Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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diately acqualut therewith the rrotector.

6. When required by the Protector he shall . . . execute promptly any
orders he may receive from the Protector.

7. He shall not permit any persons, ... to pass the Post, unless they
show him a pass, either from the Governor-General, or from the Commandeur
of the Essequibo, or from one of the Protectors of the Indians.

8. If any person not provided with such a pass, should attempt to pass the
Post, the Postholder shall . . . detain such person ... at the same
time giving notice to the Protector.

13. Should any Indian apply to him with complaints . . . he shall repair
with such Indian to the Protector.

14. Any white or free coloured person about the Post who might be desirous
to have an Indian woman to live with him, shall acquaint therewith the Post-
holder, who is then to wait on the Protector with such woman, . . . and
the Protector is then either to sanction or to refuse such cohabitation as he may
think right.

17. He sliall apply from time to time to the Protector for the rum he
may want for the purpose of giving a dram to the Indians ^vho call upon
him. ^- C., V, 216.



1814. Court of Policy.

William Rohertson, as Protector of Indians for Essequibo, stated that the
Post Masseroeni had not been supplied with their annual allowances for nearly
two years, . . . and moved that the Protectors should be authorised to pro-
cure the necessary articles.

The Court . . . ordered that the Protectors of Indians for Posts Mas-
seroeni and Mahaica be authorised ... to procure the annual allowances
for their respective Posts. B. C.-C, App., 26g.

1823. William Hilhouse.

The office of Protector of Indians is of recent creation, not being known
in the earliest days of the Colony.

Its principal benefit appears to consist in the establishment of a medium of
communication between the Indians and the Head of the Government. . . .
It is entirely a civil office. B. C, VI, jo.

There are five Protectors -that is, five petty Governments— over the In-
dians, without concert and without superintendence. . . . In a military point
of view the office is in every way objectionable, and its inconveniences can only
be obviated by the regular and acknowledged appointment of a Commander, or
Captain-General of Indians. Same, p. 31.



♦This document dated May 15, 18O3 was enclosed in a letter dated Sept. 26, 1813. 18O3 is believed
to be a misprint for 18I3.



INDIANS. 345

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIANS-(Con-

tinued).

1823. William Hilhouse.

The following remarks . , . from ... an Indian Captain : —
Our Protectors are appointed without reference to any choice of ours, and
when we look up to them for kindness and favour, we receive coldness and con-
tempt. B. C, VI, J2.

1824. Instructions for Protectors of Indians.

The Protectors of ludiaiis will, to the utmost of their power, give effect to
and euforce amoug- their respective Postliolders a strict and diligent observ-
ance of the instructions originally issued on the 18th May, 1803, and subse-
quently reprinted and issued afresh by authority on the 2nd May, 181 5.

Same, p. jg.
1827. Lieutenant-Governor D'Urban.

There is a legally appointed Protector of Indians for each of the six
rivers : Mahaiconey, Mahaica, Demerary, Boerasirie, Essequibo and Pomeroon,
under whose immediate orders Postholders act. Same, p. jS.

1 83 1. A. van Ryck de Groot.

I am a Protector of Indians. If an Indian made a complaint to me I should
act as mediator, not as a Magistrate. If the injuring party did not choose to
appear, I should not feel myself authorized to compel him to do so. In their
quarrels I should consider I had nothing to do unless they called on me as medi-
ator. ... I give presents ... to the Indians, they are a retaining fee
for their fidelity and friendship, . . . the Indians consider them as presents
to them as friends and allies, not as subjects. Same, p. 41.

1 83 1. Second Fiscal.

In every district of the Colony where Indians reside, an officer is ap-
pointed, who is selected from amongst the most respectable proprietors, whose
very title— " Protector of Indians" — proclaims the duties which he has to
perform. To him it belongs to receive the complaints which Indians may have
to prefer against, not only, as I conceive, any of the other inhabitants, but also
against each other, and use every legal method to procure redress of their griev-
ances.

In each of these districts is also a Postholder, receiving a salary from the
Colonial Government, and residing at situations more immediately in contact
with the Indians, who are chiefly, though not exclusively, appointed for the pur-
pose of assisting the Protectors in their care of the Indians, as appears in the in-
structions for those officers, and who are therefore placed under the immediate
superintendence of the Protectors.

That such protection has been promptly and effectually afforded, and been re-
lied on by the Indians can be proved by the production of innumerable instances.

Same, p. 44.

As soon as he had committed the crime ... he made his way to Mr. Tim-
merman the Protector of Indians. . . . The family of the murdered
woman pursued him there, and demanded that he should be surrendered to
them, which was, of course, refused by the Protector. The family then proceeded
to the office of the Second Fiscal . . . demanding jus'ice . . . and de-
sirous that he should be dealt with according to our laws.

[While] Second Fiscal three or four [like] cases [were] . . . brought
before me by the Indians. Sa7ne, p. 44.



346 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-PROTECTORS OF INDIANS-(Con.

tinued).

1832. William Playter, assistant Postholder.

Mr. Richardson is the Postholder. . . . His duty is to look after the
Indians and keep them in order. They always come to him when they have dis-
putes to have them settled . . , There is a Protector of Indians in the
Essequibo, His Honor George Bag-ot. Mr. Richardson is allowed every three
months, a puncheon of rum and one of molasses, plaintains and fish, cutlasses
and axes, for the purpose of distributing to the Indians. I have been to the
Protector for these supplies, and I have also received them in town by his order.
Sometimes they come and put the Post in order and weed the grass, and
they are given these things in payment. They always expect payment for their
work. Sometimes they get these things without work. B. C, F/, 4S.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-SUPPRESSION OF INDIAN SLAVERY

AND ITS EFFECT.

1807. Court of Policy.

Respecting the revival ... of the law promulgated on the 1st May
of the year 1793, by express command of the States-General . . . against
tlie purchasing: of Indians as slaves, it was resolved that the said law shall
be again republished for the general information . . . and with the addition
. . . that it shall also be unlawful and criminal for any persons to take or
receive Indians in pawn, or as a pledge for debts due by other Indians.

B. C.-C, App., 264.

1810. Court of Policy.

The Ambassador had then received some presents and had returned
into the woods, and his Excellency began to entertain some hopes he would
have been heard of no more, when this Chief arrived, which now rendered it
absolutely necessary to come to some determination on the subject of their rep-
resentations ; and as the selling' their Indiau prisoners as slaves iu these
Colonies could not be allowed, to devise some means at least so iar to satisfy
them as to prevent their making- war upon the Indians settled in the back
lands and their murdering- their prisoners . . . his Excellency was not,
however, of opinion that their settling in the neighborhood of the Colonies should
be encouraged, or their alliance for the purpose of internal defence be courted.

B. C, V, 194.

[As to the Caribs] having formerly been of great use to the Colony . . .
this certainly was the case at the time it was lawful to employ the other classes
of Indians as slaves, when these Caraiban Indians were very useful in pro-
curing them, but could not be applicable at tliis moment, when that trade
was prohibited. Same, p. ig^.

1 81 2. Court of Policy.

Chief Manarwan having been now admitted in Court . . . His Ex-
cellency . . . demanded . . . the reason of his coming, he answered :

That the presents made to him and his people when he was last in this
Colony were for services rendered in former years to the Colonies.

That Governor Bentinck and the Court at that time made him promise not
to wage vyars against the other Indian tribes . . . and that he should
entirely give up tlie Slave Trade. B, C, V, 200.



INDIANS. 347

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-SUPPRESSION OF INDIAN SLAVERY
AND ITS EFFECT-(Continued).

i8i2. Court of Policy.

That his Excellency and the Court, in consideriiliou of his thus leaving' the
Slave Trade, had promised to distribute to him and his people annually,

when called for, similar kinds of presents as those then given to him.

That he had faithfully kept his word, . . . and that he consequently ex-
pects to receive the presents promised him and his people. B. C, V, 200.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-TREATIES OR AGREEM ENTS WITH

INDIANS.

1 8 10. Court of Pohcy.

The result of a v^ery long conference . . . was the following agreement, —

That the Court should g-ive him [Manariwan, a Carib Chief] and his people,

in the first instance, such articles as he had demanded . . . and that the

same kind of presents should he distributed to them annually when called

for at the end of each year.

In consideration whereof he, the said Manariwan, . . . pledged him-
self not to make war upon the Indians residing in the back lands or con-
nected with this Colony ; that he would spare the lives of the prisoners he had
made, . . , and that, finally, he and his people would behave themselves
peaceably and amicably towards the whites and those who lived under their pro-
tection, excepting, in case of his being molested by either of them. B, C, V, igs.

181 2. Court of Policy.

Chief Manar\van having been now admitted in Court ... his Excellency
. , . demanded . . . the reason of his coming, he answered : —

That the presents made to him and his people when he was last in this Colony
» W'Cre for services rendered in former years to the Colonies.

That Governor Bentinck and the Court at that time made him promise
not to wage wars against the other Indian tribes . . . and that he
should entirely give up the Slave Trade.

That His Excellency and the Court, in consideration of his thus leaving the
Slave Trade, had promised to distribute to him and his people, annually,
when called for, similar kinds of presents as those then given to him.
That he had faithfully kept his word, . . . and that he consequently expects
to receive the presents promised him and his people.

The Governor . . . explained to the Chief Manarwan that, he having so
faithfully kept his promise, the government on their part would give him the
presents he and his people had come down for. ... His Excellency was of
opinion that he could not continue this annual subsidy without the sanction of
His Majesty, that his Excellency would therefore give him as soon as they would
arrive the presents of the year, but that he could not promise anything further
without a sanction from home.

The Chief having expressed his surprise at his Excellency's statement, saying
Governor Bentinck and the Court had stated to him that the agreement entered
into . . . was on record, and that provided he [Manarwan] kept his promise
he would have no trouble in obtaining whatever presents had been promised.

Same, p. 200.

The arrival of the Carib Chief Manowara . . . placed me in a situa-
tion . . . which I felt extremely difficult and delicate. . . . This
Indian . . . declared he came by invitation to receive presents promised



348 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-TREATIES OR AGREEMENTS WITH

I N DIANS-(Continued).

annually. On referring to the Minutes of this Honourable Court I found his state-
ment correct. ... my predecessor, . . . Governor Bentinck may have
had instructions from high authority, which would cause an act of his to be
. . . proper, whereas, . . . without the commands of my Sovereign . . .
I do not think myself authorized to enter into any compact or assent to this
Colony being bound to pay a yearly subsidy.

I do not think it would be in my power to assent to any Treaty of this
nature, unless by express orders from . . . the Prince-Regent.

B. C, V,20i.
1 813. Governor Carmichael.

When Manarroc, the Chief of the Caribs, came down with about 300
people, ... I received him and his Chiefs, desiring to know the cause of
their visit. His reply was, that he came for presents promised him, and . . .
he expected to have what he came for. I told him that the promise of any
former (xovernor I could not be answerable for, unless ordered by my King —
that I was confident His Majesty . . . would not permit any demand to be
made as a right, but that they would grant from their own generosity and friend-
ship a boon and a gift, which must come of their own free will and when they
thought proper, . . . I then told him that, in consideration of the distance he
had come, he would be given what presents could be had conveniently, but he
must not come or expect any more unless sent for, that the Eng'lish would always
perform any promise made by them, but did not now consider any to bind
them.

Five chiefs of the Arrowauks, with their followers, came down the Dem-
erary ; as their tone and demeanour seemed to be inore peremptory than the
Caribs, expressing a jealousy of the presents they had received, and threatening
to make war, ... I told them at their peril to attempt anything of that
kind, and informed them they could not now receive anything, but if at any
future time it was thought proper to call for them, notice would be given to Mr.
Edmonston, their Protector, and the gratuity or presents would depend upon good
behaviour. Satne,p. 20J.

1813. Charles Edmonston, Protector of Indians.

Though my appointment as Protector of the Indians is of no more than three
or four years' standing, yet I have been in the habit of calling, on the behalf of the
Government, for the assistance of the Indians at different periods since the year
1795, during which space of time I know of no Treaty or Ag"reement with the
Chiefs of Indian tribes implying anything of the nature of subsidy or
tribute ; nor in my intercourse with these nations was I ever authorized by this
Government to make any promise of the kind, though I know, from a residence
of thirty-three years in the country, presents were generally made by the Dutch
Oovernment, and as often expected. Same, p. 20^-

In 1811 a claim was set up by a tribe of Indians, which came down the
Essequibo from a distant part, to an old cnsragement alleg:ed by the Indians
to have taken place between tlie Old I>ulcli (Joveniment and tlieir fore-
fathers, wliereby the former were indebled to the latter, and if the Colony
had any regard for their (the Indians) friendship, it had now a fair opportunity of
confirming the same by agreeing to supply their wants. Same, p. 204.



INDIANS. 349

RELATIONSTO THE BRITISH-TREATIES OR AGREEMENTS WITH

INDIANS-(Continued).

1813. Charles Edmonston, Protector of Indians.

It was not, I believe, thought expedient to repulse them suddenly. They were
in consequence told that, though tlie dlovcriimont could never recognize a
claim of the nature made by tliem, yet, that in consideration of their wants, and
the great distance they came, some presents would be sent for to England.

B. C, V, 204.

1826. TREATY OF PEACE and Friendship . . . BETWEEN THE IN-
DIAN CHIEFS LEWIS on the One Part, AND JANKLASS AND JARA-
BAKKARIJ ON THE Other Part, BOTH OF THE ACCUWAIJ NATION,

FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THEIR RESPECTIVE TRIBES.

ARTICLE I. — ... all hostilities . . . shall cease, and full and free
pardon shall be granted for all and every offence that may have been committed
by individuals of the one Party against those of the other Party.

ARTICLE II. — There shall be peace, friendship, and alliance between the
parties from henceforth.

ARTICLE III. — Should any individuals of either Party offend against any of
the opposite Party . . . the offender, together with the persons aggrieved,
shall be brought by the Chiefs of the Party to which they respectively belong be-
fore the Protector of Indians to be dealt with as he may think right and neces-
sary.

. . . in the presence of . . . George Bagot, Protector of Indians,
David McKie, ... J. W. Thompson, . . . G. P. Wischropp, Assistant
Postholder, whose names appear hereto. B.C., VI, jj.

1826. Protector of Indians.

The murderous warfare . . . carried on between the Carbinee and Para-
mona tribes of the Akawaye nations of Indians in the Mazaroony River, has been
put an end to by . . . Mr. McKie and the Assistant Postholder Wishropp,
whom I have ordered to proceed to the settlements of the respective parties for
that purpose. . • . I . . . lay before jour Excellency a copy of a Treaty
of Peace and Alliance Mliich has been entered into and ratified by the
Chiefs, with the unanimous consent and concurrence of their followers.

Same, p. jS.

1 831. William Hilhouse.

I know from tradition a Treaty has been made by the Colony with the
Arrowacks, Warrows and Caribbees . . . retaining- them as soldiers in
the defence of the Colony, ... in consequence of which an allowance is
made every three years, which they consider as a retaining fee. I think it the
only tie — they look on it as subjecting them to serve when called on solely as allies :
there is no clause I have heard of calling on them to submit to the laws in other
respects. I was employed by the Governor to raise an Indian force. . . . The
Governor, in my presence, thanked them as friends and allies. Same, p. 41.

1831. A van Ryck de Groot.

I do not know that they [Indians] have any mode of recording events or any
substitute for writing ; any compact between them and us is oral only.

Same, p. 41,



350 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-WHAT INDIANS WERE CONTROLLED.

1818. Thomas Cathrey, Protector of Indians.

Return of Indians [Essequibo]. List of Indian chiefs in the District of Esse-
quibo, etc.

The table shows 277 Caribs, 6 being chiefs, al)oiit the jiinction of the three
rivers ; 566 Arawaks, 12 being chiefs cliiefly in or near tlie Esseqnibo estuary ;
643 Akuways. 21 being chiefs chiefly in the Cuyuni and Mazarnni.

B. C, VI, 12.

1823. William Hilhouse.

The nearer the Indians are to the wliite settlements the more debauched
they are in their manners, and the less dependence can be placed upon their
services. They are also more prone to desertion from the immediate vicinity of
their homes, and their habits of traffic with the whites gives them such a supply
of necessaries that the pay and allowances of the service are no objects to them.

The Accaway Indians, living beyond these temptations, altliouifh they are
less civilized, are more subordinate, and from their poverty the pay and allow-
ances they receive is of considerable importance to them. It would be difficult
to keep together for any time beyond a week a body of Arawaaks without an
equal number of Accaways to influence and overawe them.

The Accaways are the most warlike of any tribe in the Colony, and, notwith-
standing the smallness of their number, set all the other tribes at defiance. They
elect their own Captains, and acknowledge no Protector, and are particularly re-
pugnant to the interference of white persons in their domestic government, or the
settlement of whites in their territory. Same, p. 2j.



1 83 1. A. van Ryck de Groot,

I lived in Fort Island in 1795. ... A man was punished in 1795, ^ think,
for murdering his wife. I believe she was an Indian woman. I cannot say
whether the man was an Indian or not. but we took him for one. His name
was Macaniouri ; he was decapitated. Sa7nc, p. 41.



1836. Postholder in Pomeroon.

There are three tribes of Indians within twenty-four hours' journey from
this Post, say Warrau, Arawacks and Caribs. There are in all, about from
700 to 800, including males and females. There are also about from 200 to 250
Spanish Indians residing about six hours' distance from this Post up the Morocco
Creek. Same, p. 61.



1837. [Father HermantJ.

In the Mission of Morocco there are now no more than ten or twelve Indian
families residing. The others are scattered in Pomeroon, Essequibo, Waini, and
even about Oronoco Rivers. Same, p. 62.



Should his Excellency manifest expressly his will to have them settled in
Morocco there is no doubt that all those living in Pomeroon and Essequibo should
obey to his order immediately, and those living in Waini should come, when
they should be advised. Same, p. 6j.



INDIANS. 351

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-WHAT INDIANS WERE CON-
TROLLED- (Continued).

1838. Governor Light.

The number of Indians below the Falls of Essequibo on the rivers and creeks,
not including those of the Morocco and Poiueroon, amounts to 680. On those
of the two last, with their tributaries, the number is supposed to amount to 1 ,700.
Let us take this amount as that of the Indians who from time to time approadi
our cultivated regions on the other rivers and creeks of British Guiana.

B. C, VI, 63.

1839. William Crichton, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The aborigines [of Barima-Waini region] look to this colony for i)ro-
tection. ^(^me, p. 77.



1840. W. C. McClintock, Postholder in Pomeroon.

Return of Indians in the Pomeroon District, December, 1840.
Whole number 2361 ; includes all the settlements, 181, situated between the
Baramany and Itrabecse creeks. Same, pp. gg-ioo.



Your reporter ... has visited all the Indian settlements in Pomeroon
district, and . . . assembled the families in each, ... to furnish a most
correct Return with the names of the creeks, the number of settlements, and the
number of Indians residing in each.

If tlie above number of 2,361 were added to tlie numerous Indians that
inhabit the Rivers Waini, Bareema, and the riglit bank of the Amacoora
Creek, which by Sir Robert Schomburgk's survey is the western boundary of
British Guiana, together with their various tributaries, the grand total would
be upwards of 6,500 Indians. Same, p. 106.

1 841. Rev. W. H. Brett.

I am unable to give an accurate account of the number of Indians in the
Pomeroon and its tributaries, but should estimate them at 400 or 500. Mr.
McClintock, the Postholder, has taken a census. Same, p. 117.

1845. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The number of Indians residing- in these remote parts [Waini, Barima and
Amacura] must remain doubtful until a census be obtained, a job which your
reporter would gladly undertake ... but ... he is strongly of opin-
ion that they would number about 4,500, say, 1,400 effective people, all excellent
workers and in every respect worthy the notice of colonists, not only on account of
their numbers, but to insure their more constant services to the estates on the
coast.

If emigration were the only object in view a Post in Bareema River would
have the desired effect. Your reporter is so sanguine on this point, he has no
hesitation to say that were he residing in that part of his district, he would
undertake to furnish the estates with three times the number of Indians as already
employed by them. From such a post, properly conducted, he is satisfied results
would be arrived at which would prove of enduring advantage to the sugar
estates as well as to the Indians generally. Same, pp. rjS-ijg.



352 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-WHAT INDIANS WERE CON-

TROLLED-(Continued).

1845. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

If the [WaramuryJ Mission be properly conducted, it will be the means of
adding at least 1,000 Indians to the present stock of labour on that coast.

Desirous that his Lordship . . , should be afforded an opportunity of
conversing with Indians from the more remote parts, he despatched luesseiigers
to the Rivers Wiiiey, Bareeina, and Amacura, with liistnictioiis to eacli
Headman or Chief to bring as many Indians as conld conveniently ho
collected, to Waramnry hill, which instructions were obeyed with alacrity.
. . . When the Indians from Winey, Bareema, and Amacura were added
to those already on the hill, there could not have been less than 700, of which
Warrows formed the principal number. B. C, VI, 141.

1846. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The general unproductiveness of the high lands of this district after the first