Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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1779. Don Jose Felipe de Inciarte.

A canoe overtook me and brought in a youth [Arowak] of twelve or
fourteen from the said Piache, begging me to take him with me that he mig-ht
learn to speak Spanish and might see the lands of the Spaniards. I took
him, thanked them for their confidence, and promised to bring him back with me
on my return. ^- C.-C App., 2jg.



318 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO.

. British Counter Case.

The Caribs regarded the Spaniards as enemies, not as rulers. B. C.-C, Sj.

1598. A Cabeliau.

They are there [Santo Thome] about 60 horseman and 100 musketeers strong,
who daily attempt to conquer the auriferous Weyana, but cannot concjuer the
same either by the forces already used or by any means of friendship, since the
nation named Charibus daily offer them hostile resistance with their arms.

B. C, I, 20.

They who are enemies, and who bear enmity to the Spaniards, are friends
with the Indians, and they constantly Iiope tliat they will be rid of tlie Span-
iards by the Flamingos and Angleses, as they told us. Satne, p. 21.

1 601. Governor of El Dorado.

In reference to . . . the depopnlation of the Arias, ... In the
first uprising- [of Indians] they killed the Spanish chapetones (Spaniards who
come without passports to America) ; . . . Being so fertile, here the city of
the Arias was founded. There was an uprisins? of the natives, who killed the
Major ; their punishment and seizure was seriously undertaken. By reason of the
control exercised over them and the war made against them, tlie natives refused
to sow tlie land or to come to the town, and by tliis means the Spanisli
were ejected from tliis province, famine being- used as the worst kind of
weapon. V. C.-C, III, 4.

1602. Governor of Nueva Andalucia.

The city of the Arias is one of the two that Don Fernando had settled ;
it is farther inland tlian Santo Thome, . . . thiclily populated by In-
dians who, being barbarians, conceived such a liatred toward the Spaniards
tliat tliey preferred to leave their native country rather than to have
intercourse with them, and they retreated so far that, in a radius of thirty
leagues from that city, not one single Indian was to be found. The soldiers,
being unable to support themselves without the aid of the Indians, were com-
pelled to leave said site and to search for another, where they could rebuild said
city, which has not been done as yet. Same, p. 2.

1612. Sancho de Alquica.

From this island [Margarita] to that of Trinidad is more than 60 leagues to
windward, and infested by Carib pirates, who ccnumit great damage.

B. C, I, 2Q-JO.

1614. Mansilla, Parish Priest in Trinidad.

The evil done by the Caribs is notorious. Same, p. jS.

1637. Jacques Ousiel.

On the east side of the island named Punta Galera dwell two nations of In-
dians, the one called Nipujos and the other Arawaks, over 600 able men ; these
are friendly to the Dutch, especially the Nipujos, who are deadly enemies of the
Spaniards ; but the Arawalis occasionally serve the Spaniards in rowing their
canoes, and cannot be relied upon so well. U. S. Com., II, Sj.

One mile inland [in Trinidad] there is a very good opportunity for obtaining
a supply of bananas from the old plantations of the Caribs who were driven
from the aforesaid island by tlie Spaniards, and still are wont to come there
every year with their canoes to lay in provisions, V. C, II, 22.



INDIANS. 319

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO-(Continued).

1638. Corporation of Santo Thome.

The Carihs of the Province of Caura, who are Indians under the jurisdic-
tion of this town [Santo Thome] killed the men Avlio came with the said iii-
foriuation [about the quicksilver mine near Santo Thome] and took all the des-
patches. B- C., I, J 03.

The bearer is an honest soldier, married here, and as there is so much distress
here, ventures his life through so much danger, as there is in tliese plains of
the Caribs, only to take these letters. Same, p. 104.

1686. Tiburcio de Axpe y Zuiiiga.

It is impossible to conquer them [Caribs] all owing to their great number
and the various territories they occupy in a space extending over 300 leagues in
length. Same, p. ig6.

1733. Government of Trinidad.

It must be borne in mind that the Caribs are not natives of the Orinoco,
but intruders, and that Law 13, Title 2, Book 6, allows war to be made upon
tliose of that tribe who come to infest these provinces with armed force, and
who eat human flesh, and sanctions the enslavement of those above 14 years,
except the women. B. C.-C, App., 178.

1735. Governor of Cumana.

It was necessary to cross over to seek them [Caribs] in their own lands, in their
clearing which they call the Pumeyo, where they had three encounters with
said Caribs. V. C.-C, III, 42.

1737. Governor of Cumana.

The Governor, Don Carlos Sucre . . . reported to your Majesty the con-
dition of that fortress [Santo Thome] and dependency, and also of the war which
the Carib Indians, with other allies, are making-, causing- death and torture
among the missionaries, and other Spaniards. B. C, II, 2j.

Nothing- further can be taken in hand except defensive measures against
the Caribs. Same, p. 26.

1739. Marquis de San Felipe y Santiago.

By these means [making- war] he is persuaded the object will be attained
of punishing their [Carib] cruelty, and forcing them to quit the country, leav-
ing the other Indians free to settle there. B. C.-C, App., 1S2.

1750. Commandeur in Essequibo.

We dare not openly oppose them [Spaniards] as might very easily be done,
by means of the Carib nation, their sworn enemies.

The frequent and well-founded complaints which the Spaniards make of the
damage done to them by the Carib nation well deserve your Honours' attention,
not only on account of the damage which the Spaniards suffer, for by their
harsh and unjust dealings they give cause for this, but on account of the in-
evitable consequences which in course of time might befall the Colony.

B. C, II, 67.
1755. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

It is morally impossible to enter into negotiations of peace with the in-
uiimerable Chiefs of the sources of Aquire. Samf, p. iii.



320 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO-(Continued).

1755. Director-General in Essequibo.

The chiefs of the Panacays, (a mighty nation which has never before been
here) have expressly come down to offer their help ajjaiust the Spaniards if

required, and they are going to settle down with their dwellings around the Post.

B. C, II, iig.

1759. Director-General in Essequibo.

The latter [Caribs], on their part, are not taking matters quietly, but are
beginning: to make a vigorous resistance, and to do much mischief in Ori-
Moco itself. Two well-armed boats have been kept cruising up and down the river,
and the Spanish commerce has suffered a good deal. Same, p. ly^.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

In the year 1720, . . . Dutch, English, and French, . . . with
the Caribs, overran . . . the Province of Guayana [and others] enslaving
and slaughtering all the Indians, other than Caribs, whom they could seize,
and burning the Mission villages and Spanish settlements established in the
said provinces, B. C, III, 34.

[The inhabitants will soon quit Ciudad Real for other causes] even if the
continual attacks of the Indians do not overwhelm them. Same, p. 67.

1766. Director-General in Essequibo.

We can fully rely upon the assistance of the Caribs, The deep-rooted
hatred and enmity of that nation towards the Spaniards is so great that there
is little probability of a reconciliation between them, and although that nation has
lost many of its old characteristics, this still continues to be one of its innate
peculiarities. Same, p. iji.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CAUSE.

1594. Antonio de Berrio.

I cannot get the Indians [to help conquer Guiana] owing to the malice of
my neighbours [/. e., Spanish governors of neighboring provinces.] B. C, I, S.

1621. Juan de Lezama.

Juan de Lezama, Procurator-General of the City of Santo Thome and Island
of Trinidad of the Province of Guayana, says that in respect of the English
pirate . . . having excited the natives of it, and caused them to rise in
rebellion, and refuse to acknowledge the obedience which they had given to your
Majesty, and allied themselves with the enemy. Same, p. j6.

1662. Governor of Trinidad.

The Carib Indians of the Caura, servants appropriated to residents of
this city [Santo Thome], Guaiqueries, Mapoies, and other nations, revolted in
general, killed all the people that were among them, more than thirty persons,
including residents of the city and strangers. The cause of this rebellion and
havoc was the incitement which the Dutch of these new settlements liave
produced, tlirough the secret communication they hold with them . . .
I am taking the necessary measures for the punishment of these Indians.

When so many enemies surround me, both Indians of numerous tribes,
and the Dutch who incite them. Same, p. /jj.



! INDIANS. 321

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CAUSE-(Con-
j tinued).

1 1686. Tiburcio de Axpe y Zuiiiga.

I The injury which results . . . through the bondage system is \inter

ij aIia^^ . . . that, . . . the Iiidiiiiis of those regions witlidraw aiul de-

fend themselves in order that they may not be compelled to settle; and

they regard the proposal to convert them as a snare, for they say that it is only
for the purpose of making them work. B. C, I, ig§.

1733. Father Bernardo Rotella.

; " Why do you want to have a Father? " said Araguacare, [Lieulenant-General

of the Carib tribe on the Orinoco] to him [Aritana, a Carib, Chief of the Jesuit
Mission of Santa Teresa]. " Do yon not know that the Spaniards are very
bad \ that they will take from you whatever you possess? They will take away
your wives, and leave you only one ; they will gather your sons together and
carry them off for sale. If you complain they will kill you, or put you in the

I stocks, and will maltreat you continually."

! " Know," he continued, " that you will no longer be my friends, for you are

friends of the Spaniards, nor will you get implements or clothes ; you will be

II their perpetual slaves, even though they are your relatives and friends, for be-
fl cause I was their friend they often made me deliver up my relatives to death,

and, consequently, I want to come and live at Curumotopo, so that, being at a
distance from them, they may not be sending for me every moment ; and if, per-
chance, they come some time to summon me, I will ^o or not, as I please ; and
if they send other soldiers to summon me again. I will kill them."

B. C.-C, App., 166.

I • . . ask . . . for the perpetual banishment of all the Caribs from
Orinoco, as not being in their legitimate lands, as traitors to . . . Spain, as
perpetual and even sacrilegious homicides, . . . for hindering' the spread of
the Catholic faith, not only in their villages, . . . but because for more than
forty years, by force of arms and assassinations of apostolic missionaries, they
have hindered it from spreading to the other tribes, with no other object than
that they may not be prevented from gorging themselves with human flesh,
and stealing the children of other tribes for sale outside these dominions.

Same, p. lyi.

1734. King of Spain.
That in the creek [of Barima] there was a Carib Chief, . . . who had

more than two hundred Indians, with arrows, guns, and broad swords, which force
he kept, said the Indian, for the whites of Guayana, because they hindered him
taking the Indians of the nations of the Orinoco and selling- them to the
l>utch. V. C, II, 2S3.

1735. Governor of Cumana.
Don Carlos Sucre [Governor of Cumana] reports the excesses committed

by the Carib Indians in the neighborhood of the River Orinoco, by reason of
his absence from that part ; that they have cut to pieces a settlement of 200
persons, which he had founded with three missionaries, of whom they killed one.
. . . He shows likewise how the Missions are on the point of perishing by the
hand of the Caribs, ... he will do his utmost to try if he can get together
as many as 150 men, in order to try to form at the Angostura of the River
Orinoco a redoubt with good stakes, in order once for all to block their way and
restrain them. B. C, II, 22.



322 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CAUSE-(Con-

tinued .

1758. Prefect of Missions.

The account you [Ferreras] were good enough to give me [Garriga] of your
journey was as follows : That the murderers [who destroyed the Mission Ave-
chica] were some Caribs who in the year [17]50 had rebelled in the settle-
ment of Tupiuiiien, commanded by the Indian Caiarivare, the Alcalde of the
said settlement of Tupuquen, one of the principal instigators of the rebellion ;
and that the said ag'gressors were living in the interior, on the river Cuyuni, and
at the very mouth of the river Corumo, which flows into the said river; that
they were livins? with some Dutchmen from the Colony of Essequibo,
engag'ed in Slave Traffic for the said Colony ; and that the principal reason
for their murdering the said Captain was because he was founding a settlement
in the neighbourhood of Avechica, and thereby was closing the pass of the
River Usupama, and hindering them from passing without being discovered;
. . . [and] that the said Dutch, with these very same Caribs, are still living
at the mouth of the River Corumo, buying Indian slaves. B. C, II, 143.

1 761. Don Jose Solano.

He [the Governor] can defend the city [Santo Thome], . . . and hinder
the Dutch from coming up to the Caura to buy slaves from the Caribs and to
furnish them with arms and cultivate the hatred of the Spaniards, which they 1
have introduced among the Indians. Same, p. 20S. \

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

In none of the said provinces are foreigners any longer seen overrunning
them and committing hostilities or exciting the Caribs, their allies.

B.C., Ill, J5.
1898. Michael McTurk.

The Caribs, as is well known, were the inveterate enemies of the Spaniards,
with whom tliey waged continual warfare, and were also the slave raiders,
penetrating as far for this purpose as the Upper Cuyuni and the Upper Essequibo.

B. C.-C, App., 403.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CHARACTER

(REBELLION).

1594. Antonio de Berrio.

Part of the natives [of Trinidad] have rebelled, and the Caribs of the
Islands of Dominica, Granada, and other neighboring places harass and injure me.

B. C, I, 8.
1618. British Case.

After the sack of Santo Thome by Raleigh in IGIS the Arawaks, till then
the friends of the Spaniards, also turned against them. B. C, 2j.

1618. City of Santo Thome.

The enemy [English under Raleigh] remained in possession of the place for
twenty-nine days, during which time he [Raleigh] succeeded in attracting to him-
self the i)eacefiil Guayana Indians nearest to the town, who at once rose
in rebellion, doing much damage, in order to favour the enemy.

They soon embarked, . . . having excited and raised all the native Indians
in rebellion, at their pleasure, who dwell on the sea-coast, Aruacas, Chaguanes,
and Caribs of that province, who renounced obedience to yonr Majesty.

B. C, I, 49'



INDIANS. 323

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CHARACTER
(REBELLION)-(Continued).

1621. Juan de Lezama.

In order that they may now defend this land, and that the iiatiTOS in robcl-
liou may l)e reduced and thereby brought to recognize your Majesty.

B. C, I, 56-57-
1 62 1. King of Spain.

It is stated . . . that the natiyes have thrown off tlie obedience which
they had g'iven me, allying themselves with the enemy [English under Raleigh].

Same, p. 57.
1637. Governor of Guiana.

The whole place in great danger through two settlements of Dutch being
therein, and all the Indians in revolt and nuited with them. Same, p. 106.

1662. Governor of Trinidad.

I endeavored to pacify . . . the native Indians of . . . Trinidad,
wiio were in rebellion, and did not wish to serve the Spaniards. I carried it
out with the few Spaniards of that island and some friendly Indians, and while
receiving those who, warned by the punishment I inflicted on the bad ones who
were in my power, came and submitted peacefully, and promised to give service
to the Spaniards. Same, p. 154.

1733. Father Joseph Gumilla.

I, Joseph Gumilla, . . . declare that having been for the last two years
on good terms witli the Caribs of this Orinoco, looliing^ npon them as sub-
missive to the (irovernment thereof, there came up this summer from Barima,
Taricura ; . . . he . . . terrified all the villages of my Mission, threat-
ening death to the missionaries and to their escort, and to such Indians as
might believe the Fathers ; and they actually killed the Salina Captain Chab-
iruma and many of his men belonging to the village of Los Angeles [Los Santos
Angeles de Sabinos]. B. C.-C, App., 162.

1752. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Spaniards have attacked and driven away the Caribs below Orinoco, and
these have all retreated to our side, and thus their number has considerably in-
creased.

Now they are more than ever incensed against the Spaniards aforesaid ;
tliey lately overran two Missions, and have murdered everyone there.

B. C, II, 76.
1758. Prefect of Missions.

Not only the Caribs of the forests, but even those of the Missions partici-
pate in these wars, without our being able to control them in any way ; and
whenever we make any efforts to do so, they immediately desert us in great num-
bers. Same, p. 14J.

1758. Military Commandant in Essequibo to Spanish Commandant in Orinoco.

Our Governor has always striven to keep up good relations and friendship
with his neighbours ; you . . . had a convincing proof of this when he took
the trouble to write to you in order to warn you, as soon as he had received advice
that the Caribs had formed tlie plan to attack your Missions ; which warning,
and his repeated interdictions to the Caribs, even accompanied with threats, have
prevented the execution. Sa?ne, p. 17J.



i



324^ INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH-HOSTILITY TO, ITS CHARACTER
(REBELLION)-(Continued).

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

It is clear that if . . . the fortress is attacked and taken by the enemies
of the Royal Crown, the Missions would at once be destroyed. Their own in-
habitants would plunder them, set them on fire, and return to the forests, as hap-
pened in 1742, when it was found that the Indians did much more harm than the
English. . . . The fortress, ... is the safeguard of all these provinces,
. . . without it the Missions can neither be extended nor be certain that
those now existing will not rebel when it is least expected, namely when driven
to do so by the Carib tribe, which is formidable from its fierce, treacherous,
and warlike character. B. C, III, 24.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH AS SUBJECTS ENTRADAS AND
COMPULSORY SETTLEMENT IN MISSIONS.

. . Venezuelan Case.

The " entradas," . . . were constant throughout the region west of the
Essequibo from the coast far into the interior, even beyond the Pacaramia moun-
tains. V. C, 133.

. Venezuelan Counter Case.

Spain was in truth the recognized sovereign of the Indians: . . . her

rule over them was a rule depending not on friendship nor acquiescence, but
upon force exerted by a ruler over subjects. V. C.-C, 103.

1615. Council of the Indies.

In order that the Spaniards now residing there and the Christian Indian
subjects of Y. M. V. C.-C, HI, 6.

1686. Spanish Fiscal.

With regard to the removal of the Carib Indians, who are close to those
Missions. B. C, I, 194.

1 761. Judicial Decree.

As the Aruaca Indians seized at the mouth of said creek [IJarima] have
been delivered to the Reverend Fathers of those Missions, so as to people the
same and distribute them, his Honor . . . did rule tliat said Indians be

kept for the above purpose in the said Mission. V. C, II, 341.

1772. Don Manuel Centurion.

[While going] to take possession of the famous Lake Parime . . . the
Catalan Capuchins . . . had an escort of fifty men at arms, twenty of
which were Spaniards and thirty friendly Caribs. B. C, IV, 106.

1786. Director-General in Essequibo.

Frequently having had complaints that the Spaniards and Spanish Indians
. . . surprise our free Indians when off their guard, and also drag them
into slaver v. B. C, V, 45.



INDIANS. 325

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH AS SU BJ ECTS- ENTRADAS AND
COMPULSORY SETTLEMENT IN MISSIONSHContinued .

1787. F. Mariano de Cerveia.

Last year I went to the mouths of the Orinoco at a settlement of Guaraunos.
I had with me only two soldiers and some Guayanos from Caroni. Tlic excur-
sion was brief and lucky, for within a few days I had made the catch, and
came back i^ltli 1-10 souls, all of whom arrived here, excepting eight, who
escaped at San Antonio, although they were afterwards caught. In the early
part of this year I went on another excursion to the river Cuyuni, accompanied
by Father Antonio de Martorel, with his Caribs of Cumamu, and we only suc-
ceeded in catching eighty-one Guaycas, for on the same day we started out, a
Guayca of the Mission of Cura made his escape and warned those living in the
woods, so that we found everything in confusion. V. C, II, 446.

1792. Governor Marmion.

Experience has constantly shown that the Cruarauno and Mjiriusa Indians,
. . . whenever any effort has been made to take them from the creeks and
mouths of the river and convey them to settle in the interior of the Missions,

have usually been of very little use and endurance, and upon the least inattention
on the part of the Religious they have escaped to the woods or returned to their
native spot, the little islands of the Orinoco.

There will be no inconvenience in forming a settlement of these people, as
Lopez proposes on the Creek of Imataca. B. C, V, 14J.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH AS SUBJECTS-PUNISHMENT OF

REBELS.

1637. Don Juan Desologuren.

In all these parts [Essequibo, Berbice and lower Orinoco] they have deal-
ings with the Indians, and in the last named with the [Spanish] inhabitants
both vassals and freemen, and they are incensed against the said (Governor
[of Guiana] for having overcome and dislodged them, and with the Governor of
Margarita for having beheaded the prisoners sent to him. B. C, I, 78.

1653. Report of Council.

The obligation of Don Martin de Mendoza was ... to reduce tlie natives
who had rebelled, chastising those who refused to render obedience.

B. C.-C, App., 23.

1686. Tiburcio de Axpe y Zuiiiga.

These [Cai'ib] Indians likewise prevent the conversion of the others, and
have on various occasions sacked villages of Indians already subdued. For these
crimes such a race may be chastised by force of arms. And by these means
and by occupying the ancient fort of San Carlos Fernandez de Angulo, it will be
rendered certain that the Caribs will not return to give assistance in the Golfo
Triste. And thus the Capuchin missionaries will easily convert the rest of the
Indians. B. C, I, ip6.

1733. Government of Trinidad.

The said Governor endeavored to chastise this outrage, the only result
was that a son of the said Yaguaria was killed, ... the effort was not con-
tinued, as they had withdrawn to the Dutch of Essequibo. B, C.-C, App., 17J.



326 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH AS SUBJECTS-PUNISHMENT OF

R E B E LS-KContinued).

1 760. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

To prerent so many evils I despatched the Lieutenants . . . Antonio
Mayhew to the Aroi . . . and . . . Vincent Doz ... for Caura,
arranging the time so that both surprises should be executed at the same
moment. This was done, and so successfully that . . . all those of
Caiira and . . . Aroi were seized with the exception of those who were
on expeditions for capturing slaves from other nations. B. C, II, 184.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

The said militia are the hardest workers in the entire garrison, for with the
regulars they are detached to the Missions ... to snbdue the Indians in
the frequent disturbances which occur. B. C, III, 66-67.

RELATIONS TO THE SPANISH AS SUBJECTS-RECOGNITION OF
THE SPANISH AS MASTERS.

1695. Capt. Felipe de Santiago.

Province of Caura . . . inhabited by a great number of natives. Al-
though Caribs, they are friendly towards the Spaniards, and disposed to
serve them. ^- C., 1, 10.

1596. Roque de Montes, Treasurer of Cumana.

I instructed him (Felipe de Santiago) that he should warn the Chiefs of the
Indians on that bank (of the Orinoco) not to admit nor receive any strangers
henceforward in their territories, except Spaniards in your Majesty's service.