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Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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B.C., VI, 353.

1894. Combined Court.

Mr. Weber proposed . . . that this Court . . . ask . . . the
Governor that ... he give orders to make the plan for a wagon or mule
road from the point where the Barima river is no longer navigable up to the
Upper Cuyuni river, and if found practicable, to the Yuruan river, with the end of
patting these rivers in direct communication. He said that his Excellency knew,
no doubt, how difficult it was to reach that very important District ; that tlie
numerous falls of tlie Ciiynni river made the trip to the Yuruan river so
troublesome and rtiftieult, that almost seven weeks were required to reach
tliat place. V. C.-C, III, 209.

1895. Michael McTurk.

This journey to Uruan has been the quickest on record, occnpying- a little
over 1?, days. B. C, ¥11,335.

1896. Michael McTurk.

The Journey whicli extended beyond tlie Uruan, occupied 28 days there
and back. Same, p. 336.

The cutting of the line for a reconnaissance survey of the country between
€artabo Point ... to the iiKuitli of the MaraMara on the Pnruni, lias
been completed . . . while I do not consider that the ditficulties . . .
in the construction of ... a road or railway are such that modern engineering
cannot easily overcome, I do not think the financial condition of the Colony
at present . . . will justify any attempt of the kind, considering the very
rough nature of the country to be traversed. Same, p. 337.

1898. Michael McTurk.

Tlie suggestion in the Venezuelan Case that the natural access to tlie
Upper Cuyuni (and because of the suggested absence of falls and rapids in that
part of the river, consequently to the whole of it) is from the Orinoco over the
savannahs is without foundation, and a hastily formed conclusion founded on a
want of knowledge of the river. B. C.-C, App., 403.

DEFINITIONS.
AMACURA.

. British Case.

In discussing the western boundary of the Dutch Colony it is necessary to
bear in mind that in the eighteenth century it was not unusual to describe as
the Barima the river now called the Amaciiru, and that now called the Barima
as the Amakuru. The rivers are so marked in D'Anville's Maps and in many
others, but the usage was not uniform. B. t.,30.



24 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES.

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

AMACURA— (Continued).

1762. [1897] George L. liurr.

In 1762, on the title-page of the first directory of the Essequibo colony, one
finds the River Amacura named as its western boundary; but a study of the con-
text shows that the Amacura here meant must lie east of the Barima, for the Barima
does not appear among the streams of the colony. It is probably the Amacura
of the D'Anville map, so much appealed to by Governor Storm van's Gravesande,
the author of this directoiy. . . . While it is, I am convinced, a misconcep-
tion to hold that, when . . . Gravesande spoke of the IJarinia, he meant
the Aniaeura, it is none the less certain that, when he here speaks of the Ama-
cura, it was not the Amacura proper, but, at farthest, the stream we now know
as the Barima. And so with the following directories, till their cessation in
1769. V. C.-C, II, 140.

AMAZONS.

161 5. Report of Council to Spanish King.

Some settlements and that in particular they [Diiteli] have three or four from
the River Marauon [Amazon] to the Orinoco. B. C, I, 43.

1621. Cornclis Janssen Vianen.

Diverse products and fruits which might be found or raised on the main-
land of America, between Brazil on the east and the River Orinoco on the west,
in and about the river Amazon. V. C, II, //.

1624. West India Company (the Nineteen).

The deputies of Zeeland will please bring with them the instructions given to
the ships ImmimcI for the Amazons, and further information as to the condition of
things in that quarter; and the deputies of all the Chambers shall come in-
structed, so as to devise means for the securing of that region, whether by the
planting- of suital)le colonies or othenvise. I/. S. Covi., II,jS-jg.

1626. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Resolved, To look about for a capable person for director of the business in
tiie .\niaz(»ns; and, if a capable one can be found to send him thither by the first
ship. Saiiw, pp. 41-42.

To the Orinoco shall be consigned, etc.

Note by Prof. Burr. This is only one of a grou]) of decisions reached at this
session as to the destination of vessels. Ships were also to be sent " to the
Amazons" and " to Brazil," among other places. Saiiif, p. 42.

Resolved to tit out the yacht Out-Vlissinghe for Angola, in order there to buy
up some negroes and to carry them into Uie Aina/oii or to tlie plaeos where
the Company may have its folk lyinu'. Same, p. 44.

ARABIAN COAST.

1898. Editor of British Case.

The iVrabian Coast is the local name for the coast district between the Esse-
quibo and Pomeroon. B. C, 106.



I



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 26

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).



BARIMA.



. British Case.

The word Bariiua does not necessarily indicate either Point Barima or the
river of that name, l)ut usually means tlic district on either bank of the river
stretcliin!? to tlie Amaknra on the one side and to the Waini on the other.

B. C, 7.

In discussing the western boundary of the Dutch Colony it is necessary to
bear in mind that in the eighteenth century it was not unusual to describe as the
Barima the river now called the Amakiiru, and that now called the Barima as
the Amakuru. The rivers are so marked in D'Anvillemaps and in many others,
but the usage was not uniform. Same, p.jO.

1762. [1897] George L. Burr.

In 1762, on the title-page of the first directory of the Essequibo colony, one
finds the River Amacura named as its western boundary ; but a study of the
context shows that the Amacura here meant must lie east of the Barima, for the
Barima does not appear among the streams of the Colony. It is probably the Ama-
cura of the D'Anville map, so much appealed to by Governor Storm van's
Gravesande, the author of this directoiy. . . . While it is, I am convinced, a
misconception to hold that, when . . . Gravesande spoke of the Barima, he
meant the Amacnra, it is none the less certain that, when he here speaks of the
Amacura, it was not the Amacura proper, but, at farthest, the stream we now
know as the Barima. And so with the following directories, till their cessation in
1769. V- C.-C, II, 140.

CUYUNI.

. Biitish Case.

The word Cnynni is constantly used of the district watered by that river and
its tributaries. B. C, 7.

1680. Commandeur in Essequibo,

An old negro of the Company, recently poisoned n\} in the Cujuni [iot/en in
de Cajflcnc\, as the Caribs pretend, by the Accoways. B. C, I, iSj.

1683. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I have sent a negro up in Cnynni \boven in Cajoeiie]. Same, p. /Sj.

r685. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The French in the Barima likewise come even to then uijt Cioene\ Same, p. ijg.

March I, [1701]. The Commandeur . . . proceeded up stream to Cuyuni

[bove?t na Cioene^.

March 3, [1701]. The Commandeur . . . again proceeded up stream
into tlie Cuyuni [weder na boven i)i Cioene^ in order to see what timber had
been s(|uared there by the negroes, and returned ag'ain in llie afternoon.

March 4, I 1 701 |. . . . there also arrived here . . . towards evening
Mr. Hendrik van .Susteren, who, as mentioned yesterday, had proceeded up into
Cnynni [boven in Cioene] with the Commandeur and had remained there oxer-
night. Same, p. 144.

17 10. Commandeur in Essequibo.

These [runaway slaves] are somewhat scattered up in Cnynni \boven in
Cyoene] among the Indians. B. C, I, 2J4.

1724. Court of l\)licy.

Another coffee plantation . . . (above the cassava plantation already laid
out in Cnynni [Cajoene] ).

A new coffee plantation has also been laid out in Cuyuni [Cajoene], half-an-
hour above that of your Lordships.

The plantations belonging to your Lordships are all in a very fair state, and
the growth of the coffee is . . , flourishing well. It is computed that both
in Cnynni and at Hartica [.W(? in Cajoene als op Barri/igiie] \.\\cvf: :ixt about
15,000 coffee shrubs, which are all in very fine condition. B. C, II, 1-2.



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 2T

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

CU YUNI- (Coiitiuned),

1726. Court of Policy.

The coffee plantation in Cnyuni [/« Cajocne\.

The uTonnds in Cuynni \hi C^yV^^v/f] being belter for this | coffee] culture.

B. C, II, 4.

1727. Court of Policy.

We find tlie coffee in Cnynni [/// Cajocne\ will not yield a sixteenth i)art of
that which it did last year. Same, p. 6.

1730. Commandeur in Essequibo.

On the 29th and 30th September [1729] I inspected the coffee plantations In
Cnynni [/;/ Cajot')ic]ho\\\ alsove and below the fall.

Jan van der Meers . . . foreman at the coffee plantation in Cnynni [in
Cajoene]. ... A small piece of land in Cnynni |/V/ Cajoeiie] has already
been cleared and sown with indigo. ... A new coffee plantation upon the
Island Batavia, in Cnynni [/;/ Cajoene]. Same, p. 10.

1732. Court of Policy.

A commencement [for an indigo plantation] has already been made to-day,
and a clearing made and planted with indigo np in the River Cnynni \booven in
de revier Caioenc\ Same, pp. 14-15-

1732. Commandeur in Essequibo.

On the I2th August of last year [1731] a beginning was made by nine ne-
groes with cutting an opening for a new indigo plantation in Cnynni [in Cajoene].

Same* p. ij.

1733. Court of Policy.

The coffee and cocoa plantation in Cnynni [in Cajoene]. . . . The
aforesaid plantation at Cnynni [/« Cajoene]. Same, p. ly.

1735. Court of Policy,

An able negro was drowned, who, having run away and fallen into the hands
of the Indians, the director of the aforesaid plantation gave orders to the creole
Jantie (who had been sent by the Commandeur up in the River Cnynni \na
booven de Reiner Caioenj]) that, if he should find the negro among the Indians,
he should put him in chains and bring him to the plantation. Same, p. 20.

1738. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The unhealthiness which prevails in the Fpper Cnynni {bo%>en in de Rivier
Cajoene]. ^'^'"^^ P- -'/•

1739. West India Company.

Persuaded that minerals are to be found in the mountains np in the River
Cnynni [boz>en aen de rivier Cajoene]. Same, p. 2S.

1739. Commandeur in Essequibo.

A piece of ore found np in the chain of monntains of Cnynni \hoven in het
Gebergte van Cajoene], . . ,

The Undersigned is getting ready to make a journey ... to np in tlie
River Cnynni \naar boven in de Rivier Cajoenn] to the high mountains here
called the Blue Mountains. Same, p. jo.



28 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES.

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

CUYUNI— {Continued).

1 741. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Shall o-et everything ready |for mining] up in CuyunI \b(n>c)i in Cajoene],

B.C.,II,35-

1742. Mining Engineer Hildel)randt.

Feb. 2, 11742]. Ready to set out again to Iho River Cuyuui \na dc rcvier Ca-
joene 1 .
Feb. 3, 1 1742] Set out again for Cuyuni \7veder na Cajoene\.
Feb. 28, L J742]- Set out again for the Upper €uyuni \aen na boven Cajoene\.

Same, p. 37 .

May I I 1742]. Sent off a boat to the l'pi»er Cuyuni \7ia boven Cajoene\

May 5 [1742I. Came home from the Upper Cnyuiii \van boven Cajoene] with

the boat.
May 7 [1742]. Sent off a boat ... to the Upper Cuyuni {)ia bo-ven

Cajoene^ .
May 1 1 1 1742]. At I o'clock in the afternoon there came back safely from above

the boat which on the 7th of this month I had sent to tlie

Upper Cuyuni [na boven Cajoene}. Same, p. jS.

May 16 I 1742I. Sent another boat to the I'pper Cuyuni \na boven Cajoene].
May2o|i742l. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon the boat . . . sent up on the
16th . . . came back from above out of Cuyuni \7'an

boven uiji Cajoene}. Same, pp. jS-jg.

1746. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Courthial made an application to the Court for permission to cut a road ;
through the wood in tlie River Cuyuni in order to bring mules and cows into the |
river overland by that road \oin een weg door het bos, in dc Rivier Cajoene ie
7noge makcn om daer door over lant Muijl Ezch en koebeesten in de Rivier ie
brengeri\. Same, p. 44.

1748. Commandeur in Essequibo.

\I)e Spanjaerdebegonne hoe langs hoe meer boven Ca.jouny te naderen.\
The Spaniards were beginning to gradually approach the Upper Cuyuni.

Same, p. 57.

[Another translation.] ^

The Spaniards were beginning to approach more and more up in Cuyuni. ■

V. C, II, loi.

1749. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The design of founding a Mission in the River Cuyuni \aen de Rivier van
Cajoenij], J^- C, II, 6j.

1760. West India Company. Zeeland Chamber.

Your further remarks about Rio Cuyuni [over Rio Cajoene]. Same, p. iS^.

1762. I)irector-("»eneral in Esseciuibo.

About ten of those Islaves] who were on llieir >vay lo Cuyuni \de weg van
Cajoenij\ have been captured and brought back by the settler J. Crewit/, who
lives below the fall, Sa?ne, p. 212.



i



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 29

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

CUYUNI— (Coutiuned).

1762. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Spaniards up in ('nyuiii \bo7'cn in CajoeniJ] are engaged in building boats.

B. C, II, 217.

1766. Director-General in Essequibo.

I continue to have a good look-out kept on all the movements of the Spaniards
in tlio upper reaches ol* iliese rivers \bovcn deezc riviercn\, and have therefore
charged . . . Tampoko. to go and live near the lirst fall In the C'nyunl.
to make his way continually up and down tills river, . . . and
to report to me upon all that occurs. B. C, III, iji.

I {540. R. King, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

March 16.— Gave Postholder written instructions . . . The Postholder
had just returned from having visited all the places in the hig-her parts of the
Rivers Essequibo, Masseroeny and Cayonny. B. C, VJ, go.

1845. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

In consequence of the general indisposition, . . . combined with the
very great scarcity of provisions . . . the Akaway Indians of Winey and
Barama have destroyed their habitations, and gone to reside with other Akaways
in the upper parts of the Rivers Coyouey and Massaruny. Same, p. 141.

1 891. Michael McTurk.

I left Kalacoon for the Upper Cuyuni River. Same, p. 2^2.

1 89 1. Lieutenant-Governor.

Mr. McTurk proposes to start immediately on a fresh expedition to the Upper
Cuyuni. Same, p. 235.

1894. Mr. Weber.

Mr. Weber proposed . . . a . . . road from the point where the
Barima river is no longer navigable up to the Upper Cuyuni river.

V. C.-C, III, 2og.

1894. James Rodway.

A [British] boundary post up the Cuyuni near its junction with Yuruan.

V.C.,III,J49-
1897. Michael McTurk.

Peter Cornelisen ... I know , . . was a Captain for the Carib
Indians living in the upper parts of the three rivers. B. C, VII, 2jj.

EL DORADO.

1593. Antonio de Berrio.

Hearing the great news that there is about the expedition to El Dorado.

B. C. I, I.

The Indians assured me that ... I should find a great river which is
called Caroni which descends from Guayana . . . that there . . . the
Cordilleras end and the provinces of Guayana begin, and then come successively
those of Manoa and El Dyrudo and many other provinces. Same, p. 2,



30 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES.

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

EL DORADO -(Contiuued).

1598. A. Cabeliau.

We made company to visit together tlie whole coast as far as the River
Worinoque, so-called by the Indians, by the English Reliane, and by the Span-
iards, Rio El Dorado. B. C, /, /g.

1750. Anonymous.

The great river Orinoco, the fame of which has spread throughout Europe
on account of the celebrated city of El DiUMilo, or the Golden, which is now
regarded as fabulous, is said to take its n rue or derivation from this fable.

B. C.-C, App., igo.

ESS E(^ 1 1 DO.

. British Case.

[The Colony] of Esse!|uibo was for a long period the chief settlement, and
besides the district of the Essequibo and its tributaries iueluded the rivers and
districts of Poiueroon, Waini, and Darima on the west. Subsequently Dem-
erara became the leading settlement and the seat of the Colonial Government has
been at Georgetown in Demerara, Essequibo becoming the name of a county
which included all the territory [in British Guiana] to the west of the Boerasirie
Creek. B. C, 7.

1628. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Amazon, Wiapoco, Kiana [Cayenne], and so onward to Essequibo.
Goods for Essequibo. B. C, I, 64.

1632. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Regarding the petition of Anthoni Janssen Enpoina asking to be granted a
sum in lieu of twenty months' wages earned by liiiii iu Essequibo,

As to the claim of Hendrik Munnix, arrived from Essequibo ;

It was resolved to appoint a committee to settle with the colonists from Esse-
quibo aud Cayeune ;

A committee to negotiate with Confrater van Pere touching his proposition
about the river Essequibo.

Jan van der Goes shall be employed by the Company on the river of Esse-
quibo.

Hendrik Munnix of Middelburg and Willem Jacobsz. Fasol of Oiltgensplate
are engaged to sail to the river Essequibo. U. S. Com., II, 66-67.

1636. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

There was read and adopted the letter for Essequibo, to Jan de Moor and
others. Same, p. 70.

1637. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Resolved. That the sliip de Jti'^er shall provisionally be made ready to be
sent to Arguin and Ksse(|uibo.

Adriaen van de Woestyne, late cadet at the Castle of Arguin, at the wages
of nine guilders a month, and taken along to Essequibo by Jan van der Goes
as assistant. Same, p. 71.



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 31

DEFINITIONS- Continued).

ESSEi^riBO— (Continued).

1637. Corporalion of Trinidad.

When the enemy entered Guayana [Santo Thome], they carried off, among
other things, the Most Holy Sacrament, which is kept by the enemy in their
fort at Macaruni [KykovoralJ.

When the enemy [Dutch] entered Guayana [Santo Thome J they took him
[Andres] and Juan Gonzalez and carried them off to Amacuro and Macaruni,
where the enemy have a fort on an island, and . . . they carried off the
property which they took in Guayana, and the Most Holy Sacrament of the
said town, which they keep in a house in the said fort of 31at.-aruni.

B. C, /, gS-gg.

1638. Instructions to J. Baptiste de Arezula.

They have carried off the Most Holy Host, and are keeping it under great
guard and custody in Essequibo, iu tlie fort and settlement which they hold
f liere. Same, p. 116.

1639. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Then sail to Essequibo . . . after taking in the commodities which the
Company has in Essequibi) ... in case of ill success, he offers his ser-
vices to remain in Essequibo for three years ... so as to remain iu
Essequibi) in order to trade in the river and on the Wild Coast.

U. S. Com., II, g6-gj.

1640. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

There were read letters to Essequibo and Arguin, which were approved
[and ordered] to be sent as drawn up. Same, p. gg.

1657. Committee governing Walcheren cities.

There shall be equipped two ships, the one to the Wild Coast, otherwise
Essequibo. Same, p. 143.

1657. Minutes of " Wet en Raed " of Vere.

The colony of the Wild Coast and river of Essequibo. B. C.-C, App., 26.

1672. Contract between Essequibo and Berbices.

Mr. Hendrik Rol, Commandeur of the Fort and Colony of the River Esse-
quibo and the appurtenant rivers and districts. Same, p. 45.

1699, Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

December 28. [1699] ... In the evening the Commandeur returned to
the Fort from Essequibo. Same, p. 76.

1700. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

January 9, [i/oo] . . . Mr. Adriaen Hollander arrived at the Fort from
Essequibo. Same, pp. 7S-7g.

July 6, [1700]. At about 4 or 5 o'clock the vessel " De Jonge Jan " and our
barque " Rammekens" came in sight and anchored off Essequibo.

July 7. . . . the clergyman stopped here on his way to the vessel " De
Jonge Jan," lying at anchor about an hour and a-half from here. Same, p. 107,



32 GEOGRAPHEC FEATURES.

DEFI N ITIONS-(Continued).

ESSEi^ri BO— (Continued).

1701. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

June II, [1701 \. Free colonists of tills river. B. C.-C, App., i^S.

1703. Muster Roll.

Muster roll of all retainers, ... in the service of the . . . West
India Company in the Chamber Zeclan 1, in the Colony EssiMjnibo, [includes
postlioklers in U.-in^rary. M ihaicony, l*ic,p. iSg.

1724. Court of Policy.

That nation [Mag^anouts] intended to come and kill the Christians and ruin
this river at the first opportunity.

According to reports received, the Maganout nation were killing all they
could lay hands on up in Esseqnibo. B. C, II, 2.

1744. Court of Justice.

Two Spaniards on their way hither from Orinoco had been arrested at the
Company's Post in AVac(iiiepi), an 1 asked if they would l»e allowed to arrive
in the Colony or be sent back.

It was resolved to allow them to come here this time, but that this must
not be taken as a precedent. Same, p. 4J.

1746. West India Company.

Something which might tend to the disadvantage of the Company or of the
Colony in Essequibo. Same, p. 46.

1747. West India Company (the Ten).
Condition of affairs in Ivio Esseqnibo.

Letters from the Commandeur . . . written in llio Essequibo.
Commandeur in Rio Esscquibo. Same, p. jo.

Could be found in Esscijnibo a competent surveyor.

Limits of this Company in Rio Esseqnibo.

We approve the Regulations about the granting of lands mentioned in the
Resolution of the Court of Policy of the Colony in Rio EsseciuilM). . . .
Whether it is possible to find out how far the limits of the Company in Rio
£s»equibo do extend. Same, p.j-f.



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 33

DEFINITIONS-(Continued).

ESSEQUIBO— (Continued).

1748. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I flatter myself that the map of this river thereby transmitted may yet come
into your Honours' hands.

I hope that the letters and papers by the " Juffrow Margareta " may yet come
to hand, because I sent by her a map of tliis river made for your Honors.

B.C., II, 37.

1750. Report of Committee on the Commandeur's report.

No one whatsoever should be allowed to come into tlie river, much less make
a stay there, unless he beforehand addressed himself to the Commandeur there,
and asked him for permission to stay in the Colony for a stipulated period.

Same, p. 6S.

1752. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The river and Colony of Essequibo. Same, p. yj.

1754. Muster Roll.

List of all the . . . Company's servants on the nth October, 1754, in
Rio Essequibo [include those in Moruka, Demerara and Mahaicony].



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