of the Colony are as follows: — Caribisee,
Accaway, Arawaak, Warrow, Macouchi, Indians of the Savan, which, though
nominally Arawaaks, have some peculiarities which constitute them a separate
tribe — Paramuna.

The Caribisee are generally reputed the most warlike ; but it is certain that,
at the present day, they have no ascendency over the other tribes. Within this
Colony they are far from numerous, and reside so far in the interior that they are
almost totally unacquainted with the use of firearms. They cultivate the soil,
and are more stationary than the other tribes, and though of good stature, they
are less able to bear the fatigue of active and prolonged service. They, however,
claim precedence, which the other nations do not appear to object to. They are
found in the Cayoni, Upper Essequibo, Upper Pomeroon, and Manawareena, and
Wackpow Creeks, but not one in the Demerary River. B. C, VI, 26.

1833. Protector of Indians in Pomeroon.

In the district of your reporter the principal tribes who inhabit nearest the
cultivation are Caribs, Arrowacks, Warrows, and some Spanish Indians.

Same, p. 48.

1836. Postholder in Pomeroon.

There are three tribes of Indians within twenty-four hours' journey of this
Post, say Warrau, Arawacks and Caribs. There are in all about from 700 to
8oo, including males and females. There are also about from 200 to 250 Span-
ish Indians residing about six hours' distance from this Post up the Morocco
Creek. Same, p. 61.



1840. R. H. Schomburgk.

Of the Caribi, the once widely-extended people, . . . there remain but
few in British Guiana.

The Caribis inhabit the lower Mazaruni and Cuyuni ; about 100 are located
at the Corentyn, 80 at the Rupununni, 30 at the Guidaru, and their wliole num-
ber . . . does not at present surpass 300. V. C, III, JI4.



INDIANS. 269

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY TH EMSELVES-CARI BS-(Con-

tinued).

1848, W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

Barama is a large tributary of the Winey River, inhabited by Warrows,
Carrabeese, and Accaway or Waika Indians. B. C, VI, 172.

1883. E. F. im Thurn.

The population of the whole district is very scanty and is very scattered.
Most of the inhabitants are Red men — True Caribs chiefly on the Barama and
upper Barima, Ackawoi on the Morooka and upper Waini, Arawaaks on the
Morooka, and many Warraus everywhere at the mouths of the rivers.

V. C, III, 317.
1888. E. F. im Thurn.

Different tribes of Indians living within the [Pomeroon Judicial] district, as well
as the special parts inhabited by each,

True Caribs [dwell at] Pomeroon, upper part ; Manawarin ; Barama ;
Barima, upper part. B. C, VII, 2^7.

1897, George L. Burr.

For the earliest period ... the Waini, unHke the rivers to the east of
it, was the home, not of the mild Arawak, but of the €arib.

V. C.-C, II, no.

Though Arawaks, like Raleigh's pilot, lived scattered among the Warrows of
the coast to the west of the Pomeroon, yet, according to all the early narrators,
this region was mainly Carib ; and they agree ... in making the Pome-
roon, or its little neighbor, the Moruca, the first occupied by the Arawaks.

Same, p. 116.

1898. Michael McTurk.

The Carib tribe, which can be divided into a considerable number of sub-
tribes, such as the Macussies, Arckunas, Ackawois or Waikas, and others, all of
which use different dialects of the Carib language, occupy all the interior parts of
the Colony beyond the country occupied by the Arrawacks. The true Caribs
are to be found more or less on all the large rivers of the Colony, and as far
inland on the Essequibo as Apoeterie, at the mouth of the Rupununi. They are,
however, more numerous on the Barama, Barima, and Pomeroon than elsewhere.

B. C.-C, App., 405.
1898. E. F. im Thurn.

There are three chief Indian stocks in this part of Guiana, the Warow, Ara-
wak, and Carib, each using a distinct language, and that of these stocks at least
one, the Carib, is distinguishable into a number of sub-tribes— Macusis, Areku-
nas, Akawois or Waikas, Partamonas, and others— each of which uses a dialect of
the stock Carib language.

The geographical position of these tribes within the area seems to have been
much the same in the earliest recorded times as now, and is almost certainly con-
nected with the history of their respective migrations into the country. The
Warrows . . . represent the earliest occupiers . . . The Arawaks,
probably somewhat later comers, who formerly occupied some or all of the West
Indian islands, were gradually forced southwards, in front of the great Carib
migration, down that chain of islands and on the mainland. . . . Lastly, the
great migration of Carib tribes came in the wake of the Arawaks.

Same, p. 40S.



270 INDIANS.

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY THEMSELVES-MAKUSIS.

. British Case.

The last-named tribe [Maknsis] was much raided by the Caribsand Akawois,
and it was from this nation that the Indian slaves, or "poitos," were largely ob-
tained. What precise localities this tribe occupied it is difficult to trace, but in
the year 1833, when their numbers had become greatly reduced, they were found
at the headwaters of the Essequibo. B. C, g-io.

1765. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Postholder of Arinda states that ... he had intended to proceed
up the River Rupununi, but had found the Maconssis and Wapissanes, the two
nations living there, at war. B. C, III, 120.

1771. Commandant of Guiana.

Mount Dorado . . . adjoining the aforesaid lake [Parime] at the mouth
of the creek of Guaricuru, inhabited or guarded by the Macusi, Arecuna, and
many other nations of savage Indians from the interior of this Province.

B. C, IV, 97.

1790. Lopez de la Puente.

It would be much to our advantage to acquire the friendship of the Macnsis,
a considerable tribe, and the largest that dwells in the interior of the country.
This would not be difficult by means of the Guaycas, by making them some
presents, such as looking-glasses and other bagatelles of that kind.

B. C, V, 121.

1823. William Hilhouse.

The Macoiichis. — These Indians are few in number, and but little known.
They live in great terror of, and alm.ost in subjection to, the Caribisce and Acca-
ways, who possess many slaves of this tribe, and in former times trafficked in
them with the whites. They are sulky and timorous, but cruel and revengeful,
and generally dip their weapons of offence in the Worali poison, which is sup-
posed to be the reason why the other tribes have leagued against them to their
almost total extirpation.

They are neither numerically or physically calculated for any service.

B. C, VI, 27.

1839. Rev. Thomas Youd.

I have visited the Indians who lie still further south of Pirara, . . . and
between the Rivers Essequibo and Rupununy.

The different tribes which I have met are the Maciisic, Wapishana, Attorie,
and Taruma nations, but south of all these the Wie-Wie tribe are settled upon
the source of the Essequibo. Same, pp. 64-6J.

1840. R. H. Schomburgk.

The most powerful tribes now extant are the Maeusis and Arecunas, who in-
habit the extensive plains on our southern and southwestern boundary.

V. c, 111,314.

WARROWS.

. British Case.

The principal Indian tribes inhabiting the territory known as Guiana were the
Caribs, the Akawois or Waikas, the Arawaks, and the Warows or Guaraunos.

B. C, 9.



INDIANS. 271

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY TH EMSELVES-WARROWS-(Con-

tinued).

1 666. Major John Scott.

In little villages by the sea-side lives about 400 families of Waroocs in Ma-
roea and Wiiia, and in the islands of Oranoque River and near the mouth of that
river, lives about 5,000 families of Warooes. B. C, I, i6g.

1764. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Warouws, who inhabit the islands in the mouth of the Orinoco.

B. C, III, Jir.

1767. British Case.

The Warows originally inhabited the swampy morasses and islands in the
mouth of the Orinoco, as well as the lower reaches of the Barima. ... In
1767 they migrated in great numbers to the Barima district. ... In this
locality they still remained after the British had taken over the Dutch Colonies,
and are to be found there to the present day.

The Warows had none of the warlike characteristics of the Caribs and
Akawois. They are described as a nation of boat-builders . . . they
were expert fishermen, and it was by them that the noted Maracot fishery of
the Lower Orinoco was kept up. The women were skilful in the manufacture
of baskets and . . . hammocks, . . . Under the British Government
this tribe became more industrious, and contributed more labour to the sugar
plantations than any Indian tribe of Guiana, and though despised by the other
nations, and regarded as hewers of wood and drawers of water, they proved
to the planter the most useful of labourers. B. C, 11-12.

1776. Director-General and Councillors of Essequibo and Demerary.

Some nation which, according to old custom or their relations with us, it was
not permitted to bring to slavery, such as the Carib, Arrowak, Warrow and
Akowa nations. B. C, IV, 141.

1802. Commandant of Berbice, Demerary and Essequibo.

The interior of Guayana is inhabited by various tribes of Indians, who are
generally termed " Buks." Those residing nearest the sea, ... are the
Arawaak, the Akawye, the Warrows and the Charibbs. But of late very few of
them have made their appearance, and it is to be apprehended that this . . .
has arisen from dissatisfaction. It would, however, be better policy to keep these
people in good humor, and . . . their attachment may be secured at a very
small expense. ^- ^•' '^' ^7^~^73-

181 3. Acting Governor Codd.

Nothing in the world, for example, would induce a Warrow Indian to quit the
district which alike furnishes him with fish and his beloved eta, or wild cabbage.

Same, p. 213.

1823. William Hilhouse.

The Warrows.— This is a nation of shipwrights. From their infancy they are
trained to the construction of canoes and corials, and it is truly astonishing with
what nicety, perseverance, and ingenuity they excavate the most immense trees
into vessels of the most perfect symmetry, and, without any instrument but the
axe, form the hull capable of a velocity of motion superior to any produced by
the rules of European art or practice. -"• ^•' ^■'' ^7'



272 INDIANS.

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY THEMSELVES-WARROWS-(Con-

tinued).

1823. William Hilhouse.

Their model appears to be the body of a fish, say the querryman ; but they
reverse the propelling motion, making the head of the canoe the tail of the fish,
and vice-versa.

They are of middling stature, and very dark complexion. They derive their
subsistence from the water, being all expert fishermen. Their cultivation is very
trifling; their food being principally fish with few vegetables, and, at a pinch,
they make a kind of bread of the pulp of the Eta tree.

They are, for Indians, very industrious, but of filthy habits, and of no great
personal courage, but, when sober, docile and submissive. They are great drunk-
ards, and, when drunk, excessively quarrelsome and outrageous. On expeditions
they may be useful where the country is swampy and overflowed, as they are very
expert in forming temporary crafts, and are almost amphibious ; but they have
little knowledge of fire-arms. B. C, VI, 27.

1833. Protector of Indians in Pomeroon.

In the district of your reporter the principal tribes who inhabit nearest the
cultivation are Caribs, Arrowacks, Warrows, and some Spanish Indians.

Same, p. 48.

1836. Postholder in Pomeroon.

There are three tribes of Indians within twenty-four hours' journey from this
Post, say Warraii, Arawacks and Caribs. There are in all, about from 700 to
800, including males and females. There are also about from 200 to 250 Spanish
Indians residing about six hours' distance from this Post up the Morocco Creek.

Same, p. 61.

1840. R. H. Schomburgk.

The Arawaaks and Warraus live at the coast regions, and their small settle-
ments extend scarcely one hundred miles inland ; I estimate their number at
3,150. V. C, 111,314.

1 841. R. H. Schomburgk.

The Kaituma is inhabited by Warrau and Waika [Akaway] Indians.

B. C, VII, 20.

There are several Warrau settlements on the banks of the Camwavu. . . .
The Manari is mostly inhabited by Warraus, but there is a settlement of Waikas.

Same, p. 22,

1846. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Worrow Indians who are the most numerous, being, as they are, the
principal inhabitants of Morocco Creek and its tributaries, as also of the Rivers
Winey, Bareema, and Amacoora and their various streams. B. C, VI, 14^,

1848. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Worrows are likewise useful in the fabrication of corials and canoes,
and the celebrated Spanish launches, sometimes so large as to carry seventy per-
sons, are made by them also.

The Worrows . . . inhabitiug the Rivers Winey, Bareema, and Auia-
curu. Same, p. ijo.



INDIANS. 273

THE INDIANS CONSIDERED BY TH EMSELVES-WARROWS-(Con-

tinued).

1848. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The WoiTOWS . . . are designated . . . the hewers of wood and
carriers of water. B. C, V/, lyr.

Barama is a large tributary of the Winey River, inhabited by Worrows,
Carrabeese, and Accaway or VVaika Indians. Same, p. 1^2.

1883. E. F. im Thurn.

The population of the whole district is very scanty and is very scattered.
Most of the inhabitants are Red men — True Caribs chiefly on the Barama and
upper Barima, Ackawoi on the Morooka and upper Waini, Arawaks on the
Morooka, and many Warraus everywhere at the mouths of the rivers.

V. C, III, 317.
1888. E. F. im Thurn.

Different tribes of Indians living within the [Pomeroon Judicial] district, as
well as the special parts inhabited by each.

Warraus [dwell at ] Amakooroo ; Barima, near mouth ; Morooka.

B. C, VII, 237.

1897. George L. Burr.

Though Arawaks, like Raleigh's pilot, lived scattered among the Warrows
of the coast to the west of the Pomeroon, yet, according to all the early narrators,
this region was mainly Carib ; and they agree ... in making the Pomeroon,
or its little neighbor, the Moruca, the first occupied by the Arawaks .

V. C.-C, II, 116.

1898. Michael McTurk.

The aboriginal Indians who inhabit the country between the Orinoco and
the Essequibo, although apparently divided into a large number of groups, may
be classified into three principal stocks, namely, the Warraus, the Arrawacks,
and the Caribs, each of which use a distinct language. The Warraus appear
to have been the earliest occupiers of the country, and they inhabited, as they
still do, the swamps both in the actual delta of the Orinoco and eastwards of
that river almost as far as Pomeroon. B, C.-C, App., 404.

1898, E. F. im Thurn.

There are three chief Indian stocks in this part of Guiana, the W^irow, Ara-
wak, and Carib, each using a distinct language, and that of these stocks at least
one, the Carib, is distinguishable into a number of sub-tribes — Macusis, Areku-
nas, Akawois or Waikas, Partamonas, and others — each of which uses a dialect of
the stock Carib language.

The geographical position of these tribes within the area seems to have
been much the same in the earliest recorded times as now, and is almost cer-
tainly connected with the history of their respective migrations into the country.
The Warows . . . represent the earliest occupiers of the country of whom
any trace remains. At the first arrival of the Europeans they occupied, as they
still do, the swamps both in the actual deha of the Orinoco, and eastward of that