Rafael Seijas.

Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. Digest of evidence arranged according to subjects online

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They [Caribs] sail up the river [Orinoco] to seize Indians of other tribes,
whom they sell, both males and females, as slaves to the Dutch, with whom
they carry on this trade and that of horses, which are to the Dutch and French a
source of vast profit and benefit. B. C.-C, App., 186.

1746. Commandeur in Essequibo.

The inhabitants are very much aggrieved [at the planting by the Spaniards
of a Post on tlie CuyuniJ and the Carib Indians a great deal more so since it
perfectly closes the Slave Traffic in that direction from which alone that
nation derive their livelihood. B. C, II, 46.



Y2 SLAVE TRADE.

SLAVES-WHENCE AND HOW OBTAI NED-!Continued).

1747. Ramon Santa Maria.

For this [slavc-selliiiar] trip [the Caribs] have, besides the navigation of the
Orinoco and the channels of the Barima, a road on land which, crossing the
Caroni above the Guajana Missions, reaches the Aquire river, and they go down
by this river to near its mouth, when they act in concert with some vessel, which
waits on this river, and when not, they enter the Yuruari and follow it down to
the Esquibo. V- C, II, 2g7.

1747.

Inventory of stock [Indian trading goods] at the Cuyuui Post. List of debts

of the Master of the Post.

Yriveno owes 8 slaves.

Tucunuara " 3

Arinamene " 3 "

Marayacano " i "

Aritamar " 3

Carinare " 4

Asavue " i

Arimanaca " 2

Manarvay " 4 "

Total 29 slaves.

Same, pp. 2gy-2g8.

i'j/\.7. Commandeur in Essequibo.

Two of our rovers, . . . have been murdered in the Upper Essequibo
by the Indians. . . . The loss of those people would not be a matter of very
great concern were it not that ... I fear that those tribes between the
Amazon and this river, . . . being extremely embittered, and, fearing that
vengeance will be taken for this murder, may perhaps raid our highest-lying
plantations, ... I have long foretold such a thing, and on that account have
desired to close the River of Essequibo, but have met with much opposition on
account of the profit which some draw from there through the Slave Trade.

B. C, II, S2.

1748. Minutes, Court of Justice.

His Honour, . . . undertook to charge the Postholders of the Honour-
able Company's trading-place Arinda with the recovery of the said outstanding
slaves [iu the Upper Essequibo region]. Same, p. jj.

1749. Commandeur in Essequibo.

All the itinerant traders which go from tliere [Surinam] in order to deal in
slaves stop here, as all go to Barima, which is situated under this jurisdiction, to
the great prejudice of the inhabitants, because they pay more for the slaves
than we usually do. Same, p. 61.

1750. Anonymous.

The Dutch obtain slaves from this river [Orinoco], for when the Caribs go
up to attack other tribes of Indians, they surround their villages by night, seize
the boys (whom they call Poitos) and sell them for slaves in the colonies,
which is a very sad thing. B. C.-C, App., ig6.



SLAVE TRADE. 73

SLAVES-WHENCE AND HOW OBTAI NED-(Continued).

1755. Don Eugenio de Alvarado.

They [Caribs] navigate the Orinoco up to the mouth of the Caroni, enter it
and pass its fall by night, and continue their course up the stream until they reach
the islands mentioned, . . . where . . . they make a station for ingress
into the interior. . . . They also go to Cunuri, Tupuquen, and other villages
which were destroyed in 1751, and even to Miamo, until they reach the woods
. . . inhabited by Caribs and other savage tribes, where they capture their
poitos or slaves, whom they carry off to sell to the Dutch. B. C, II, log.

1758. Prefect of Missions.

It is by no means incredible that the Dutch are in the Cuyuni buying slaves,

for they do not hesitate to carry on that illicit traffic nearer the Missions. . . .
Captain Bonalde encountered a Dutchman, about a day's journey from the
Mission of Miamo, buying slaves or Indians which the Caribs were selling him.
Apart from this we know well how frequently the Dutch go to the Paragua,
Caura, and head waters of the Caroni, so that they maintain their position there
every year. Same, p. 146.

The Dutch and Caribs, ... [in pursuit of slaves, ascend] the river
Essequibo, and turning on the right up the river Aripamuri, ... as far as
possible, . . .the Rio Negro is reached. Descending the Rio Negro
. . . they get to the Amazon, and, ascending the same river by turning to
the right, they enter the Orinoco, . . . The Dutch, by means of the navi-
gation of the Essequibo, communicate with Barinas, as well as with the Paragua,
the head-waters of the Caroni, &c. . . . Numbers of Dutch, besides those
who go to the Paragua, remain in tlie places called Tucupo, Capi, and
Paraman, to buy slaves. These places are in the interior, some three or
or four days' journey from the outermost Missions. . . . There are generally
Dutch merchants in those places, for the Caribs bring them the slaves there.

Same, p. 147.

1760. Don Jose de Iturriaga.

They have gone higher up beyond the Falls of the rivers Paragua, Aroi

and Caura, considering them insurmountable to the efforts of the Spanish.
Thence they made war upon other nations, took slaves and sent them to Esse-
quibo, depopulating in this way the dominions of the King, whilst peopling the
territories which the Dutch enjoy. Same, p. iSj.

1763. Don Jose Diguja.

60 leagues from its [Orinoco] mouth . . . [there are] certain lofty
ranges, peopled with numbers of Indians, who are harassed by the Caribs,
who capture the women and children to carry off to the Dutch, and extermi-
nate as many of the adult males as they can. B. C, III, 62.

By making incursions along this river [Essequibo] and along the Massa-
runi and Cuyuni, protected by the Carib Indians, though not of this province,
to plunder the Indians, of whom they make slaves just as they do of the
negroes, whom they sell and employ in their plantations and farms.

Same, p. 64.



74 SLAVE TRADE.

SLAVES-WHENCE AND HOW OBTAINED-(Continued).

1769. Prefect of Missions.

The practice of these foreigners is now, as always, to penetrate to the in-
terior of this province in order to kidnap and enslave Indians, your Ma-
jesty's vassals, and take them to their Colony ; their practice is so common, as it
is authorized by the Governor of Essequibo . . . from the licences and pass-
ports [given] . . . under his own hand, to the persons leaving the Colony for
this traffic of enslaving Indians, until, without respect, they enter our Missions.

B. CIV, 20.

In 1748 two white men from Essequibo came to our Mission of the Miamo
with a passport from the Governor for the purpose of buying Indians. . .
The same year a mulatto woman from Essequibo was on the savannahs of
Cornuio, buying slaves from the Caribs, and in the year (17)49 a- soldier of our
detachment caught one of these traffickers very near our Mission of Miamo, who
had a licence of the Governor of Essequibo to come to buy slaves, and in that
patent he styled himself Governor of Essequibo and mouths of the Orinoco.

In the River Agnirre there was a Dutchman domiciled with the Caribs
more than eight years buying slaves from them. There were also others in the
same ti'afflc in Puruey, Caura and Parava. from vv'here they used to send to
Essequibo and Surinam parties of from twenty to fifty slaves, and they discon-
tinued in alarm at the arrival of the Royal Commission in the Orinoco.

Satne, pp. 20-21.

On the 20th of June, 1766, there arrived at our Mission of Cavallapi a
negro and an Indian, slave-buyers, each with a licence from the Governor of
Essequibo.

He, [a negro slave-trader from Essequibo] told me that he had been three
years on the Parava huying^ slaves from the Caribs. Same, p. 21.

He [a negro slave trader] had come from Essequibo to theCuyuni, Yuruari,
and the port of the Mission of Cavallapi. with two canoes or barges. One of
these was laden with firearms and iron for axes and knives, clothes and other
trifles. He distributed these among the Indians of the said village, and of Miamo
and Guascipati, who in return, as the Caribs said, were to give them young
Indians. Same, p. 22.

1770. Don Manuel Centurion.

The constant export of slaves from the interior of this province, which
the Dutch and Caribs carry on by the Rivers Apanoni, Sipo, Maseroni, and many
others which flow into the Essequibo. Same, p. yS.



1771. Don Jose Solano.

By virtue of the new situation of the capital in the Angostura, and the lesser
settlements on the banks of the Rivers Caroni, Paraijua and Caura, the
Caribs have been entirely subjected, and many tribes have thus been freed
from their persecutions, the former being in the habit of making prisoners
among the natives, and selling them as slaves in the Dutch Colonies of Esse-
quibo and Surinam. Same, p. So.



SLAVE TRADE. 75

SLAVES-WHENCE AND HOW OBTAIN ED-(Continued).

1778. Government Journal at Essequibo.

July 13. I have provided one Veltman with a passport . . . to purchase
Indians in the upper rivers; . . . (and) a letter of permission, in order to
pass and repass the Post of Arinda.

July 15. A letter of permission, . . . to J. H. C. Klein, that ... he
might pass and repass the Post of Arinda in order to obtain slaves by barter
among the nations in the river above. B. C, IV, iSg.

1785. Diary of Commander of Revenue Cutter in Orinoco.

[Near Barima some Guarauno Indians informed me] that only some days
previous some Hollanders had come down with a few Poytos to tlie head-
waters of the Barima, and that they had taken them to Essequibo.

V.C.-C.,ni,jj4.

[1788 ?] Council of the Indies.

The Dutch . . . went to the interior by this river [Orinoco], the Maza-
runi and Cuyuni, protected by the Caribs, to pillage and capture the Indians

of the . . . Province, frequently disturbing ... the Missions of the
. . . Capuchins. V. C, II, 2^4.

SLAVES-BY WHOM CAPTURED AND BOUGHT.

. [1897] George L. Burr.

If the Essequibo correspondence may be trusted, the Dutch slave traders
who infested these parts [Amacura and beyond] are more likely to have been
from Surinam than from the western colonies. V. C.-C, II, 142.

1593. Antonio de Berrio.

[Faxardo] stole and carried off nearly 300 souls [Indians of Moriquita],
whom he is selling like negroes. B. C, I, j.

1628. West India Company (the Nineteen).

Lastly, the Company shall take pains to fuimish the colonists with as many
negroes as shall be possible, on the conditions to be formulated. Same, p. 6g.

1638. Corporation of Santo Thome.

Tlie soldiers who came [to help Santo Thome] would return enriched
with the number of Indians whicli are given for slaves. The Governor
. . . promises that all those whom they shall take they shall carry away to
your Government, or any other part that your Excellency may order.

Same, p. 104.

1656. West India Company (Zeeland Chamber).

Colonists shall also be at liberty to go to the coast of Africa and fetch
as many negroes as they shall have need of or may desire to offer for
sale. . . .

This Chamber . . . shall do its utmost ... to order negroes for the
aforesaid coast. Same, pp. 138-/39.

1657. Committee governing Walcheren cities.

There shall be equipped two ships, the one to the Wild Coast, . . . the other
with a slave trader's cargo, to the coast of Africa, to buy slaves and carry them
from there to the aforesaid Wild Coast. Same, p. 143.



76 SLAVE TRADE.

SLAVES-BY WHOM CAPTURED AND BOUGHT-(Continued).

1686. British Case.

In 1686 the enslaving- of Tudiuus by Dutch subjects was made illegal, and
only those Indians might be bonght as slaves who were iu slavery to the
Indians with whom the trade was carried on. This measure in effect protected
from slavery all the tribes that inhabited the territory now in dispute, as the In-
dians of that territory did not enslave one another, but treated as slave nations
only certain tribes further in the interior. This law was strictly enforced, and
had a great effect in promoting friendly relations between the Dutch and the
Indians. B. C, Sj.

1699. Official Dairy at Kijkoveral.

November 2, [1699]. There arrived at the Fort the Corporal, Joos Bacx,
and Jan Debbaut, reporting that the expected Company's ship "Den
Brandenburger," . . . had arrived here in the river with 330 [«