Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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Pin. Caledonia for plantains supplied for the Indians and the bush In-
dians at Maroco 2,050

Pin. Walton Hall, for ditto 2,050

Dr. Hancock and Dr. Thomson, for medical attendance at the Post

Maroco 946

H. Linau, for sundries supplied per order to the Indians 806

Hendrik Cornelissen, for services done by him respecting the In-
dians, 2,888 fr., reduced to 1,960

H. C. Wahl, for sundries supplied the Indian Post at Masserouny,
1,187 fr., 367 fr., 914 fr., and 1,175.15 fr.

Demerary Department.


Mclnroy and Sandbach, for articles for Indians 151 15

D. C, V, 196.

1812. Postholder of Mazaruni.

Councillor Knollman had paid the Indians, for a period of three months
each, one piece of salp, one hatchet, one chopper, [etc.] . . . the hatchet
and chopper is too much with the other trifles, whether it was for bash cutting,
for building lodgings, or for carrying heavy posts ; taking also in consideration
that at Pomron there are crabs and fish which are not to be got here. Here the
bananas have to be fetched, yonder are large gardens with negroes to work, . . .
the Protectors make their regulations themselves and these the Postholder
follows. Same, p. igg.



J ECTS-(Continued).

1813. Acting Governor Codd.

The first head of expense in the abstract is that connected with the Indians
amounting to . . . 6,904 ^. steding for 181 1 ; and . . . 5,1 12 ;/;. sterling
in 1 81 2, in both of which years, it is true, extra expenses were incurred. It is,
however, obvious that our Colonies are tributaries to the Indians ; whilst the
proper system of policy would be to make them allies, looking to us for pro-
tection ; . . . I think the whole present Indian system requires to be recon-
sidered. ^. c., V, 216.

1823. William Hilhouse. •

The distributiou of Indian presents should unquestionably be made sub-
servient to this end [attaching the Indians to the interests of the Colony]. It
would, indeed, be impossible to explain the utility of giving these presents without
reference to some such service being implied. The presents to Indians, though
having some reference to tlie occupation of Indian territory by the wliites,
are at this period better understood as an equivalent for the amity and
assistance of our Indian allies.

Uniting the sum requisite for the maintenance of a corps of Jagers, with
the exclusive appropriation of presents to the families of those individuals who
personally serve, a fund is at once provided which, without any assistance, can in
a short time bring into the field 2,000 efficient auxiliaries, to be employed as
occasion may require. B. C, VI, 20.

This is the only Colony in the Indian territory in which this latter authority
(the office of Commander of Indians) does not exist, and without it it is vain to
hope for efficient assistance from our Indian allies.

The Indians are so ready and willing to acknowledge European ascendancy
when vested in proper hands.

An enormous sum is appropriated by the combined Court for the purchase of
the alliance and friendship of the Indians, and as an equivalent to them for
the occupation of their territory by the whites. This sum is certainly enormous,
for the principal object for which it is given remains at this day unaccomplished,
and in the assemblage of our Indians for service we arj^. obliged to depend upon
the individual popularity of those persons most immedi^iely in contact with them,
or the muster would be indeed miserable.

At this day there is no loyal feeling amongst them towards the Colony,
which is the consequence of what they esteem a series of unfriendly or neglectful
acts towards them. But they have only withdrawn their attachment to the com-
munity to vent it in individuals, and a recurrence to the candid and generous
policy of former Governments would soon restore that tone of feeling amongst
them, so indispensible to our interests. The immediate evil resulting from this
neglect has been the emigration of such numbers from within the limits of the
Colony that at the same rate a few years would leave us without an ally.

Saf/ie, p. ji.

1 831. William Hilhouse.

There are three tribes in alliance with the Colony; the Caribbees, Ar-
rowaaks, and Warraus. The Ackaway is the main strength at present. . , .
I know from tradition a Treaty has been made by the Colony with the
Arrowacks, Warrows and Carribbees. . . . They look on it as subjecting



J ECTS-(Continued).

them to serve when called on solely as allies. ... I was employed by the
Governor to raise an Indian force. . . . The Governor, in my presence,
thanked them as friends aiul allies. B. C, VI, 41.

1 83 1. A. van Ryck de Groot.

I give presents in the name of the Governor to the Indians, they are a
retaining fee for their fidelity and friendship, . . . the Indians consider them
as presents to them as friends and sillies, not as subjects. Satnc, p. 41.


. British Case.

The Indians of Cruiana submitted to, acknowledged, and supported the
sovereignty of the Dutch and British respectively within the territory now in
dispute, B. C, up.

The Indians there [Barinia region] consider themselves and are treated
as British subjects. Same, p. i6j.

. Venezuelan Counter Case.

Even after the coming of the British, the Indians continued to be their
own avengers, keeping in their own hands the execution of their own laws in-
stead of submitting to British authority. V. C.-C, 112.

. British Counter Case.

Though beyond the Moruka there were no residents on British grants, that
territory was at this time . . . comprised within the jurisdiction of a British
Magistrate, . . . and inliabited by aborigines owning tlie supremacy and
claiming the protection of the British Crown. B. C.-C, no.

[1669]. Gov. Byam's journal.

I ordered about 70 men against the french . . . and about 80 more
Leeward agst. ye Dutch and Arwacas and to relieve our dear countrymen
Descacebe and Bawrrooonsa \^sic\ who we feared were in Distress — under the
command of Capt. Christopher Rendar. Nor was Capt. Rendar unsuccessful
at leeward, having stormed two warehouses of the Arwacas and had other
bickerings wth. them wherein he slew about 30 men and took 70 captives.

B. C, I, 167.

1834. Court of Policy.

The River Demerara . . . Indians . . . [are] greatly incensed, and
expressing strong resentment on account of the discontinuance of the annual
presents to them, and . . . some . . . declare that, in case the negroes
revolt, that they [the Indians] will assist them. The whites, they say. have
done them no service; this country is theirs, they have their own lans, and
Mish not the whites to govern tliem. B. C, V/,j6.

1849. [1897] Sir Henry Barkly.

Up the Pomeroon . . . several hundreds of Indians of the Carib tribe
who came together in my honour, and marched in full war-paint and feathers to
salute me as Governor. B. C, VII, 2j^.

INDIANS. 6*r,d


1849. [1897] Sir Henry Barkly.

In August, 1850 . . . at Point Barima . . . we landed on the prom-
ontory . . . inhabited by a tribe called the Warrows, ... I found all
these Indians, including- the AVarrow tribe, enthusiastically loyal and
ready to do anything for us or the British Ooverument to ^vhorn they looked
for protection. B. C, VII, 235.

1855. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

The Indians themselves, for those who now come from Bareema all the way
to his place in Upper Pomeroon, to seek the redress which, as British subjects,
they are as much entitled as other labourers of Guiana. B. C, VI, igg.

1 868. Petition of John Davidson, an Arawak Indian.

Since the death of our Headman, Captain Calliestro, all the buck Indians
up that side of the Colony, they are wholly uugoverned, making wars against
themselves, and taking each others' lives, for want of a Chief or Captain amongst
them, or Headman over them, . . . under these circumstances, your peti-
tioner respectfully prays to recommend himself to your Excellency, to be ap-
pointed by your Excellency as Headman or Captain over the other buck Indians
in the room of the late Captain Calliestro, so that I could command peace and
order amongst them as formerly during the lifetime of Captain Calliestro.

Same, p. 2og.

1870. Rev. W. H. Brett.

The station at Waramuri is also in a flourishing condition. . . . The
aboriginal races of that district [covered by the agreement of 1850] desire
nothing more earnestly than to he subject to her [Great Britain] and under
her protection and laws, as in former years. B. C.-C, App., 310.

1897. Thomas Thompson, an Akaway Indian.

I consider myself an English subject, and entitled to the protection of the
Queen of England. ^- '^•' ^^^' -^9-

1897. Issokura, an Arawak woman.

All my people always been belong to the Dutch and then to the English
and not to the Spanish. ^«'«^. P- ^^9-


1847. Andres Level,

A large number of the Indians have proceeded to other countries. . . .

In this way . . . those who dwell in the forests bordering upon our territory
are attracted. ... All along that frontier, where the heads of the rivers inter-
communicate, the denaturalization of our Indians is constantly going on.
And nothing is more natural than that they should protect those who protect
them, when on this side they are obliged to flee from ill-treatment and de-
ception. This is the ostensible origin of the occupation of the Guianese ter-
ritory by the foreigner, who claims to base his titles upon the protection for
which he says he has been asked by the persecuted Venezuelans fleeing from
our towns. For it is not the mountain dwellers, who have never shown them-
selves in a town, who have gone over to the foreigner, but those fugitives who,



from having dwelt amongst us, have been enabled to draw comparisons between
the martyrdom they endure here and the very flattering way in which they are
received there. B. C, VI, rjy-i^S.

1897, Waiaree, a Carib Indian.

When we were captured [in Barima region] by the Spaniards it was done
80 with the assistance of Spanish Caribs, who accompanied the Spaniards.

B. C, VII, 22g.


1593. Antonio de Berrio.

God was pleased to send us guides, in the form of two pirogues of Caribs,
who . . . came with me for presents. B. C, I, 2.

1682. Governor of Trinidad.

The natives in this island [Trinidad] and in Guayana, all in this jurisdiction,
numbering more than twenty-four thousand, and who communicate with us and
serve us for certain small presents tliat are given to tlieni.

V. C, II, 269-270.
1753. Instructions to Iturriaga.

It will be necessary that such persons are assured of receiving a reward cor-
responding to the work and danger, which your Excellency may offer them in
the name of His Majesty, .... you migrht oflTer the negToes who
may wish to retire to civil life, liberty, and lauds, where tliey may settle, . . .
also assisting- them with presents and means to defray the expenses of their
journey. B. C, II, Sy.

The King wishes that in your journey from Cumana to the Rio Negro you will
seek an opportunity of bringing about a conference of the Chiefs of that nation,
for the purpose of attaining the above-mentioned end, by offering them in
his Royal name whatever presents might appear to you adequate for
the purpose. Same, p. Sg.

1755. Don Eugenio de Alvarado.

Patacon — who, like all of them is a very great liar — when he saw tlie
presents made to him and to all his followers, he offered to bring" to me
Thnmucu and otlier Chiefs, and to gather a number of Indians forthwith for settle-
ment in the Mission of Aguacagua. He fixed a month for this service, but lie
deceived me, for he did nothing:. Same, p. iii.

1760. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

I have treated tlie Caribs with liindness and presents, in order that
leaving their dwellings on the hills, they mig'ht come to settle in the Missions.

Same, p. iSj.

1 77 1. Don Manuel Centurion.

A chief came afterwards from I'arime with a considerable suite, affracled
by the presents and good treatment received by the subjected Indians of
the Erevat