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B. C, VII, 162.

1755. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The real limits of the river of Essequibo. B. C, II, 102.

1755. Don Eugenio de Alvarado.

The woods of the southern slope which form the defence of Essequibo.

Same, p. log.

It is morally impossible to enter into negotiations of peace with the innumer-
able Chiefs of the sources of Aquire . . . seeing that these sources are in
the woods of the southern slope that protect the Colony of Essequibo.

Same, p. 11 1.

From the Province of Ouiana to the Dutch Colony of Essequibo there are
two ways of journeying by sea. In both the starting point is the Great Ships'
Mouth of the River Orinoco. Satne, p. 112.

The most convenient navigation is to descend the Orinoco to its Great Ships'
Mouth, then avoiding the coast to enter the Creek of Barima, facing the Island
of Cangrejos, cross the Creek of Garambo, [Mora passage] ascend that of Baune
[Waini] . . . and so on by otliers forming a species of zigzag until the
Creek of Moruca is reached. Here the Dutch have a castle which they call
the Post. Same, p. uj.

The forests of the southern bank [of CuyuniJ, which serve as a defence to
the Colony of Essequibo. Same, p. 114.

1755. Court of Justice.

Deserters from this Colony would be prevented from escaping so easily from
this river to the Orinoco. Same, p. i2j.



ESSEQUIBO— (Continued).

1755. Muster Roll.

List of all the . . . Company's servants on the ist June, 1755, in Rio
Esseyuibo and Demerarij [includes those in Moruka, Mahaicony and CuyuniJ.

B. C, VII, 162.

1756. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

For the defence of the Colony of Essiquibo. B. C, II, I2y.

1756. Director-General in Essequibo.

Report of the Assistant of tlie Post Ariuda up in Essequibo, . . .
report of the Assistant in Essequibo. Same, p. i2g.

Jacob Steyner, Assistant at the Post Ariuda. Same, p. ijo.

1758. Prefect of Missions.

The River Moroco, where the Post of Essequibo is situated. Sajjie, p. 148.

1758. Director-General in Essequibo.

Lawrence Storm van's Gravesande, Director-Grcneral of this Colony and of
the rivers of the district of Essequibo. Same, p. /jj.

Well gxiarded and conducted as quickly as possible to this River Essequibo.

Same, p. 1^6.

1758. Muster Roll.

List of all the . . . Company's servants ... in service in the
month of August, 1758, in Rios Essequibo and Dimmerarij [includes those in
Moruka, Cuyuni and Mahaicony]. B. C, VII, i6j.

1759. Director-General in Essequibo.

The address of the Governor of Cumanii's letter is : " To the Dutch Com-
mandant residing in Essequibo," which sounds very haughty and contemptuous.

B. C, II, 171.

[Speaking of the destroyed Cuyuni Post Gravesande says] the ownership of
this portion of Essequibo. Same, p. 172.

1759. States General.

The general Company . . . having the special direction and care of the
Colony of the River Essequibo and the rivers thereto subject. Savie, p. 176.

1764. Shareholders of West India Company.

The Colony of Essequibo comprises the district of the northeast coast of
South America lying between the Spanish Colony, the Orinoco, and the Dutch
Colony, the Berbices, and that the same is crossed not only by the chief river.
the Essequibo, but also by several small rivers such as Barima, Waini,
Moruka, Pomeroon and DtMuerarj', from which it takes the name of the Colony
of Essequibo and the rivers belonging thereto, though in the whole of the afore-
said district — at least, as long as it was under the direction of the West India
Company, until the year 1750, no other river than the chief river of Essequibo
was inhabited or populated. B, C, III, 116.



ESSEQUIBO— (Contiuued).

1764. Register of the Colony.

Register of the Colony of Essequibo, Demerary, and dependent districts.

Situated on the north coast of South America, 7^ north latitude and 42° longi-
tude from the Creek Abari on the east to the River Amacura on the north, com-
prising the Rivers Demerary, Essequibo, Pomeroou, Waiui, and the great Creeks
Maykouny, Maheyka, Wacquepo, and Moruka, being a stretch of land along the
seacoast of about 120 [Dutch] miles of 15 in i^ belonging to the Chartered West
India Company. B. C, III, iiS-iig.

1764. Muster Roll.

Monthly Report of the state of the Garrison in Rio Esseq^uibo and Deiue-
rarij, together with the dependent Posts, on the last day of November, 1764.

B. C, VII, 164.

1765. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The Colony of Essequibo and rivers thereto pertaining. B. C, III, 124.

Demerara ... is situated between the two most extreme trading-places
or posts in Essequibo — namely, the one, to the north, on the River Moruka, and
the other, to the south, on the River Mahaicony, both of which rivers, as well
as the others situate between, pertain to that Colony — which of course, shows un-
deniably that Demerara is one and the same Colony with Essequibo.

Same, p. i2§.

1767. Muster Roll.

Directory of the Colony Essequibo, Demerarij, and dependent districts in

the year 1767. B. C, VII, 166.

1767. V/est India Company (Amsterdam Chamber).

Upon the States-General's Resolution of the 2nd September, 1751, this was
then communicated to the Chief Participants, who . . . did declare their
determination to continue to keep Essequibo with all the rivers appertaining
thereto, from Rio Berbice as far as the River Orinoco. B. C, III, 14J.

Demerara is situate between the two most extreme trading-places or posts on
Essequibo, namely, the one to the north, on the River Moruka, and the other to
the south, on the River Mahaicony, ... it therefore, undeniably appears
that Demerara is subordinate to Essequibo, and both together constitute oue
and the same Colony. Same, pp. 14^-146.

This appropriation of Demerara which the Zeeland Shareholders are trying to
effect for themselves, on the claim that Demerara is subordinate to, and is one
and the same Colony as, the Colony Essequibo, rests upon, etc. Same, p. 146.

The natural meaning of the expression " Essequibo and adjoined or subor-
dinate rivers " is not that which the Zeeland Chief Participants attribute to it
(namely, that all the places which are situate on the mainland of the so-called
Wild Coast, between the boundaries which the Chief Participants themselves
have . . . defined as extending from Moruka to Mahaicony, or from Rio
Berbice as far as the Orinoco, are '• adjoined, subordinate to, and inseparable



ESSEQUIBO— (Continued).

from," the Colony Essequibo), but, on the contrary, only this, that under that
description are comprehended the various nioutlis and rivers, originating
from Rio Essequibo or eaiptyiusf into it, which are marked on the map, such
as, for instance, Cuyuni, Massaruni, Sepenouwy, and Magnouwe.

B. C, III, 147.

1768. Muster Roll.

Directory of the Colony Essequibo cum annexis at the end of 1768.

B. C, VII, 166.

1769. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Upon opening the letter-bag brought by the ship . . . recently arrived
from Essequibo cum annexis at Ziericzee. S- C., IV, iS.

1769. Remonstrance of the States-General.

The Company . . . having the particular direction and care of the Colony
of Essequibo, and of the rivers vvhicli belong to it. Same, p. 2g.

The Colony of Essequibo and appurtenant rivers. Same, p. 32.

1769. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The Colony of Essequibo and adjacent rivers. Same, p. jj.

Certain undertakings of the Spaniards from Oronocque against different Posts
of the Colony of Essequibo. Same, p. 36.

The States-General have demanded of us an account of the state of defence
of the Colony, cum annexis. Satne, p. 40.

The aforesaid Colony of Essequibo cum auuexis . . . the colony of
Essequibo and adjacent rivers. V. C, II, 203.

Tlie Director-General of Essequibo cum annexis. Same, p. 2og.

1771. Commandant of Guiana.

An enemy could reach the said villages by different ports of the Orinoco
. . , and with still more ease by coming from Essequibo, a Dutch Colony up
tlie Cuyuni, which is navigable as far as the innermost and most important of all
these Missions [y mucho mas facil si suben desde Esquivo, Colonia Olatidesa,
por el Rio Cuyuni tiavegable hasta lo mas interior, e precioso de todas estas
Misiottes]. B. C, IV, Sg.

1774. Muster roll.

Muster Roll of the Military at Essequibo, made July 4, 1774. [includes per-
sons at Arinda and Moruka]. B. C, VII, 16S.

'775- J- C. V. Heneman,

The Colony of Essequibo, . . . description and . . . detailed ex-
planations of the extent of this , . . colony and its rivers. . . .

And, tlie colony and river of Essequibo being of such extent that the mouth
of this river can be reckoned at 6, and even nearly 7 hours wide. V. C, II, 224.



ESSEQUIBO— (Coiitiiiiied).

1776, West India Company (Zeeland Chamber),

They had found a copy of a letter from the Postholder of Moruca, wherein
he complains ... of the claims which the aforesaid Spaniards advance to
the districts subject to tlie river Essequibo. B. C., IV, 140.

They [Presidial Chamber, Amsterdam] had been grieved to learn the ex-
cesses committed by the Spaniards against the free Indians in Essequibo, as
seen from the letter written by the Postholder of Moruca. Same, pp. 140-141.

1780. Muster Roll.

Muster Roll of the servants, ... in the Service of the . . . Nether-
lands West India Company, in Rio Essequibo, . . . 4th . . . May, 1780
[includes persons in Wakupo and ArindaJ. B. C, VII, 174.

1796. Commandant of Moruca Post.

Petition . . . addressed to his Excellency A. Beaujon, tloveruor-tJen-
eral of botli Kivers Uemerary and Essequibo and Dependent Districts.

B. C, V, 161.

1796. Court of Policy.

Resolved : That the Articles of this Capitulation be . . . made known
unto the Commander-in-chief and other Commanders of the military posts in
Essequibo, Moruca, Courabana, Mahaica, and Mahaycony. Same, p. 162.


Diary of Governor of the Colony of Essequibo, Demerary, and annexed
Districts. Same, p. i6j.

1803. Court of Policy.

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court of Policy of the Rivers of Essequibo
and Denierary and Dependent Districts. Satne, p. /So.

1804. Court of Policy.

Meeting of the Court of Policy of the Rivers and adjacent Districts of Esse-
quibo and Demerary. Same, p. iSj.

1804. Lieut. -Governor Myers.

The Colonies of Denierara and Essequibo. Satne, p. 186.

1805. Court of PoHcy.

The Colonies of Essequibo and Demerary, with their Dependent Districts.

Same, p. i8y.
1 808. Court of Policy.

Court of Policy of the Colonies of Essequibo and Demerary.

Same, p. i8g.
181 1. Court of Policy.

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court of Policy of the Colonies of Deme-
rary and Essequibo, with their Dependent Districts. Same, p. ig8.




• British Case.

In . . . i8io a Carib Chief from the Upper Essequil)o or the Riipuii-
nuni, with his followers, visited the capital. B. C, 104.

1 816. Court of Policy.

Dorothea Pieterse, inhabitant of the Upper River of Essequibo.

B. C, VI, 4.

1 831. Rev. J. Armstrong.

I give you the following statement of the free colored people and Indians re-
siding up the Esseqniho River.

Having had an opportunity of going up the River Essequibo ... I
inquired of them. . . .

Their local situation is unfavorable to settling up cither the Essequibo or
the Massaroony, since there are a considerable number of inhabitants on each
branch of the river, From this circumstance, ... I conceive that the point
of juncture, between the Essequibo and the Massaroony, would be the most con-
venient situation for my . . . proposed school. Same, pp. 4^-46.

1832. Second Fiscal.

The Postholder of Mazaroouy states the Indians as well as free colored
people up the rivers to be in a state bordering on starvation. Same, p. 77.

1832. Supreme Court of Colony of Essequibo.

There is a spar-cutting place up the Essequibo. Mr. De Bretton, a white
person, lives there. It is a tide above the Buck place where I saw the bodies. I
have known that place of De Bretton's eleven years. . . . Mr. de Bretton is
an Englishman. Same, p. 48.

1834. Government Notice.

The Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to appoint . . . the following
. . . Justices of the Peace within the . . . Colony. . . .

Upper River Essequibo: Thos. Richardson. V. C.-C, III, iy4-ijj.

1840. R. King, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

March i6.^Gave Postholder written instructions . . . The Postholder
had just returned from having visited all the places in the hig:her parts of tlie
Rivers Essequibo, Masseroenyand Cayonny. B. C, VI, go.

1897. Michael McTurk.

Peter Cornelisen ... I know . . . was a Captain for the Carib In-
dians living about the upper parts of the three rivers. B. C, VII, sjj.


. British Counter Case.

There was no province of (liuiaua, and no defined tract of territory to which
Spain became entitled by virtue of her settlement on the Orinoco. B. C.-C, IJ7.



GUIANA— (Continued).

1 593. Antonio de Berrio.

The Indians assured me ... I should find a great river which is called
Caroni, which descends from tfuayana . . . ; that there ... the
Cordilleras end and the provinces of Guayana begin, and then come successively
those of Manoa and El Dorado and many other provinces. B. C, I, 2.

These great provinces [Guayana, Manoa, El Doraldo and many others] lie
between two very great rivers, namely, the Amazon and the Orinoco. . . .
the river Caroni ... is the one that comes from Guayana. Same, p. j.

1 595. Capt. Felipe de Santiago.

These territories [Guiana, Manoa, El Dorado] extend from the bank of the
said River Orinoco along the windward side as far as that of the Maraiion
[Amazon], so that they lie between these two mighty and celebrated rivers.

Same, p. 10.

1599. States General.

To make a voyage along the Coast of Guiana in America, there to seek
the rivers of VViapoco and Orinoco. V. C, II, 12.

1602. Shakespeare.

She is a region in Guiana, all gold and bounty. I will be cheater to them
both, and they shall be exchequers to me : they shall be my East and West
Indies. Merry Wives, Act I, Sc. III.

1603. William Usselinx.

The province of Guiana in America lies at a northern latitude of from 4 to 6
degrees or more, and extends from the great river Amazon to Punta de Araya or
Trinidad. ... Its situation is such that the nearest places inhabited by the
Portuguese in Brazil are more than 300 [Dutch] miles away. Likewise the near-
est places inhabited by the Spaniards are distant about 200 [Dutch] miles.

U. S. Com., II, JO.

1613. Vargas, Governor of Margarita.

Coast of San Tlioiue of Guiana. . . . Santo Thome de Guiana.


1614. Don Juan Tostado.

60 leagues from that Government on the mainland at Santo Thome which is
called the River Orinoco of Guiana. Sat/ie, p. j6.

1666. Major John Scott.

The River Amazones bounds this province [Guiana] on ye south-east, whose
north cape hath onely 38 minutes of north latitude and 335 degrees of longitude.
. . . Oranoque bounds it on the north-west, whose Sotherne Cape hath eight
degrees and 40 minutes of latitude, and 322 degrees of longitude. Between
these two rivers Guiana fronts 230 leagues on the Atlantic Ocean.

Same, pp. 167-16S.



GUIANA— (Continued).

1666. Major John Scott.

Cape North, the Northerne Cape of the great Amazone, and Cape Brema, the
Southerne Cape of Oronoque, by which all ye rest may be measured.

B, C, 1, 168.

1737. Marquis de Torrenueva.

The Dutch are established within this demarcation and limits, on the conti-
nent of the Province of (jiuayana, and occupy with their cities and mills, the
territor)' which stretches from the Orinoco, B, C, II, 41.

1753. Instructions to Iturriaga,

To dislodge the foreigners on the coast of the Province of (Juayana.

Same, p. 86.

1773. Commandant of Guayana.

This Province of Gnaiana is the most easterly part of the King's dominions
in South America on the north coast, and its boundaries are: On the north, the
lower Orinoco, the southern boundary of the Provinces of Cumana and Caracas;
on the east, the Atlantic Ocean ; on the south, the great River of the Amazons ;
and on the west the Rio Negro, the cano of Casiquiari, and the Upper Orinoco,
boundary of the eastern and unexplored part of the Kingdom of Santa Fe.

B. C, IV, iJi.


. British Case.

" Itabo '' is an Indian name for a waterway connecting two rivers, or two points
on the same x'w&x, generally made by the passage of boats through intervening
swampy ground. B. C, g.

. E. F. im Thurn.

We reached the point where the waterway leaves the river and passes along
a narrow itiibbo, or artificial waterpatli, which connects the Moruka with the
Waini River. This connecting passage is in all about 30 miles in length ; but
only about the first 10 miles of this is actually semi-artiflcial itabbo, made by
the constant passajje of the canoes of the Redmen through the swampy
savannah. U. S. Com., Ill, 261.

1897. Marcus Baker.

These bayous or sloughs are locally known as itabos, a word variously
spelled etabbo, itabbo, etc., and derived from ita or eta, a native word for the eta
palm {Mauritia), and abbo, a water course. V. S. Com., Ill, 24J.


1593. Antonio de Berrio.

The Indians assured me ... I should find a great river which is called
Caroni, which descends from Guayana, . . . that there . . . the Cordil-
leras end and the Provinces of Guayana begin, and then come successively those
of MauiKi and El Dorado and many other provinces. B. C, I, 2.





1637. Corporation of Trinidad.

When the enemy entered Guayana [Santo Thome], they carried off, among
other things, the Most Holy Sacrament, which is kept by the enemy in their fort
at Maearuui [Kykoveral].

When the enemy [Dutch] entered Guayana [Santa Thome], they took him
[Andres], and Juan Gongalez, and carried them off to Amacuro and Macanini,
where the enemy have a fort on an island, and they carried off the property
which they took in Guayana, and the Most Holy Sacrament of the said town,
which they keep in a house in the said fort of Maearnni. B. C, I, gS-gg.

1686. Essequibo Council Minutes.

Jan Genasie, chief Captain of the Caribs al)Ove in Mazaruni at the aniiatto

Another Carib Captain in Mazaruni.

Above the annato store in Mazaruni.

When Makourawacke, with his tribe, were wishing to go to war with the
Akuwayas up in Demerara, they . . . were advised to go and salt pork
above in the Mazaruni River ; . . . [and that] they should make war far
away in Mazarnni and moreover inland . . . not against their and our
friends who dwelt close by the Caribs and the annatto store. Savie, p. 202.

1699. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

August 14, [1699]. Jan ... has set out for the Upper Mazaruni

\is na boven Masseroenc vertrocketi\ ... to obtain some poison wood by

Aug:ust 27, [1699]. ... In the evening the boy Jan Antheunissen
arrived at the fort from the Upper Mazaruni \van boven uijt Mas5eroene\
with fourteen or fifteen bundles of poison wood. Same, p. 21^.

September 18, [1699] Jotte, the old negro, has set out for the Upper

Mazaruni \is Jia boven masseroene vertrocke7i\ ... to bring down four
or five slaves.

September 22 [1699]. In the afternoon Jotte, the old negro, arrived from
Mazaruni {uijt masseroene^ . . . bringing wath him four female slaves, two
children, and a boy. Satne, p. 216.

1756. Director-General in Essequibo.

The colonist, Couvreur, D., who has just now come from up in Mazaruni

\boz'cn Masseroenzj], \vhere he lives. B. C, II, i2g.

1840. R. King, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

March 16.— Gave Postholder written instructions . . . The Postholder had
just returned from having visited all the places in the higher parts of the
Rivers Essequibo, Massaroney and Cayonny. B- C, VI, go.

1845. W. C. McClintock, Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks.

In consequence of the general indisposition, . . . combined with the very
great scarcity of provisions ... the Akaway Indians of Winey and Barama
have destroyed their habitations, and gone away to reside with other Akaways
in the upper parts of the Rivers Coyoney and Massaruny. Same, p. 141.



MAZARIINI— (Continued).

1897. Michael McTurk.

Peter Cornelisen ... I know . . . was a captain for the Carib In-
dians living in tlie upper parts of tlietliree rivers. B. C, VII, 2jj.


1658. Committee governing for Walcheren cities.

There was read a short description by Cornehs Goliat of the Rivers Demerara,
Essequibo, Pomeroon and Moruca, situated on the coast of Guiana, otherwise
called the Wild Coast, and now Nova Zeelandia. B. C, I, 146.

1664. States-General.

Niew Middelburgh, situated in the district named Nova Zeelandia, lying on
the mainland Wild Coast of America. B. C.-C, App., 4J.

1686. West India Company (Amsterdam Chamber).

Concerning the populating and cultivating of the River Pomeroon . . .
formerly named Nova Zeelandia. B. C, I, jgj.


. British Case.

Oronoque, the name given to the portion of the Orinoco district under
Spanish control. B. C, 2g.

. British Counter Case.

It is certain that the term Oronoque, as used by the Dutch Commandeurs,
referred to the Spanish possessions at Santo Tliome, and excluded the Ama-
kuru, Barima, and more easterly rivers. B. C.-C, 6j.

1663. Commandeur in Pomeroon.

Having taken my commission with me to Orinoco and not desiring to risk
carrying it with me upon the journey from Barima, since we continued our voy-
age in corrials, which were very small, it was left in the aforesaid galliote.

B. C.-C, App., 41.

[1666?]. Major John Scott.

Gromweagle . . . had served the Spaniard in Oranoque. B. C, I, i6g.

1684. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The French . . . have made themselves masters of the fort in Oronoque,
. . . on his way to the said Oronoque. Sat/w, p. iSy.

1685. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The Spaniards having resumed possession of Oronoque. Same, p. iSS.

In 1684 . . . the French . . . raided the Orinoco and occupied
Santo Thom^. U. S. Com., I, 2^g.



ORINOCO— (Continued).

1723. Viceroy of New Granada.

At the month of the said river [Orinoco] where it enters the sea, has been
founded the castle of Guayana [Santo ThomeJ on the mainland.

V. c, 111,36s.

1730. Commandeur in Essequibo.

It was his [Bishop of Orran] intention to go to Orinoco.
I learned that the Indians of Aguire (a creek in Orinoco) had . . . killed
the aforesaid bishop. B. C, II, 11.

1737. Marquis de Torrenueva.

The Dutch are established within this demarcation and limits on the continent
of the Province of Guayana, and occupy with their cities and mills, the territory
which stretches from the Orinoco [according to Delisle's map cited below this
should read Esseqinbo\ to the before mentioned Surinam, a distance of 5^, from
3i8i'^ to 324^ of [East] longitude [according to Delisle's map of 1703, Atlas to
V. C, map J7^. Same, p. 41.

1750. Anonymous.

The great river Orinoco, the fame of which has spread throughout Europe on
account of the celebrated city of El Dorado, or the Golden, which is now regarded
as fabulous, is said to take its name or derivation from this fable.

B. C.-C, App., igo.

1763. Secretary in Essequibo.

The uncertainty of how they would be treated by the Spanish is the reason
why I have this year dared to send no boats belonging either to the Company or
to myself out saltiu^ to the coast of Orinoco. B. C, II, 22^.

1777. Records of the Colonies of Essequibo and Demerary.

Postholdcr of Orinoco. \^Note by British Editor. Clearly a synonym for
the Moruka Post.] B. C, VII, 1S2.

1802. Governor-General in Essequibo and Demerara.
One detachment to the Post of Orinoco.
The detachment ordered to the Post of Orinoco.

The Postholder of the Post of Moruca comes to report that the detachment
for that Post arrived there three days ago. B. C, V, //j.

1806. George Pinckard.

It is suggested that we may obtain a supply [of provisions] from the Spaniards,
who have great numbers of wild cattle, . . . upon the neig-hboring coast
of Oronoko. V. C.-C, III, 224-225.

1809. Henry Bolingbroke.

The west coast of Pomaroon juts on the boundary of the Orinoko where

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