Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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crop compels the Indians to wander about in search of other hills ; therefore, to
curb this propensity, which, without a shadow of a doubt, is the main barrier
towards civilizing them, can only be accomplished ... by placing them in
possession of land, ... to hold ont to the Indians snch inducements as
may be liliely to cause them to remove from their present Iiiding places
. down to the post . . . that ... the Post lands . . , be . . .
given over to such Indians as may feel disposed to settle thereon. Same, p 14J.

Proposing to drain the lauds belonging to the Post . . . firstly, for
the purpose of inducing Indians, especially those who at present inhabit the
banks of the Rivers Winey and Rai'eema, to locate thereon; secondly, to im-
prove the general condition of those people by combining industry with education,
and thirdly, as this last can only be accomplished by placing the Indian in
possession of land capable of yielding large returns, . . . the Post [is]
better calculated to answer his expectations than any other part of the district.

Same, p. I4j.

1848. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

During . . . 1.S40 . . . and . . . 1841, your reporter took
tlie census of all the Indians inhabiting a portion of this most extensive district,
commencing from Bai-amauy Creek, which is about 27 miles beyond Morocco
Creek, and extending as far as Itrabeese Creek in the Essequibo River.

Same, p. i6g.

1849. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The importance of keeping up tlie Post-house at the mouth of the Pom-
eroon River lias been too often represented; ... to leave this district
unprotected would be the means of renewing the old system of imposing
upon the poor Indian and dragging them per force from their settlements, and
compelling them to labour on the coast and elsewhere, and afterwards send them
home unremunerated, disgusted, and heart-broken. Same, p. lyy.

1850. Governor Barkly.

Since the claim of (ireat Rritaiu was distinctly defined by landmarks,
several tribes have moved within them. Same, p. JS4.



INDIANS. 353

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-WHAT INDIANS WERE CON-

TROLLED-(Continued).

1856. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

Mr. James Light, manager and attorney of plantation Anna Regina, addressed
reporter during the disturbance, expressing a wish for assistance " from any
quarter." To this reporter immediately responded by sending at once a body
of Arrawack Indians to aid Mr. Light, at the same time offering to convey a
large number of Carabeese, should they be required.

The Spanish Arrawack Indians of Muruca Creek were exceedingly indignant
. . . with reporter for not taking them to the coast to assist the whites in
suppressing the late riots.

Such is tlie loyalty of the Indians of Moruca Creek, or rather of St. Roses
Mission. B. C, VI, 200.

If the foregoing suggestions were advocating the cause of the aborigines only,
he would not have introduced them, liuowing the feelings generally to be
rather against than in favour of the Indians, simply because they, as a body,
don't contribute continuous labour to the cultivation of the staples of the country,
, . . but as it so happens, these few observations apply equally to their more
favoured brethren, the negroes of the Colony, who have received all the loaves
and fishes. Same, p. 201.

1857. W. H. Holmes and W. H. Campbell.

The Indian population inhabiting the country between the rivers Pome-
roon and Aniacuru, the Atlantic Ocean and the river Cuyuni. Mr. McClintocIc
. , . estimates their number at about 2,500. V. C.-C, III, igS.

1 86 1. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Census returns I now beg to forward ... do not exhibit, by
very many, the actual number of resident inhabitants for . . . most of
the laborious population are on the coast selling plantains, &c., and . . .
a number of the people attached to this district were returned as residing on the
sugar estates, . . . hkewise, . . . to arrive at a correct census of tliis
district, the people, other than Indians, residing on the rivers Marnca, Winey,
and Bareema, should be included. B. C.-C, App.,joY.

1888. E. F. im Thurn.

The lives of nearly all these people [Indians in Pomeroon Judicial District]
have been deeply colored by Mission influence, and the Warraus of the Amalioo-
roo and Lower Barima, tlie Arawaks of the Arooka, and tlie Caribs of tlie
Upper Barima, and possibly of the Barama, are the only Indians of this dis-
trict now living in something like their natural state. B. C, VII, 'j/.

1897. Waiaree, a Carib Indian.

Whenever my father required anytliing, or wanted justice, he went [from
Barima region] up to Macaseema in the Upper Pomeroon, where the English
Magistrate lived, and also at Aikowinie [branch of Pomeroon] mouth, where the
Postholder resided. Same, p. 22g.



354 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-ADMISSIONS THAT BRITISH DID

NOT CONTROL.

. British Case.

In the first instance every sei'ious case of coiiiplaiut by the Indians came
belVn-e the rostholdcr, to whom the Indians were exliorted in every instance
to repair instead of taking the law into their own hands. B, C, loo.

The early days of British administration produced no immediate change
in the custom of the Indians to exact tlie penalty of life for life in every
case in which a white inhabitant did not step in to buy off the avenger. . . .
It was not unusual for the Protector or the Postholder to buy off the animosity of
the friends of an Indian who had met with his death under circumstances which
afforded no grounds for the institution of a prosecution. Sajiic, p. lor.

1807. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I . . . Commandeur of Essequibo, hereby authorise Mr. A. Meertens,
together with Messrs. Molier, Hebbelinck, De Haas, and Spaman, to go to the
upper part of the river to the Indians, in order there to inquire into the reasons
why the said Indians have abandoned their village, and make preparations to
undertake what, . . . never can be suffered ; they, moreover, are to inquire if
they have any complaints to make, and how far such complaints may be well
founded. Furthermore, to do and perform whatever the said gentlemen may
judge necessary for keeping the interior quiet. B. C, V, iSS.

I recommend to you in particular not to let the Indians perceive you are
armed, to prevent their suspecting- us from liaving any hostile intentions.

Same, p. iSg.

1 81 8. Thomas Cathrey, Protector of Indians in Essequibo River.

[Macollo an Arawak chief generally residing at Iterbice creek, in the River
Essequibo] has been called three times for registration, but will not obey.

In 181 5, at the distribution, his tribe was 19 men, 10 women and 10 children.

B. C, VI, 12.

1823. William Hilhouse.

An enormous sum is appropriated by the combined Court for the purchase of
the alliance and friendship of tlie Indians, and as an equivalent to them for
the occupation of their territory by the whites. This sum is certainly enormous,
for the principal object for which it is given remains at this day unaccomplished,
and in the assemblage of our Indians for service we are obliged to depend upon
the individual popularity of those persons most immediately in contact with them,
or the muster would be indeed miserable.

At this day there is no loyal feeling amongst them towards the Colony, which
is the consequence of what they esteem a series of unfriendly or neglectful acts
towards them. But they have only withdrawn their attachment to the commun-
ity to vent it in individuals, and a recurrence to the candid and generous policy of
former Governments would soon restore that tone of feeling amongst them, so in-
dispensible to our interests. The immediate evil resulting from this neglect has
been the emigration of such numbers from within the limits of the Colony that
at the same rate a few years would leave us without an ally. Sanic,p.jJ.



INDIANS. 855

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-ADMISSIONS THAT BRITISH DID
NOT CONTROL-(Continued).

1 83 1. Lieutenant-Guvernor D'Urban.

Protection is aff'orded to tlie IiuIiaiiH by the Magistrates of the Colonial
Government, and . . . they willingly avail themselves of it. . . . but
. . . if . . . our laws suffer such a iiinrderer to escape with impunity,
they will cease to resort to their interference, and resume their habit of
seeking their own veng'eance. B. C, VI, 43.

1 83 1. Second Fiscal Bagot.

From the despatch of my Lord Goderich it would appear that there is a want
of information at the Colonial Office on the subject of the relative situation of
the Indians of these settlements with the Colonial Government, and your
Excellency would, in my opinion, be doing a service to the former, and but justice
to the latter, by informing the Secretary of State more minutely on the actual re-
lations subsisting between them.

This is perhaps the more necessary at this moment, as, unfortunately, I have,
within a few days, had to send up another Indian for trial on a charge of the
murder of two individuals. Same, p. 4J.

The Indians . . . consider our taking upon ourselves the decision of cases
of this nature [murders] as the greatest favour we can do them.

Indians receive effective protection where offences are committed against
them by persons other than Indians ... I have sent forward within the
last two years three cases for trial for offences against the persons of Indians.

Fears have been expressed that the natives have to this day received no com-
pensation for the lands we have dispossessed them of. . . . Indians can
scarcely be said to be dispossessed of lands . . . they never inhabited or
cultivated. Same, p. 4^.

1832. Second Fiscal Bagot.

The Indians of the Orinoco . . . also those Spanish Indians located
in and about the Morocco. Mr. Hynes seems most anxious to draw the
Indians now in the Morocco more into the heart of the Colony, as well on their
own account as with the hope that they might eventually become the means of
extending Christianity and habits of industry and morality amongst the Indians
of our settlements. Same, p. 46.

1834. George Bagot, High Sheriff.

As the . . . Warrow Indians appear impressed with a strong suspicion
that the Indian Hendrick came unfairly by his death, and the family of the de-
ceased may feel themselves bound to revenge it unless some compensation be
made, I would recommend some small present should be offered them, on
condition of their giving' up the feud ; otherwise, I apprehend from the cus-
toms of these people, there will be bloodshed, and, if once begun, it is hard
to say where it may end. Same, pp. jS-jp.

1834. T. S. St. Clair.

The Europeans in this country seem to be afraid of leaving the seashore,
apparently anxious not to expose themselves to the fury of the native In-
dians. ^- C, ///, 402.



356 INDIANS.

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-ADMISSIONS THAT BRITISH DID
NOT CONTROL- Continued).

1834. T. S. St. Clair.

It is to the interest of our government to reconcile this people [Indians] to
our possession of their lands, and conducive to our peace and comfort to keep on
amicable terms with tlieni. V. C.-C, III, 2jy.

1838. Governor Light.

Many of the Pomaroon, Morocco and Essequibo Indians are contribntinar
by labor on wood-cutting and other establishments to administer to the wants
of the Colony. They are acquiring slowly, indeed, habits of civilized life, . . .
>Ve used these people as auxiliaries, . . . we made them presents . . .
Their influence brought much larger numbers of Indians that at present are
witliin our borders. It is evident if some equally powerful motive were pre-
sented they would again appear. B. C, VI, 6j.

1839. Pastor of Morocco Mission.

In the aforesaid rivers [Waini and Barima] there are several Spanish
Indians, all Roman Catholics ; many tribes of Warows, Waycos [Akaways]
and Arawaks are presenting their children to be baptized. . . . The Cap-
tain of the Waycos, named Juan Ventura, is a Spaniard, and himself, and
almost all his tribe, are Roman Catholics. In the one only creek of Ba-
reema vvhicli I visited I met the Catholic Captain and the most of his tribe.

Same, p. 64.
1 841. R. King, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

April 22. — Remained on the Shell Bank at Waini until the 27th, . . .
[then] started, accompanied by Mr. R. Schomburgk, to the Aruca River.

April 28. — Remained at Aruca.

April 30.— Several Indians came from Amacura, and complained of the
treatment of the Spaniards towards them. . . . advised them most strongly
to remove into the Waini, or other parts where there could be no doubt as to
the boundary, and that they should have every protection.

Same, pp. 111-112.
1841. Rev. W. H. Brett.

Every efl'ort to induce the Indians to attend [church] for the purpose of
receiving instruction seemed ineffectual, and all solicitations were met with
indifference or ridicule. At length, having succeeded in inducing an Arrowaak
captain to set the example, and use his influence with his tribe, accompanying
me to the various settlements, they began to attend divine worship, and leave
their children with me for instruction. Same, p. 116.

1 841. R. H. Schomburgk.

Venezuela has a Post and a Commandant within a short distance from the
mouth of the Orinoco ; the Post nearest to the western boundary of British
Guiana is in the River Pomeroon, a distance of 120 miles from the Amacura : and
it follows, consequently, that the Postholder of the Pomeroon can never exer-
cise his influence or protection over the Indians who are settled on the
Barima or its tributaries. B. C, VII, ij.

1841. Postholder at Ampa Post.

Two corials with bucks passed up this evening ; they were requested to stop
at the Post for a few hours and assist in getting up the sills of the new
house from the waterside, which they refused to do, although oflered pay-
ment. B. C.-C, App., 2(^j.



INDIANS. 357

RELATIONS TO THE BRITISH-ADMISSIONS THAT BRITISH DID
NOT CONTROL-(Continued).

1844. Mr. Macrae.

No attempt has been made as a imblic measure to witlirtraw tlic In-
dians from the wilderness and their habits there, and to settle them in a
community in a civilized state, in the midst of our cultivation.

V. C.-C, III, I So.

1844. W. C. McClintocl



Online LibraryRafael SeijasVenezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects → online text (page 42 of 45)