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there is a military post established. Same, p. 2j2.




1598. A. Cabeliau.

We made company to visit together the whole coast as far as the River
WoriiKXiue, so-called by the Indians, by the English Reliane, and by the Span-
iards, Rio El Dorado. ' ^- C., I, 19.

1637. Don Pedro de Vivero.

On the mainland in the jurisdiction of this Royal Audiencia and of the said
Government and port of Guayana, English, Irish and others, with negro slaves,
have established and settled themselves, from Cape North up to the mouth of
the River Orinoco. Same, p. no.

175 1. Memorial of Shareholders of West India Company.

The Zeeland chief shareholders ... are resolved, ... to remain in
possession of Essequibo, with all her subject rivers from River Berbice down as
far as the River of Orinoco. B. C, II, 72.

1762. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

We have seen that you [L. L. van Bercheyck] would not be disinclined to
make a map, based on actual surveys, of the river of Essequibo. . . . Before
we take any final decision ... we must know . . . whether . . .
there might not ... be brought in the coast from Essequibo as far as Ori-
noco, with an accurate location of the mouths of the Rivers Pomeroon, Waini
and Barima, and such others as empty into the sea between Essequibo and the
Orinoco. Safiie, p. 21 j.

1767. West India Company (Amsterdam Chamber).

The Chief Participants . . . did declare their determination to continue to
keep Essequibo with all the rivers appertaining thereto, from Rio Berbice as far
as the River Orinoco. B. C, III, 14^.


1 841. R. H. Schomburgk.

Tlie Dardanelles, of this territory [the Orinoco]. B. C, VII, j6.

1843. R. H. Schomburgk.

Point Barima, tlie Dardanelles of the Orinoco, as it has been lately styled by
the Venezuelans. Sa//ic, p. jo.

1881. Earl Granville.

What has been called the Dardanelles of the Orinoco. Same, p. 100.

1887. Senor Urbaneja.

The so-called Dardanelles of the Orinoco. Sa)>ie, p. i2g.




1634. Bishop of Porto Rico.

The Dutch, , . . who are now settled close to tliis great river Orinoco,
in three rivers adjoining it, namely, the River Berbice, Corentine and Essequibo.

B. C.-C, App., 10.

1739. Marquis de San Felipe y Santiago.

These circumstances deserve consideration, chiefly because the Dutch on the
mainland are so near to the principal uioutli of the Orinoco in three colonies
called Surinam, Bervice and Essequibo, with large populations and fortifications,
and are gradually approaching nearer. Same, p. j8i.

The Marquis de San Felipe y Santiago . . . reports, referring to the first

Namely, what means could be used and employed for dislodging the Dutch
from the Colonies in which they have established themselves on the Orinoco.

Same, p. iSj.

1745 (?). Father Joseph Gumilla.

Essequibo, Berbice, and Surinam, colonies of the aforesaid Republic estab-
lished (not on tlie Orinoco), bnt a good distance to the east of its mouths.

B. C, III, 84.

1757. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

That the Dutch were building a new fort on the River Monica to the wind-
ward and at a sliort distance from the Ship's Mouth of the Orinoco.

B. C, II, 136.

1758. Prefect of Missions.

By means of the River Moroco, where the Post of Essequibo is situated, or by
the River Waini, all which rivers flow out near the mouth of the Orinoco.

Same, p. 14S.

1761. Don Jose Solano.

Colonies of the French at the mouth of the Amazon and those of the Dutch of
Surinam and Esquivo, near the Orinoco. Sa7ne, p. 205.

1772. Court of Policy.

With respect to the land in Maroco, the same is granted without determina-
tion of the number of acres and upon the express condition that the owner or
owners are bound to establish an outpost there, it being a ground lying close to
the river Orinoco, full two days' sail from here, not cultivated by the lessee for
some time, and lying quite waste. B. C, IV, loi,

1776. J. C. v. Heneman.

At the creeks near Rio Barima and Rio Orinoco (Indian Posts, Moruca and
Wacquepo). Same, p. i6g.

1788. Governor Marmion.

The right was claimed of possession ... of the River or creek of Guayna
near the outfall of the Orinoco. B. C., V, 62,




1699. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

The Postholder . . . arrived with ISJ quakes, or abant 2| casks of
annatto dye. B. C.-C, App., 74.


1806. George Pinckard.

On our left [from Essequibo] we approach the river Orinoko, and what is
termed the Spanish Main. V. C.-C, III, 22^.


1595. Capt. Felipe de Santiago.

The mouths of the River Orinoco are situated on the coast of Terra Firnia,
to the windward ot the Dragon's Mouth, B. C, I, g.


. British Case.

The Wild Coast— a name by which the coast between the Essequibo and the
Orinoco had become well known. B. C, 2j.

, Editor of British Case.

The Wild Coast was the original name of the coast between the Orinoco and
the Essequibo. B. C, 1, 136.

. Venezuelan Counter Case.

This definition of the phrase Wild Coast, is an inadvertence whose repetition
cannot be too earnestly protested against. Not " the coast between the Esse-
quibo and the Orinoco," but the whole coast of Guiana, from the Orinoco to the
Amazon, was what the Dutch called the Wild Coast. For this, as every scholar
knows, it was their current and accepted name. No case has ever been adduced
... of its use in any narrower sense. It is important that this be from the
outset clearly understood. ^ • C.-C, S-p.

1627. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The ship "Arent " shall go to the Amazon and the Wild Coast.

In the River of Berbice on the Wild Coast. B. C, I, 6j.

Articles upon which the Directors of the West India Company . . . have
. . . granted to Abraham van Peres, that he carry men ... as settlen
over to the coast of the mainland (called the Wild Coast) of West India, in
the River Berbice. Same, p. 64.


1627. West India Company (the Nineteen).

It is hereafter permitted to send colonists to the Wild Coast and adjacent
islands. U. S. Com. , II, 47.



WILD COAST— (Continued).

1628. West India Company (the Nineteen).

Liberties and exemptions accorded and granted by the Chartered West India
Company to private Individuals who on the Wild Coast of Brazil . . . shall
plant any colonies.

To plant any colonies on the Wild Coast and the islands lying near and
about the same.

Their intention of planting on any river on the Wild Coast or the islands
thereabout. -^- ^•' ^' ^J-

All patroons of the Colonies in the rivers or on the islands shall be allowed
... to navigate and trade on tlie whole Wild Coast from tlie Amazon to
the Orinoco, inclusive, and all the islands adjacent thereto.* Same, p. 67.

1 63 1. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Van de Mart was authorized to make up a cargo for the Hers on the Wild
Coast in Essequibo. U. S. Com., II, 64.

1632. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Cargoes serviceable on the Wild Coast. Same, p. 65.

1649. West India Company.

Ship de Lieffde, . . . destined to the Wild Coast and so on to Esse-
quibo. Same, p. 112.

1656. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The Wild Coast extending from the River Amazon to . . . degrees
northwards. -"• ^-f -'' ^37-

1657. Cornells van Lodensteyn.

The coast of Guiana, situate in America on the Wild Coast between two and
five degrees, . . . and as far inland as shall be convenient. Same, p. 140.

1657. Proceedings of Provincial Estates of Zeeland.

New settlement on the Wild Coast of Essequibo and places thereabout, ex-
tending from 1° to iqc north of the Equator, between the Rivers Orinoco and
Amazon. -^-a;//^, p. 141-

1657. Committee governing Walcheren cities.

There shall be equipped two ships, the one to the Wild Coast, otherwise

There was read a letter from Cornells Goliat, offering his services for honest
employment on the mainland Wild Coast. Same, p. 143.

1658. Committee governing for Walcheren cities.

There was read a short description by Cornells Goliat of the Rivers Demerara,
Essequibo, Pomeroon and Moruca, situated on the coast of Guiana, otherwise
called the Wild Coast, and now Nova Zeelandia. Same, p. 146.

* These bold face words are italicised in the original manuscript.



WILD COAST— (Continued).

1658. West India Company, Zealand Chamber.

Put to the vote whether it would not be expedient to offer for hire to the
Committee of the Wild Coast our Ship Prins Willem in order to carry folk over
to Essequibo. ^- C-, /. 146-147-

The whole Wild Coast, it being from one to ten degrees more than 200
[Dutch] miles. Same, p. 14S.

1765. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The River Demerara . . . belongs to the so-called Wild Coast, which is
situated on the continent of America. . . .

We refer ... [to certain papers] a!)out the particular interest of the in-
habitants of Zeeland in the aforesaid Wild Cjast in general, ever since its first
discovery, both in relation to navigation upon that coast and with regard to
establishing and founding colonies and settlements thereon. B. C, III, 124-125.

1767. West India Company (Amsterdam Chamber).

The River Demerara . . . just like Essequibo, . . . also belongs to
the so-called Wild Coast, situate on the continent of America. Same, p. 143.

A certain Contract made . . . between the Amsterdam Chamber,
. . . in the name of the Company, . . . and the . . . Count of
Hanau . . . granted to the aforesaid Count . . a certain stretch of

land, to be chosen by that Count, on the Wild Coast, between the River
Orinoco and the River Amazon, for cultivation, and for establishing of a
Colony. Same, pp. 146-147.

1879. E. F. im Thurn.

In Hartsinck's map . . . the boundary line of " Wildekuste " which
name was applied to the tract coextensive with the Dutch possessions, falls far
short of the Amacura. V. C, III, 152.




1753. Director-General in Essequibo.

Three of our inhabitants, having gone up to the Essequibo ... to try to
estabhsh some trade with the Portug-uese along the Amazon, have been killed
in a murderous way by the nation named Mapissanoe. B. C, II, 88.

I'j'jd. Director-General in Essequibo.

The Portuguese are trading- above in the rixer as the Spaniards here below.

B. CIV, 176.
1673. Venezuelan Case.

By 1673 Rol was trafficking in the Orinoco with the Spaniards. V. C, 8j.

1683. British Case.

In 1683 and onwards these [negro] traders are mentioned as periodically
visiting the Pariacot Savannah, and as using the name of the Dutch Govern-
ment to put an end to native wars on the Cuyuni, which hindered commerce.

B. C, 14.
1693. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

No slight advantage . . . has . . . been brought the Company by
your having started up in the River of Cuyuni a trade in horses. B. C, I, 212.

1701. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The trade in horses up in Cuyuni Ybcwen in Cioene\ does not go as briskly
as it used to ; still, the negro traders brought down, on the 24th March of this
year [1701], 12 fine ones. Same, p. 221.

1733. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The want of horses having already become great, on your Honour's planta-
tions as well as on those of the inhabitants of this Colony, I shall by all available
means try to obtain tlieni from the Spaniards. B. C, II, id.

1734. Commandeur in Essequibo.

On the 19th February I . , , dispatched two canoes to the Orinoco,
laden with thirty hogsheads of bread, four half-barrels of rum, and four of syrup,
with a letter to the Governor requesting him to send horses in exchange there-
for. ... I sent Fran9ois van der Maale ... to superintend everything.
On the 23rd April van der Maale came back and reported to me that he had ob-
tained eighteen horses by exchange. Same, p. ly.

^735- West India Company (the Ten).

We praise and approve all that has been done by the Commandeur with the
Governor of Orinoco ; . . . and recommend your Honour to use every en-
deavour to cause that commerce to increase more and more. Same, p. 21.




1735. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The Governor of Orinoco urgently asking me for a good quantity of bread,
not only did politeness demand that I send it to him, but there was another im-
portant reason in the prolits which this colony derives from trade with the
people of the Orinoco. As long as peace continues and this trade remains open,
such things cannot well be avoided. ... I sent to Orinoco the necessary
rum, wares, etc., to pay for six mules, ... the Governor has kept the wares,
sending provisionally three horses on account, and . . . saying . .
that he would furnish the mules at the earliest opportunity. V. C, II, 8S-8g.

1750. Acting Commandeur in Essequibo.

The Fathers above in Orinoco were inclined to open a trade with this
Colony in cattle, which they (if able to obtain permission therefor), would trans-
port overland.

This would contribute very much to the raising and cultivation of trade, but
on the other hand this would be a safe and open way . . . for the slaves who
might come to run away from the Colony, unless a good Post were established
thereon. B. C, II, 6g.

1750. Anonymous.

They all make the utmost efforts to collect the produce offered by the
Indian tribes and the Spaniards settled on the banks of the Orinoco, and also
that offered by the smugglers who go down to the Kingdom of Santa Fe, and
the Provinces of Barinas, Venezuela and Cumana. Of course a vessel rarely
comes from Surinam and Berbice, owing to the distance and costliness of the
journey ; but as they are in correspondence with Essequibo and that colony is
constantly sending its ships to the Orinoco, they all share in its benefit.

B. C.-C, App., jgj.

1752. Director-General in Essequibo.

I shall send him [Commandeur of Orinoco] one [yacht] about the middle of
November, together with some hardware for which he also asks, and shall re-
ceive mules in payment, which are in readiness there ; it is my opinion that we
must keep on friendly terms with this man, since that will always be more to
our advantage than to our disadvantage. B. C, II, yd.

1754. Director-General in Essequibo.

Concerning the trade with Orinoco that I shall do all that lies in my power
to further the same as much as possible, ... a new Governor has arrived in
Cumana, who assures me that he will do all that lies in his power to maintain
friendly relations. Same, p. gi.

1760. Director-General in Essequibo.

Trade on that river is at present (as far as such trade can be) fairly open
and free. Same, p. iSj.

1764. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

The hope of a larger and safer trade with the Orinoco is a matter which
we count very advantageous for the colony. V. C, II, /jj.

1765. Don Joaquim Moreno de Mendoza.

The inhabitants . . . enjoyed . . . trading with foreigners [at the

old site of Santo Thome] of which they are here [Angostura] deprived.

B. C, III, 123.

Dutch trade. 61


. [1897] George L. Burr.

The chief external trade of the Colony, and the only one of interest to the
present research, was that with the Spaniards of the Orinoco. Begun as early
as 1673, it seems always to have been carried on by that inland water route con-
necting the Moruca with the Barima, and must have involved more or less of in-
tercourse with the Indians of this region. Now connived at, now hampered by
the Spanish authorities, it was always encouraged by the Dutch West India
Company, save for a brief period of prohibition (from 1684 on) when they were
clearly moved by distrust of their own Governor. V. C.-C, II, 86.

The Moruca became ... as, to some extent it still is, the regfular ave-
nue for the coastings trade witli the Orinoco— not alone that of the Esse-
quibo, but that of the other Guiana Colonies as well. ... It was doubtless
by this route that the Spaniards carried on that early trafific with the Pomeroon
and the Essequibo of which we know through the pages of Raleigh and of Jan de
Laet. Same, p. gy.

Save for commerce and for the fishery at the river's mouth, the Waiui seems
never to have actually been put to use by the Dutch. Same, p. 11 j.

Of Dutch trade in this lower Orinoco region I find no mention after the
sixties of the eigiiteenth century.

With the lower Orinoco in general, and especially with the Aguire, they
[Dutch] long maintained relations of trade, and in such sort as to make
doubtful their recognition of Spanish sovereignty there. Same, p. 14J.

. British Counter Case.

In reality the trade with Orinoco, by which is meant the Spanish Settle-
ments at and above Santo Thome, had nothing to do with the possession of
Barima. B. C.-C, 78.


1596. [1896] James Rodway.

Mr. Rodway . . . in . . . Tzmehri for December, 1896, . . .
states that Ibarguen ... in 1 596 . . . says in his report that on his
way from the Orinoco to the Essequibo he arrested "five Flamencos in a boat,
who were trading with the Indians of Barima." . . . Yet this . . .
suggests only that Dutch trade to Santo Thome of which we already know from
the pages of Jan de Laet. V. C.-C, II, 42.

1638. British Case.

In 1638 it was reported to the King of Spain that the Dutch . . . traded
with the Indians of the Orinoco. B. C, 2^-26.

1673. Venezuelan Case.

By 1673 Rol was trafficking in the Orinoco with . . . Caribs of Ba-
rima. V. C, 8j.

1680. Tiburcio Axpe y Zuiiiga.

The frequency with which those of said nation [Dutch] come to this river to
trade among tlie natives, . . . their perseverance in maintaining such trade
and transactions with the inhabitants in violation of the agreements ... as
a result of these transactions this place has been lost several times.

V. C.-C, III, J J.




1683. Commandeur in Essequibo.

They [Indians] meet you with the tart answer that they can get plenty of
these (goods offered) by trade in Karinia and other places, which partly
squares with the truth, on account of the trade which the French from the
islands carry on there. V. C, II, 44.

1683. [1897 J George L. Burr.

Prior to 1683 little is known of the relations of the Dutch with the Barima;
but, so far as known, they were of trade alone and did not differ from those of
other Europeans trading in that river. V. C.-C, II, ijj.

1684. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Much [anuatoj was supplied from Barima. B. C, I, 1S6.

1700. Venezuelan Case.

As regards the Barima, there is no record of any attempt whatever to trade
tliere during this period [1700-1725]. V. C, pj.

1723. Antonio de Guerrero.

The river has neither garrison nor defense of any kind for preventing and hin-
dering the incursions of the Hollanders and other foreign nations sailing on that
sea, and having several settlements near the said river Orinoco, this gives them a
chance to freely introduce themselves daily and frequently by the river, going far
into the interior and trading^ with said Indians. V. C.-C, III, ig.

1735. Court of Policy.

The Commandeur brought forward the matter of Jan Cauderas,
informing them that this aforesaid Cauderas, as settler of this Colony, had
. . . sought a permit from his Honour, to collect the debts of his comrade
named Jeronimus Marseleijn, which he had left outstanding' among the Indians
in the River Barime, to the satisfaction of his creditors in this river.

B. C, II., 20.
1739. Marquis de San Felipe y Santiago.

With which [slave trade] are united other branches of commerce they have
held witli tlie Caribs in balms those countries produce, such as marana or copaiba,
carapa, anatto, cotton, hammocks, birds, wild animals and a small number of
horses. B. C.-C, App„ 182.

1764. [1897] George L. Burr,

Down to this time [1764] , . . there is in the records no mention of any
Dutchman's sojourning in the Barima f(U' any purpose save that of trade.

V. C.-C, II, 132.

1765. Director-General in Essequibo,

They . . . met the colonist Diederik Neelis coming from Barima.

B. C, III, 127.
1768. [1897] George L. Burr.

The Dutch documents . . . know little enough of the Barima after 1768,
. . . Gravesande did not again urge it as the boundary ; . . . Not even a
Butch trader is again heard of in the Barima. The West India Company,
which theretofore had always encouraged the colonial trade to the Orinoco, issued
in 1 76 1 its instructions that so far as possible this trade be transferred to the




Spaniards and carried on, not from Essequibo to Orinoco, but from Orinoco to
Essequibo. This policy was loyally and effectively carried out ; and within two
years the current of trade was flowing the other way. V. C.-C, II, ij6.

. [1897I George L. Burr.

The [Essequibo] Colony's trade . . . was mainly a trade with the na-
tives. . . . this was at the outset, and for more than a quarter of a century
of its existence its exclusive function, . . . and for many decades this re-
mained its [the Company's] chief source of income, and the object of its most
jealous care. Satne, p. 82.


. British Case.

Besides their enterprise upon the coast, the Dutch had also before the end of
the seventeenth century penetrated far into the interior. Negro traders were
employed by the Company to travel among the Indians and obtain by barter
the products of tlie country. B. C, 14.

Upon the Cuyuni, Massaruni and Essequibo the Dutch very early had estab-
lished an extensive trade. Same, p. Si.

. [1897] George L. Burr.

Trade, from the first, knew far less narrow limits than settlement. That
with the Indians was carried on (i) by the West India Company's outrunners,
and (2) by its posts, and (3) by private rovers. The routes of the outrunners are
little known ; the rovers were irresponsible and heedless of frontiers ; the posts
were few, fixed, certain, and had a military and political as well as a commercial
use. V. C.-C, II, SS.

Trade with the Indians in the upper river [Mazaruni] began early, but no

regular post was ever maintained there. Same, p. iy6.

1680. [1897] George L. Burr.

The earliest mention of the river [Cnyuni] I have found in the Dutch records
is that in Commandeur Abraham Beekman's letter of June 28, 1680, when that
river, temporarily closed by an Indian war, is called "our provision chamber."

Same, p. 146.

1681. Commandeur in Essequibo.

By reason of the Accoway war in Cuyuni, of which you have heard, the
trade in hammocks . . . has resulted badly. B. C, 1, 184.

1683. Commandeur in Essequibo.

I have sent a negro up in Cuyuni in order ... to establish peace
between the Akuways and the Caribs, so as by this means to get hold of the
wild-pig hunting there as formerly. Same, p. 18^.

1684. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Gabriel Bishop, and other interlopers from Surinam, spoil not only that
[annato] trade [in Barima], but buy all the letter-wood, ... as well as
madder oil and hammocks. . . . They traverse and overrun the land right
up to [or even into] the River Cuyuni itself. Same, p. 1S6.




1684. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Copaiba and cnrcai are iinioli 1)on^1it up l)y the Spaniards. The war

which various nations there [in Ciiynmi | carry on with one another has been the
cause that Daentje the negro has not been able to get so far up among that
nation. B. C, /, i86.

1685. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Daentje, the negro has come hack . . . [from the Cuyuni] without
bringing with him a single pound of balsam. Same, p. iSS.

1699. Official Diary at Kijkoveral.

August 14, [1699]. Jan . . . has set out for the Upper Mazaruni
. . . to obtain some poison wood by barter.

August 18, [1699]. This morning the negro traders set out for the Upper
Cuyuni \iiaar boven in Cioene] in order to procure some horses.

August 27, [1699]. In the evening the boy Jan Antheunissen arrived at the
fort from the Upper Mazaruni \van bovcn uijt Masseroene] with fourteen or
fifteen bundles of poison wood. Same, p. 21 j.

September 17, [1699]. . . . Jotte, the old negro, arrived from the Upper

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