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and Carib nation in the whole of the Barima River and also the Woeboo country
did look upon him as their only chief. B. C, VII, 2j2.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH.

1 83 1. William Hilhouse.

The Ackaways during the insurrection applied to have me appointed tlieir
Chief. ^'- C., VI, 41-

1834. Captain Tonge, Pomeroon.

Having collected as many of the Indians as . , . the weather would per-
mit, I first explained and then presented in form his Excelleney's eommission
to Captain Juan and . . . it . . . was universally received with respect
and gratitude. Same, p. 34.

1837. Rev. A. Hermant.

The Indian Maria Hyme applied ... to pray me to appoint and
choose another Indian for Captain. Seeing that if he is Captain against his
will he shall not attend to his duty, I . . . recommend ... the Indian,
Miguel Chacon, who is now living in Essequibo ; . . . He is
esteemed by the Spanish Indians. B. C.-C, App., 2/6.

1840. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

Visiting the Hymurucaboru, several of the Warrov>- Indians residing in that
creek, as well as those ... in the Manawarein, requested that Captains
should be appointed to live among them— Captain Jonklass . . . and Cap-
tain George . . . having . . . died. B. C, VI, loj.

1843. W. C. McClintock, Postholder in Pomeroon.

I . . . inclose Captain Maguil Chacon"s commission, who died in Morocco
Creek . . . last month.

The inhabitants of Morocco having- expressed their desire to have an-
other Captain appointed, I . . . recommend . . . the Spanish Indian,
Jaime Maria, as . . . fully qualfied to act as Captain and constable over all
the Spaniards in Morocco Creek.

. . . Permit me to recommend that the person holding the commission be
allowed to act as constable also. Same, p. I2j.

1S43. Rev. J. Cullen.

Captain Jaime Maria and the Indians of the Morocco Mission, . . .
are desirous to have Calistro Hermandez appointed to act as sub-Captain,

as they consider it necessary to have a protector . . . during the . . .
absence of the Captain. Moreover, as the Postholder may require the services
of the Captain in his capacity of Chief Constable, it is expedient to make this
appointment. The Indians likewise are desirous tliat a constable's staff be
provided for the Captain and sub-Captaiu, and accompany their respective
commissions. oame,p. /2/.



33G INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH- APPOINTM ENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH-(Continued).

1843. R. H. Schomburgk.

Tlie Macusi chieftain, Pasieo . . . I , . . recommend ... as Captain
of tlie Macusis near the frontier, and deserving to receive the stick, or offi-
cial staff, and a commission like the Arawaak chieftain CaboralH at the Guainia.

B.C., VII, 53.

1848. W. C. McChntock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The following Indians, ... fit and proper persons to hold the office
of captain, are . . . submitted

Cabarally (Arrawack), captain and constable for Assakata Creek.

Moses (Worrow), captain forWiney River,

Ben (Worrow), captain for Barania Creek.

Daniel (Carabeese), for Barania Creek.

John (W^orrow), for Upper Bareenia River.

Nelson (Worrow), for Arnka Creek, or Lower Bareenia. B. C, VI, 172.

1849. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Arrawak Indian Cabarally . . . having- already held a Commis-
sion, which, however, he returned to the then Government Secretary,
. . . because I declined to recognize him as captain for the Worrow
Indians. . . . His Excellency . . . caused a Commission to be issued
to John Henry, a Worrow ... in Upper Morocco : . . . I pray his Ex-
cellency will . . . confirm the said Arrawack Indian Cabarally in the office
of Captain and constable, for the Assakata Creek. Same, p. lyi.

1852. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

I . . . recommend . . . the Warrow Indian France, whose settle-
ment is in Himara Cabara Creek, . . . as a fit and proper person to fill
the office of Captain and Constable. Sa/ne, p. jSg.

I . . . recommend . . . the following- Indians as . . . fit to
act as Captains and Constables:

Thomas Adams, Arrawack Indian, residing at Piraca, Upper Paniaroon.

Cornelius Scarda, Arrawak, residing at Pomeroon.

John Carrabeese Indian, residing in Iserooroo Creek, Upper Pamaroon.

France, Carrabeese, residing in Kiramap Creek, Rio Pamaroon.

JefYrey, Carrabeese, living at Arria, Rio Pomeroon. Same, p. /go.

Indians . . . recommended ... to act as Captains and con-
stables :

France Carrabeese Pomaroon.

Hermannus "

John " Isserooroo Creek, Tributary of Pomaroon.

Dick " Pomaroon.

Jeffrey " . .Arria . . " (Upper).

Thomas Adams. .Arrawack Pomaroon.

Cornelius Scarde " "

John William " Arrajiicro Creek,

Fraser " Tapacooma Creek. Same, p. jgi.



INDIANS. 337

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH-(Continued).

1854. W. C. McClintock. Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

I communicate the loss of John Henry, Captain of the Warrow Indians in
Tpper 3Ioruca, . . . from an attack of small-pox. ... To fill up the
vacancy which his death has caused I respectfully recommend . . . the
Warrow Indian Watson, and . . . for similar appointments, the Warrow
Indian France, living on Kinauiu Creek, situated between Moruca and Wieney
River, and the Arrawack Indian Cabaralli, of Assakata Creek, where no Captain
has yet been created. B. C, VI, igy.

1863. Governor of British Guiana.

Whereas it has been represented to me that the Carabice Indian Cephas is a
well conducted and loyal subject, . . . I . , . appoint the said Indian
Ceplias to tlie office of Captain and Constal)le. B. C, VII, 22-/.

1868. W. C. McChntock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

Names of the Indians respectfully submitted ... to hold the oflice
of Captain and constable over their respective tribes : —
William Scard (Arawack), in the room of Cornelius.
Hany (Warrow), in the room of France.
Davidson (Warrow), in the room of Ben.
Antonie (Accoway), in the room of Saurawick.
Francisco (Maiongong), in the room of Raiman.
The above-named five Indians attend at the Waramurie Mission.

B. C, VI, 20S-20Q.

1868. Petition of John Davidson, an Arawak Indian.

Since the death of our Headman, Captain Caliestro, all the buck Indians up
that side of the Colony, they are wholly ungoverned, making wars against them-
selves, and taking each others' lives, for want of a Chief or Captain amongst
them, or a Headman over them ; . . . under these circumstances your peti-
tioner respectfully prays to recommend himself to ... be appointed
by your Excellency as Headman or Captain over the other bnek Indians in
the room of the late Captain Caliestro, ... so that I could command
peace and order amongst them as formerly during the lifetime of Captain
Caliestro. Same, p. 2og.

1869. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

Previons to 3Iissions being" established among the aborigines of this dis-
trict, tlieir Captains, or Cliiefs, were always selected by themselves, and the

men possessing the art of conjuror^or, according to the people's belief,
the power of destroying the lives of others by their incantations and prayers —
were invariably chosen to fill the ofifice. This system proving- sucli a bar-
rier to everything: calculated to ameliorate their then degraded condition,
the conjurors having so much influence over their respective tribes, as to induce
them to set their faces, so to speak, against all kind of instruction, and seeing, as I
did, the necessity for some interference, 1 brought matters under the notice of
Sir Henry Light, the then Governor of the Colony, expecting the difficulties to be
overcome before any permanent good for the Indians could be achieved. With
the view, therefore, of removing, if not to suppress entirely, the then prevailing
influence of the Chiefs, I suggested to his Excellency Sir Henry Light,



338 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH-(Continued).

that they should at once he dispossessed of all authority to nominate Cap-
tains, and the power of making such appointments should be vested in the
Executive ; this arrang:emeut . , . has proved most beneficial.

B. C, VI, 2og.

I, therefore, beg his Excellency to appoint Sandy, Carribee Indian, to the
office of Captain &c., for this district. Same, p. 210.

1876. Governor Longden.

Whereas . . . the Caribee Indian, Peter CorneHus, is a well conducted
and loyal subject, . . . I . . . appoint the said Indian, Peter Cor-
nelius, to the office of Captain and Constable. B. C, VII, 227-22S.

1877. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent in Pomeroon.

I . . . recommend . . . Jose Rosario Torres, Spanish Arrawack of
Moruca River, ... to fill the office of Captain and constable.

I have also to recommend ... a Warrow Indian named Moses, of
Himara-Cabara Creek, Rio Moruca, ... to fill the office of Captain.

B. C, VI, 216.

1878. Kortright, Governor of British Guiana.

Whereas . . , the Caribeese Indian, Peter Cornelius, is a well conducted
and loyal subject . . . I . . . appoint . . . Peter Cornelius to
tlie office of Captain and Constable. B. C, VII, 228.

1 891. Michael McTurk.

Twenty-five Indians came from the creek. They had many complaints to
make of the " Spaniors," all of the same nature, the taking away of their cassava,
and giving nothing in return. There "vvas no man amouar tliem [Indians of
Ekereku Creek] whom I considered lit to be appointed as captain, but the
most intelligent one, Edward Robert, I promised should be appointed as a
constable, and he is to follow me to Kalacoon for the purpose. I explained to
him, through an interpreter, what his duties would be, and also the boundaries of
our territory. . . . This interested the others very much, and they appeared
pleased that the Governor should appoint some of their own in authority, and
promised to obey him. B. C, VI, 2^4.

1897. Michael McTurk.

Indian Captains liave been appointed by me in the Pomeroon and Moruca
rivers, , . . These appointments have given great satisfaction to the
Indians. B. C, VII, jj/.

1897. Wauakumma, a Warrow Indian.

I have heard from my father and mother. . . . that the Dutchmen had
places about Koriabo. ... I also know the place below Koriabo which is
called "the Dutchman's place." . . . There are three trenches there
into the Barima River. ... 1 liave heard the old people speak of the
Warrau Captain Tremencia [dementia] . . . My father and mother told
me about the Dutch. They were very good to the Warraus, and used to give
them cloth and things. Same, /. 2og.



INDIANS. 339

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH-(Continuedi.

1897. Burriburrikutu, a Warrow woman.

I knew tijo IVarraw Captain Tromoncia. Tromcucia had a short stick
with silver at tlie head of it, and he had a paper from the governor.

B. C, VII, 210.
1897. Kwaidawarri, a Warrow Indian.

1 knew the Arawack man Caberalli. He was the Arawack Captain. He
lived in Asacarta, bnt sometimes . . . at Howhanna, in Aruka. . . .
He had a paper from the drovernor. Same, p. 211.

My father's brother been the Warrau Captain this side. His name been
Waiakwarri. . . , >Vaiakwarra had a stick with tliree holes in it.
Schombruck g-ave him the stick. After Waiakwarra died, a white man from
Essequibo came to Moruka and took the stick. He said the stick belonged
to the EngUsh people.

There been at the same time another Warrau Captain in Kaituma. He
name Waha. He had a stick from the Governor. I saw it. Tamanawarri
was another Warrau Captain. He lived in Kaituma too. He had a stick
from the Governor. Same, p. 212.

1897. Bautista Calietro, a Spanish Arawak.

My father was Captain Callietro, . , . Captain of the Spanish Arawacks,
who all lived in Moruka. , . . My father, because he was Captain of tliem
all, had a Commission, a stick, a flag-, and a cannon. The Colony gave him
these things. After he died Mr. Mac took them all back again. . . .
After my father died Captain Raffaelle was made Captain in his place.

Captain Caberalli . . . had a Commission, a stick, and a flag, but he
did not have a cannon. Same, p. 21J.

1897. Issokura, an Arawak woman.

Captain Jan been my mother's brother. Dutchmen been make him Cap-
tain. He been have paper and stick. Dutchmen been give them to him. He
been talk the Dutch language. Same, p. 2ig.

1897. Neebrowari, a Warrow Indian.

My father . . . was Captain for the Warrau and Arawack in
Amakuru. He . . . had a stick. Same, p. 220.

1897, Matthias Schade, an Arawak Indian.

3Iy father was made Captain of the Arrawaks . . . when Mr. Brett
was missionary and before the Pomeroon Mission was moved from Arapaikru
Mouth to Cabacaburi. . . . The Bishop hauded him the stick and the
writing. Same, p. 221.

1897. Michael McTurk.

Peter Cornelisen ... I know . . . was a Captain for tlie Carib
Indians living about the upper parts of the three rivers.

I also knew Thomas Cephas. . . . The Het Fall, on the River Esse-
quibo, where he lived, is the second fall encountered on ascending the river. The
staff now produced and shown to me ... is his staff of office, and was pre-
sented to him on his appointment.



840



INDIANS.



RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-APPOINTMENT OF INDIAN CAP-
TAINS, BY THE DUTCH AND BRITISH-(Continued).

The staff now produced and shown to me . . . belonged to the Captain
of the Atorai Indians, who inhabit the savannah at the head of the Essequibo and
Rupununi. . . . and who . . . held the position of Captain for a con-
siderable number of years. B. C, VII, 2jj.

The same system of Captains who exercised control over the Indians was pur-
sued in that part as in the Essequibo, and it had beeu followed by the Dutch
prcTious to the Eng:lish occupation. Same, p. 234.



1897. E. F. im Thurn.

The following is the earliest complete, or nearly complete, list of these
Captains [appointed by the Government] that I have been able to compile,
and would embrace the period from about 1840 to 1850: —



Name,


Tribe.


Residence.




Spanish Arawacks


Hobo (Moruka).




Arawacks


Assacarta.


Peter .


Caribs • • •




Bushman


Warraus (tribe of Warraus in
Moruka)






Manawaina.




Warraus (Barima)


Warina.




Warraus


Cumacka.


Tamanawari )


Ditto


Kaituma.


Waha i


Arawacks


Wassekuru.









Same, pp. 2jy-2jS.



[1 898. J Editor of British Case.

List of Commissions to Indian Captains. A complete series of the Com-
missions issued does not seem to be extant ; those collected here are a few lead-
ing specimens :



Name.


Tribe.


Place.


Date.


John William . . .
Erijee Manarwa. .
William


Arawak


Pomeroon

I'pper Essequibo.

Barima

Moruka


Nov. 18, 1852.


Warow


Jan. 1855.
Aug. 27, 1 86 1.






Sept. 24, 1861.


Patricio Sabana . .
Wiabee




tt


Nov. 9, 1 86 1.




Waini.


Feb. 5, 1862.




t(


July 9, 1862.




.,


a




Hillario


Akawoi


Barama


«











Same, p. 246.



INDIANS. 341

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIANS.

1785. Director-General in Essequibo.

November 28, 1785. To-day, . . . discharged from his Postholder-
ship, Nicolas Pierson, who had been appointed by the French, and in his place
was placed again, and newly sworn in, Daniel Starrenberg, the former protector
of Indinns and Postholder in the upper part of this river from old time called
Moera, with fresh instructions and a fresh commission. B. C, VII, iy4.

1803. Court of Policy.

A Petition dated the loth December, 1802, addressed to his Honour by F.
J. van (lerLott as Captain of the bnr^lier soldiers in the division of the
Red Ensig-n in Demerary, containing a report of his demands in the matter of
the last general bush expedition against the bush negroes. B. C, V, ijg.

Ordered, that an extract of the present Resolve be transmitted to Lieutenant
Moore and to the Protector of Indians in Esseqnibo for their respective infor-
mation. Same, p. i8j.

1804. Court of Policy.

Read a memorial of the Protector of the Indians of Essequibo, Mr. F. T.
van der Lott, acquainting the Court with his having some time ago, in his
capacity as Protector of the Indians above-mentioned, appointed to be Post-
holder in the Upper River of Essequibo the free coloured man Amon Cor-
nells.

Resolved, to conform the provisional nomination made by the Protector,
Mr. van der Lott, on the person of Amon Cornells aforesaid.

Ordered, that an extract from this Resolution be handed to the Protector,
Mr. van der HolT, aforesaid.

Counsellors van der Velden and Kroll have not concurred [and believe]
. . . that Mr. van der Hoff should not have appointed Amon Cornells . . .

Mr. van der Hoff then observed . . . that he was not aware of it [a
certain resolution] when he made the above-mentioned appointment.

Same, p. iSj.

Mr. Mack, who was requested and deputed by the Court's Resolution of the
30th of May, of the present year, together with Mr. Clements and Mr. Fiscal
van der Lott, as Protector of Indians, to assemble the Indians in the Upper
River of Essequibo, and to assure them of the friendly dispositions of the Gov-
ernment of the Colony towards them, and at the same time distributing among
them some small presents or gifts, reported that he . . . repaired to the
upper river of Essequibo ; that he found on the place of rendezvous about 300
Indians and twelve Captains or Uilen, whom lie consequently entertained in
the usual way, and whom he endeavored to satisfy with some small gifts, prom-
ising them . . . another distribution would be made amongst them.

B. C.-C, App., 262.

1805. Court of Policy.

The manner in which a distribution out of these articles was to be made
among the Indians being now deliberated upon, it was resolved, in the tirst
place, with regard to Essequibo, to request Mr. Mack, as Protector of the
Indians of that river, to appoint the time and place for such distribution to take
place, and to give the necessary direction to the Postholders to collect the Indians
and to report to the Court. B. C, V, iSj.



342 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIANS-(Con-

tinued).

1805. Court of Policy.

With respect to Demerary River, Mr. Cuming was requested to arrange
with the two rrotectors of Imlians in tliat river the time and place for a gen-
eral distribution of these articles among the Indians of that district.

B. C, V, 1S7.
Gratifications and presents to Indians —
Account of Mr. Mack, Protector, for sugar and rum provided for the great

entertainment of Indians which took place some time since i,423-5 A-

Satne, p. iSS.

1807. Court of Policy.

Mr. Councillor Knollman, in his capacity as Protector of the Indians in

Essequibo, [stated] that the Indians who live at the Post of Morocco, and who
had been employed in a bush expedition under the direction of the late Pro-
tector, Mr. Mack, deceased, had not yet been paid.

Whereupon it was resolved to authorise the said Mr. Knollman, if the articles
which are deposited in the Colony House are not sufficient, to purchase an addi-
tional quantity of salempores, etc., for account of the Colony, and therewith to pay
the Indians.

Mr. Knollman was further authorised at his request to take over, under a
proper inventory, the presents for Indians which still remain at the house of the
late Mr. Mack, deceased ; and, further, to share every three months among the
Indians ivho live near the Post of Morocco 100 gallons new rum, and a pro-
portionable quantity among the Indians of the Upper River Essequibo.

B. C.-C, App., 263.

Read a letter from Mr. Knollman, the Protector of the Indians in Essequibo.

With respect to the second part of Mr. Knollman's letter relative to the cir-
cumstances of two free Indians having been purchased as slaves by an inhabitant
of Essequibo, it was resolved that the letters respecting that charge shall be
transmitted to the Fiscal of Essequibo, that he may enforce the law against the
delinquent. Same, p. 263.

Relative to some differences which had lately broken out between the free
colored people settled in the Essequibo River, and some of the Indian tribes,
particularly the Ackawoys. . , . some mutual animosity seemed to prevail
among the Indian tribes themselves, yet . . . they were all irritated against
the above-mentioned free coloured people.

Mr. Knollman begged leave to report, in his capacity as Protector of the In-
dians of Essequibo, that ... he had directed the Postholder Linau [of
Moruka], to proceed without delay up that river [Essequibo], as well as up its
branches named Cajooni and Massaroenie ; also with instructions to collect every
information and to satisfy the Indians of the amicable disposition of the Colony
in their behalf, so as to induce all those who might have left their villages to
return and reside there peaceably. Same, p. 264.

1808. Court of Policy.

Resolved that Mr. G. Timmerman be, and hereby is, appointed Protector of
the Indians for tlie district of the West Coast of Essequibo, commencing at
Supename Creek, and extending to the utmost limits of the Colony towards the
Spanish settlements ; and that Mr. A. C. Roberts be appointed Protector of the
Indians for the River Essequibo and its dill'erent branches. Same, p. 263.



INDIANS. 34:3

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIAINIS-(Con-

tinued).

1808. Secretary of Demerara to Gerrit Timmerman.

H. yy. Kiiollman, . . . having resigned the post of Protector of the
ludians for the River and Dependent Districts of Esseqnibo, the . . .

Court has . . . seen fit, in the place of . . . Knollman, resigned, to
nominate you . . . and instal you as Protector of the Indians so far as con-
cerns the west coast of the aforesaid Colony from the Creek Supename right up
to the Spanish boundary, the River Pomeroon being included therein, Mr. C. A.
Roberts having been appointed as Protector of the Indians for tlie River Esse-
qnibo and the rivers and creeks tlowing^ into it.

I have ... to request you to . . . apply to Mr. Knollman, with a
view of taking over the papers and documents respecting' the post of Protector
[of the Indians] and at the same time (according to inventory) the half of the
items for native trading and rations belonging to the Colony which may yet re-
main under the care of Mr. Knollman, B. C, V, igi.

1809. Court of Policy.

The Court having considered an act of H. C. Wahl, Postholder with the
Indians in the River Massaroeni, for sundries supplied for the use of the Post,
and wages of Indians hired to work about the same, amounting in all to G.
7,232 15, it was resolved that the same shall be paid in this instance, but
... in future he is directed positively to abstain from contracting or engaging
for any expense whatsoever . . . without the previons knowledge and
approbation of the Protector of the Indians under whose orders he stands.

B. C.-C, App., 363.

1809. Court of Policy.

The . . . Petition having been read, the Court ordered that the same be
referred to Mr. Roberts as Protector of the Indians in the River Esseqnibo,
to report thereon to the Court at the next meeting. B. C, V, ig2.

1 810. Court of Policy.

Laid before the Court a list of some articles which the Protector of
Indians in Esseqnibo, Mr. G. Timmerman, requested the Court's authorization
to purchase for the Indians who have been attached to the Post of Morocco since
April, 1809, to April, 18 10. B. C.-C, App., 266.

1810. Accounts.

G. Timmerman, Protector of Indians at the Post of Morocco . .G. 2,313 7 8
The heirs of . . . W. H. Knollman, for sundry disbursements of

said Mr. Knollman when Protector of Indians in Esseqnibo. .G. 2,621 2 o
Protector of Indians, A. C. Roberts, for sundries delivered and paid

for the Indians G. 812 o o

Same, p.jgi.

181 2. Postholder of Mazaruni.

Tlie Protectors make their regulations themselves, and these the Post-
holder follows. B. C, V, igg.

1813. Acting Governor Codd.

Mr. Edmonston, tlie Protector of the Indians, is a gent universally re-
spected in the Colony and beloved by them, but his private affairs do not admit
of his taking any active measures to improve the condition of the Indians, nor
does it appear to be prescribed as a duty expected of him. Same, p. 21 j.



344 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIANS-(Con-

tinued).

1 813,* May 15. Instruction for Postholders.

1. The Postholder shall keep an accurate journal.

2. He shall transmit quarterly a copy of this journal to the Protector of his

district.

3. In case of any extraordinary occurence at or near the Post, he shall imme-



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