Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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&c., for the purpose of preventing the flight of slaves on that side . . .
was agreed to. Same, p. 1S4.

1777. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

We confirm by these presents the orders already given several times to culti-
vate friendly feelings witli tlie Indians, which same may be of great service
in recovering fugitive slaves, and . . . that they may be always at the
service of the Government, upon which the security of both colonies so greatly
depends, V. C.-C, III, 297.



. Venezuelan Counter Case.

But even this friendship was by no means either constant or exclusive. The
Caribs wei'e at times the friends, but at times also the enemies of the
Dntch. They attacked Dutch settlements and posts ; they allied themselves
with French and English against the Dutch ; the very Barima Caribs
. . . were the ones who guided the French from the Barima to the Pomeroon
in 1689, and who helped in the destruction of the new Dutch Colony there.

V. C.-C, 104-/0J.
1638. Anonymous letter in the archives at Seville.

They [Dutch] are settled in Amacuro . . . with a great population of
Carib Indians ... It is known from Aruac Indians that although it is
true that they are in peaceful communication with Guayana [Santo Thome]
they also receive bribes from the Dutch, and have trade and intercourse with
them. B. C, /, iij.

1662. Governor of Trinidad.

These foreign nations hold at their disposal all the Indian natives of these
Windward coasts. Same, p. ijj.

1681. Commander in Essequibo.

We know as yet . . . of no war, nor even of rumours thereof, and
now live on satisfactory terms with the natives of this country.

Same, p. 184.
1724. Court of Policy in Essequibo.

The Court received a Report . . . that the Mag'anouts nation had killed
all the Caribs and Akawois they could get hold of, and that those whom they
captured alive they sold at other places . . . further . . . that that nation
intended to come and kill the Christians and ruin this river at the first oppor-
tunity. B. C, II, 2.

1750. Commandeur in Essequibo.

It is the height of imprudence in the colonists that, . . . they . . .
put into the hands of that warlike [Carib] nation, who beyond dispute are
the bravest and most numerous on this coast, the weapons which in future
may brln^ about their own destruction. Same, p. 6y.

1755. Director-General in Essequibo.

As I now write this I have staying at my house the chiefs of the Panacay
tribe u]) in the Cuyuni. I must absolutely keep tliem friendly, for many
weighty reasons. Same, p. iig.

The nation of the Acuways, which is very strong in the interior, and some of
whose villages, both in Essequibo and in Massaruni and Demerary are situated
next to our plantations, commenced by attacking the dwellings of some free
Creoles belonging to the plantation Oosterbeek, and massacring those they
found there. Same, p. 120.

1758. Fray Jose de Therriaga.

It is well that the Caribs should keep withdrawing from the Cuyuni, even
if it be through fear of the Dutch. V. C, II, j2j.



1758. Santiago Bonaldes.

That he made use of the Caribs who infest these parts, and they conducted
them in a friendly manner, taking all care that they should neither be observed
nor heard, to a certain place (which he does not remember), where they met a
white Dutchman.

All being arranged in good order [for the attack on the Cuyuui Post]. (In
which disposition he took the opinion and judgment of the Caribs themselves.)

B. C, II, 139.

1758. Juan Jose Fragas.

That from thence they [the Spaniards en route to the Cuyuni Post] departed
in conip.any with some Carib Indians. Same, p. 162.

1762. Director-General in Essequibo.

So lona: as we have the good fortune to stand well with the Indians (and
I shall always try to remain so), and keep them under our protection, so long, I
say, we need liave no fear. Same, pp. 211- 212.


. British Case.

The Company was obliged in very early times to interfere to protect tlie
natlTes from the whites. B. C, Sj.

In their protectorate over and government of the Indian tribes, the Dutch se-
cured the loyal service of those tribes in duties of a military or quasi-military

The Indians, however, acted not only as the allies and soldiers of the Dutch
but also as their servants, being employed by them, as afterwards by the British,
for various duties of an industrial character. Same, p. pj.

The districts of Amakuru and liarima were occupied by Caribs and other
Indians, who acknowledged the Protectorate and jurisdiction of the Dutcli ;

the whole of this region was dealt with in all respects as an integral portion of
tbe Colony of British Guiana. Same, p. 114.

When ill-treated by Dutch traders they [Indians of Barima] complained to
the Court of Justice for the Colony of Essequibo. Same, p. 113.

The Dutch West India Company received authority from the States-General
to establish, and, in fact, established, a Protectorate over the Indian tribes of

The Dutch and British employed the Indians living within the territory now
in dispute in services both of a military and industrial character.

Subsidies were for many years paid to the Indians for military services by the
Dutch and British Governments respectively. Same, p. iig.



1750. Court of Justice.

His Honour . . . stated that some Caribs from the River Massaruni
were come to complain of the colonists Pieter Marchal. . . . said Marchal,
. . . had made them and their wives work for nearly four months without
giving them any payment.

The accused ... is sharply admouished to leave the Indians there
unmolested in their liberties, and to duly pay them for their services rendered.

Complaints concerning similar ill-treatment of the Caribs by Pieter de Bakker
being confirmed . . . Pieter de Bakker is to be reprimanded.

B. C, II. 64.
1750. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I had the honour to give your Honours information of the intolerable and in-
excusable dealings of some of our itinerant traders above in the River Essequibo,
which caused me to fear that the nations there would be induced to revenge
themselves. ... I have never been able to obtain proof . . . sufficient
for a Court so as to be able to punish any of them according to their deserts.

Wherefore, being convinced of the justice of the Indians' complaints, I closed
the river, and forbade individuals trading there.

Jan Stok . . . committed horrible enormities there [Upper Essequibo].
Accompanied by a party of Orinoco Caribs, he attacked the nations our friends
close by the Post Arinda, caused all the men to be killed, and carried the women
and children away as slaves, ruined all the provision gardens, and perpetrated
many unheard of things.

In a word, they hare made the Indians desperate, ivho intend to take
vengeance therefor, so that the otlier traders >vlio are still up tiie river are
in extreme peril of life, and the plantations up the Essequibo run the risk of
being deserted. Saine, p. 64.

The wantonness of the rovers, or traders, up in Essequibo should also be
forcibly restrained, for by it the tribes are g-reatly embittered. The wanton-
ness goes so far that certain of these do not hesitate even to go with some tribes
to make war upon others, or greatly to maltreat them, often carrying off free
people and selling them as slaves, and abusing the Indian w'omen. Satnc, p. 6j.

1755. Director-General in Essequibo.

Up to the present no plantation lias been attacked except those wliose
owners, according to common report, are accused of having: grossly ill-
treated that nation, and who were the cause of several Acuways being killed
by the Caribs. Same, p. 121.

1762. Court of Justice.

Serious complaints had been made to him concerning Nicholas Stedevelt and
the free Indians, to the effect that he, Stedevelt, had gone so far as to wound an
Indian up the Essequibo so . . . that the man had died therefrom the following
day, . . . His Excellency considering such conduct likely to lead to many
evil and dangerous results, had caused the said Stedevelt to be apprehended.

It was decided ... to send away the aforesaid Stedevelt by the
Essequibos Welvaeren . . . on account of his frequent ill-treatment of
the free Indians, for which he has already received correction in former
times. B. C.-C, App., 208.



1769. Commancleur in Demerary.

No one , . . is more convinced how advantageous and necessary the
friendship of the Indians is to this Colony, because so long as we are fortunate
enough to have them living around us we are quite safe inland, and have nothing
to fear concerning the desertion of our slaves. I therefore neglect no possible
opportunity of cultivating the friendship of the same, and of protecting: them
from all the ill-treatment and tyranny of the whites, . . . and in this
way I have made myself so beloved by them that I can now get tliem to do
whateTer 1 wish. B. C, IV, j.

1785. Court of Policy.

He shall take good care that the post be kept in proper order ; shall, for the
benefit and welfare of the Post, treat all Indians properly ; shall enrol and
take into protection about the Post as many of them as his means shall allow ;
and, besides, shall not suffer any wrong to be done (by any person, no matter
who) to any belonging to these tribes. B. C, V, sg.

He shall not be at liberty to go from the Post for the purpose of carr}ing on
any trade or commerce among the Indians, but shall do his utmost that the
trade with the Indians for the profit of this Colony be more and more estab-
lished. Sa7)u, p. JO.


. British Case.

As a result of the constant intercourse between the Dutch and the Indians,
there sprung up a language known as " Creole Dntch," which, when the British
came into possession of the conquered territories, formed the best and most con-
venient form of communication between the settlers and the native population.

B. C, gd-gj.

This language was spoken by Indians of the Massaruni, Essequibo and
Cuyuni as the language next to their own best understood by them, and was used
by them in their intercourse with the settlers. Same, p. gj.

All the Indian Captains in the Barima (including the Aruka) and Waini
. . . The Creole Dutch was spolten among them. Samc,p. iiy.

The Indians in the district up to the Amakuru speak English as well as
their own language, and the Spanish language is not spoken by any Indian
tribes except the refugees from Venezuela settled on the Moruka. Same, p. 162.

. British Counter Case.

Creole-Dutch was also the common language among the Indians in the
centre of the Colony (/. e. in the valleys of the Cuyuni, Massaruni. and Central
Essequibo) so far as they used any language but their own. . . . English
and Creole-Dutch are the only languages, except their own, used by Indians
in any part of tlie territory now in dispute, with the exception of tlic Span-
ish Arawaks. B. C.-C, 26.




1768. Court of Justice.

His Excellency reported that it would be necessary to appoint and administer
an oath to a permanent interpreter of tlie Indian lan^nag:es, and also to give
him a small salary, and for this purpose he proposes the person of Jean Baptiste,
which is agreed to by the Court. B. C.-C, App., 216.

1779. Don Jose Felipe de Inciarte.

I left the two Guaraunos Indians we captured in Moruca at the first settle-
ment, having treated them well. . . . They showed that they were highly
gratified, and the younger, who was very sensible and handsome, spoke English
and Dutch, and told me to pass where they lived on my return, ... I thanked
him for his offers, though they can not be relied upon, since the Guaranna tribe
is the most inconstant and variable among almost all the tribes that occupy all
the creeks of the Orinoco. Same, p. 2J4.

1833. Rev. L. Strong.

Mr. Armstrong [of Bartika Mission] has also regularly visited the settlements
of Indians in the Essequibo and Massaruni Rivers alternately every week,
expounding the scriptures ... to some in English, to others through
an interpreter in the Creole Dutch. B. C, VI, 4g.

1836. Postholder in Pomeroon.

I do not understand any of the Indian languages, but can make them under-
stand me in the Creole Dutch. Same, p. 61.

1836. Postholders in Boeraseri.

I have been Postholder about a month. I can converse with the Indians in
the Dutch Creole language, which is generally understood by them.

B. C.-C, App., 276.

1836. Postholder in Waibana.

Generally, all of the Indians up here speaking English and Creole Dutch,

I can converse with them very well. Same, p. 2j6.

1836. Postholder in Berbice.

Can converse with the Indians in the Creole language, which is understood
by all of them. Same, p. 276.

1839. Dr. George Ross.

I took down the statement of the woman Meea Caria under the disadvantage,
however, of an interpreter who could speak very little English. Most of the
questions and answers had, therefore, to be communicated through the medium
of C reole Dutch. ^a">e, p. 2S6.

1840. R. King, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Postholder [of Fort Island] can converse with the Indians of the Essequibo,
most of whom speak Creole Dutch. . . . [Ampa] Postholder can converse
with the Indians in Dutch Creole. Same, p. 2g2.

1 841. R. H. Schomburgk.

The Arawaak chieftain Jan [of Amacura region] . . . spoke the Creole
Dutch perfectly. B. C, VII, 14-15.




1850. Sir Henry Barkly.

Their chiefs to this day bear the names of Jan, Hendrick, or the like ; their inter-
course with Europeans is still carried on mainly in the Creole Dutch ; . . .
even in their own dialect the Dutch names for things derived from abroad (rum,
gunpowder, &c ,) are incorporated. B. C, VI, 1S4.

1897. Sir Henry Barkly.

The proof of the long-continued occupation of the adjacent region [Barima] by
the Dutch ... is clearly shown by the distinct indications of the influence they
had exercised over the Indian population. The Chiefs of the Indian tribes then
as at this day bore the names of Jan, Hendrik, and many other Dutch names.
Their conversation and transactions with Europeans were largely carried on in
the Creole Dutch laiigiiage, and even in their own dialects the Dutch names spoken
of, for instance, rum, gunpowder, &c., were incorporated. B. C, VII, 2j6.


. British Case.

The English and Dutch .allied themselves with the Carib Indians against
the Spaniards. B. C, 2j.

. [1897] George L. Burr.

The French seem to have maintained for years their alliance with the Barima
Caribs against the Dutch. V. C.-C, II, 124.

161 3. Governor of Margarita.

Vargas, Governor of Margharita, . . . reported that he had information
. . . that . . . not far from Margharita, on the coast of the mainland,
some English had settled, witli the favour of the Caribs, with the intention of
cultivating tobacco.

He gives information of the settlements [of English and Caribs] which are
being made in the island of Trinadad and coast of San Thome of Guiana, where,
with the friendship of the Caribs, they are extensively cultivating tobacco.

The English, who were making settlements on the rivers in union with
the Caribs. B. C, I, jj.

1614. Don Juan Tostado.

For if they [Dutch] had settled there [on the Corentine] as they had
resolved to do, it would be a great injury to the friendly Arnac natives to

have the Dutch and Caribs so close to them. Sa/ne, p. jy.

Some natives of the island [Trinidad] brought news that they had seen a
number of Carib pirogues on the southern side of the island in company with
some Flemish vessels, which are those that the Flemish in the fort [on the Coren-
tine river] were expecting in order to load tiiem with the tobacco they had prepared.
They are now seeking revenge.

It is proved by the information of six witnesses that this island is generally
surrounded by the Flemish and Caribs both by sea and land, so that the in-
habitants live in constant want of many things which they cannot go and fetch for
fear of the enemy, the Caribs even coming as far as the city to rob and ill-treat
them, which comes of their stn>ng' alliance with the Flemish, always moving
together as they did when they attacked the Aruacas. Same, p. jJ.




1615. Report of Council to Spanish King.

If they [enemies of Spain] are aided by the Caril) Indians, as they now are.

B. C, I, 44.
1637. Don Pedro de Vivero.

Euglisli, Irisli, and others, with negro slaves, have established and settled
themselves, from Cape North up to the mouth of the River Orinoco, in most
productive lands, allying themselves with more than 5,000 peaceful Indians
and Caribs, with many forts and a castle, on nine rivers. Same, p. no.

1662. Report of Spanish Council of War.

They [En§:lish and French] have very great numbers of the Indian natives
of that country [Terra Firma] subject to them, on account of the merchandize
they give them in barter. Same, p. 160.

[1666.] Major John Scott.

Hendricson, a Switz by nation, that had served some Dutch merchants in

those partes 27 yeares in quality of a factor with the upland Indians of

Guiana. Same, p. 1 68.

1684. [1897] George L. Burr.

In the summer of 1684, and for long thereafter, the Barima was occupied
by hostile Caribs and by their allies, the French, who in 1689 were building
a fort in that river. V. C.-C, II, 137-138.

1684. British Counter Case.

The alliance between tlie French and the Barinia Caribs, which com-
menced in 1684 (in which year these Caribs came to the Barima from Cope-
name), lasted only during the war which was then proceeding. B. C.-C, 64.

1684. Commandeur in Essequibo.

They [tlie French] have for their assistance many Caribs from Copename
. . . taking refuge here to our great disquietude.

Gabriel Bishop, . . . from Surinam and Berbice, coming into the Barima
in order to trade, . . . being surprised and overtaken by the Caribs afore-
said, he with fifteen of men, was slain, . . . with threats to some other
Indians friendly to us, that they, conjointly with the French, will probably come
to destroy all the plantations outside the fort at Essequibo. B. C, I, 1S7.

1686. Tiburcio de Axpe y Zuiiiga,

Those [Caribs] of the Golfo Triste in particular have committed much
slaughter and devastation in alliance with the French, with whom at the
present time they have traffic and communication, and it is much to be feared
that they are going to help the French to settle on the mainland. Safne, p. ig6.

1686. Sancho Fernandez de Angulo.

To fulfil their ambition and that of the French, they [Caribs] will make
joint incursions with the latter, and it is to be feared will proceed to occupy
the territories and ports of His Majesty as they have done in other parts, and as
the Dutch have also done with other settlements on the River Orinoco in the
region of the mainland. Satne, p. igS.




1689. [1897] George L. Burr.

It was at the liands of French and Caribs from the Barima that the
Pomeroon colony fell, in April of 1689. V. C.-C, II, i2j.

1 70 1. Court of Policy in Essequibo.

They [the crew] shall . . . inquire amon^ the Caribs there [Waini]
how the matter stands, explaining to them, namely, to the Chiefs, that if the
[French] enemy's boats try to g-ain their favour . . . they may expect
all the Christians and Aravvalis of Surinam, Berbice, and Essequibo upon
them, and that the Commandeur of Essequibo, who has already made peace with
them, strives to continue therein. B. C, I, 224-22^.

1 701. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

February 10, [1701]. . . . Mr. Hollander stated that he had had
reports from the Carib nation concerning the murder of five [whites] who had
been living amongst them at the mouth of the Corentin, and that this was con-
firmed by a certain Indian who had seen the deed with his own eyes, and who
said that they were not French, their sworn enemies, as liad been pretended,
but rather whites from Surinam with trading wares. He further stated that
tlie said Caribs were uniting with all kinds of Indian tribes, wherever nec-
essary, in order to kill and extirpate all the Europeans. Even if the above
should be untrue, it were well that we should take speedy measures, since their
rascally practices were known to all the world, as well as their avarice, deceit,
and bloodthirstiness. B. C.-C, App., 141.

1752. Council of Indies.

The Prelates of the Missions of the Society of Jesus and Capuchins
report that the Caribs are in possession of the great river Orinoco, and the other
tribes cannot approach owing to the hostilities they carr)' on against them, and
also through tlie friendship which this tribe has contracted with the
foreigners of Martinique, Surinam, Berbice and other colonies.

Same, p. igj.

1754. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Surinam wanderers and most of tlie Carib Indians have retired from
Barima, and have departed to the Waini. B. C, II, 100.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

In the year 1 720, . . . Dutch, English, and French, . . . with the
Caribs, overran . . . the Province of (iuayana [and others] enslaving and
slaughtering all the Indians, other than Caribs, whom they could seize, and
burning the Mission villages and Spanish settlements established in the said prov-
inces. B. C, III, J 4.


1595. Capt. Felipe de Santiago.

The Province of Caura, which is very fertile, and inhabited by a great num-
ber of natives. Although Caribs, they are friendly towards the Spaniards.

B. C, I, 10.



1614. Don Juan Tostaclo.

For if they [Diitcli] had settled there [on the Corentine] as they had resolved
to do, it would be a great injury to the friendly Ariiac natives to have the
Dutch and Caribs so close to them. B. C, I. 34.

1637. Governor of Guiana.

With 300 men well provided with munitions, and with a quantity of Indians
whom 1 will take care to collect by gifts ... I would undertake the
expedition [against Essequibo]. Same, p. 107.

1638. Diego Ruiz Maldonado.

On this bank [North bank of lower Orinoco] the village of the Glnayanos is
also, who, while they belong- to his Majesty, have in all the invasions of Guayana
that have taken place by the Lutherans, rendered snccour ; not only have they not
united with them, but they have come to the help of the people with provi-
sions on the occasions that have presented themselves. And on the other [south]
side of the river the town of the Arnacas, a very powerful people, and all
enemies of the taribs and friends of the Spaniards. Same, p. 120.

They knelt down, with great attention, both the Caribs and those of other na-
tions, who were to the number of 133 in all, being rowers of the pirogues.
And there is no doubt that were they instructed in the Faith they would embrace
it, as they are all very docile, especially the Chaguane Indians, who like the
Spaniards much. Same, p. 121.

The first village [to be christianized] must be of the Chaguanes, as they are
veiy numerous, and because these are very friendly with the Spaniards, beyond
others of those nations, and it must be called the village of San Felipe de la Real
Corona. Same, p. 128.

1688. Governor of Trinidad.

The free Indians of the villages of San Pedro de Mariguaca and Santa
Maria Magdalena de Caucao, which are in the said territory of Guayana.

Same, p. 212.

1767. Director-General in Essequibo.

On account of the bad treatment received at the hands of the present Gov-
ernor of Orinoque, all the Warouws, thousands of whom live on the islands in
the mouth of the Orinoco, are fleeing from there, and that hundreds of them
have already arrived in Barima. B. C, III, 144.

1770. Commandant of Guiana.

The information previously given me by the friendly Caribs [of Upper
Orinoco]. B.C., J ¥,77.