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M agnasvamini tasya vandhur=Udayadityo-hhavad-bhupatih

Yen = oddhfitya maharnnav = ofama-mtlat = Karnnata-Karnna-prabhum = n,rvvipa-
lakadarthitam bhuvam = imam Snmad-V arahayitam — verse 32.''

According to the Bheraghat inscription of Alhanadevi, we find:—

Pandya$=candimatam = mumoca Muralas=tatyaja garvva-graham

Kungah sadgatim = ajagama cakape Vafigah Kalingaih saha,

Kira Kiravaddsa panjaragrhe Hunah praharsam jahau

Yasmin^rajam ^aurya-bibhrama bharani vibhraty-apurvva-prabhe — verse 12}



1 Ibid , 1893, Pt- I, P- 77- ^ ^^'^^- ^"'^- ^^P-' ^"1- ^^^' P- '^3-

i Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, p. 105, note 17. * Epi. Ind , Vol. II, p. 185.

s Ibid., p. 1 1.



THE PALAS OF BENGAL. 77

Kai-nnadeva is said to have subdued or held in check the Pandyas, Muralas,
Kungas, Vangas, Kahngas, Kiras and Hunas. In the Karanbel inscription of
Jayasnhhadeva it is stated that Karnna was waited upon by the Coda, Kuhga Huna
Gauda, Gurjara and Kir a princes:— ' ' '

Nlcaih sancara Coda-Kuhga kim^idam fhalgu- tvaya valgyate Hun = aivam ranitum

na yuktam=iha te tvam Gauda garvvan = tyaia ,
m = awam Gurjjara garjja Klra nibhrto varttasva seva-gatdn=ittham yasya mitho-

virodhi-nrpatin dvastho vininye janah. — L. 11 12.'

According to the Cedi inscriptions Karnna subdued or defeated the king of
Gauda, whoever he might be. Mr. Monmohan Cakravartti first of all pointed out
mentions of a war between Nayapala and the king of Karnya. The term " king of
Karnya" seems to be a translation of the Sanskrit word "Karnaraja," ''the king
Karna."^ The form Karnya seems to be a mistake.' In his article on the
Krsnadvarika temple inscription of Nayapala Mr. Cakravartti has pointed out
that Atisa mediated between Nayapala and the king of Karnya about the year
1035 A.D. So the Cedi Emperor Karnadeva, who is in reality the same person as the
king of Karnya of Tibetan literature, must have invaded Magadha some time before
1035 A.D.' The incidents of the campaign are mentioned in Rai Sarat Candra Das
Bahadur's article on the Ufe of Atlsa :—

„ , .u r- ^- " During Atisa' s residence at Vajrasena a dispute hav-

Karnadeva, the Cedi, • • -i . .1 , ,^ .

invades Magadha. ^^^ "^^^ between the two, Nayapala, king of Magadha, and

the Tirthika, king of Karnya of the West, the latter made
war upon Magadha. Failing to capture the city, his troops sacked some of the sacred

Buddhist institutions and killed altogether five (men) Afterwards when

victory turned towards (Nayapala) and the troops of Karnya were being slaughtered
by the armies of Magadha, he took the king of Karnya and his men under his protec-
tion and sent them away Atisa caused a treaty to be concluded between

the two kings. With the exception of the articles of food that were destroyed at
the time of war, all other things which had fallen in the hands of the parties were
either restored or compensated for ' ' .■*

Nayapala must have reigned at least fifteen years as two of his inscriptions were
incised in that year. The first is the Krsna-dvarika temple inscription, referred to

above, which records the erection of a temple of Visnu by a
^lonfand Ma'^Re^ords!'' ^^^^ ^^^^^ Brahmana named VisvSditya, the son of 'sudraka

and the grandson of Paritosa, in the fifteenth year of king
Nayapaladeva. The verses were composed by a veterinary named Sahadeva and the
engraving was done by the artisan Sattasoma, son of Adhipasoma. The second
inscription was discovered by Mr. Paramesvar Dayal, then Court of Wards Head
Clerk in Gaya,^ in 1884, inside the small temple of Narasiriiha in the Visnupada
compound. It was pointed out by him to Mr. Cakravartti,^ and to the late Dr.

1 Ind. Ant., Vol. XVIII, p. 217. 2 Jl. Bud. Text Soc, Vol. I, p. 9.

i J.A.S.B., 1900, pt. T, p. 192. 1- Jl. Bud. Text Soc, Vol. I, p. 9, note.

6 J.A.S.B , 1900, pt. I, XD. 191, note i.



78 R. D. BANEKJI ON

Bloch in 1902.' But as this inscription has never been properly edited I am taking
this opportunity of transcribing it : —

(i) Om LaksniU = ciran = jayati vari-nidhey-aneka-mantha-kulad-adhigata pur.u-
sottamasya \ Snihyat = tirovalita-sammada ghurnnamana-netravalokana niras-
ta-samasta vighna f,

(2) S = eyam vrahmapurl Gay = eH jagati khyatd svayam vedhasa sthdtum brahmavi-

ddm pur = wa ghatitd moksasya saukhyasya ca I vruinah kin = ca hhavanti yatra
pitarah preta-

(3) -Iciydvdsinah pddasprsta-jala-pradana-vidhina ndk = angand-ndyakdh 11 AsydfH

vahhuva puri vakragati-dvijihva-samrdd~bhujanga-npur-acyuta-pddasev~i \ yo

(4) iidma visnuf-rathavad'^-dvijardjavaryah prltyd satdm ca Paritosa iti prasiddhahw

Tasmdd = vidher=iva vabhuva sanatkumdrah Sri Sudrako vimala-vuddir = ane-
kavidyah 1

(5) Bhuy-opi yen a vidMii = aiva krtd Gay = eyam vdhvor-valena suciram paripdlitd

ca \\ Tasmdd = ajdyata sutah sutavad=dvijdndm yo-bhut suvismaya-rasdvaha-
kartaka-}

(6) ^ = ca II Vi^vdpakdraka-nirdkrtaye-vatirnnah Sri Viivarupa iti kirltita vi^varu-

pahwYam prdpya c = drthijana-vrndam-akalpa-ddnam = dptirbhavat * pulaka-
jdlam — ana-

(7) -nta-modam \ Sphlti-sphurad = dhana-krtdrthatayd durdpa-cintdmani-grahanakam

na kaddpi dadhmau \\ Yen=dsurdri-caritena mahodayena yantl rasdtalam-iv-
dvani-

(8) -y = uddhrt-eyam . Srl-mad-Gayd-kali-mala-dvija-rdja-paksa-samksobha-kampita-

tanur = bhuja-vikrainena \\ Yasmai viiuddha-caritdya nisagra^-sauryardSi-
priydya vi-
(g) -nay-dmala-bhusandya dvdlyatah prabhrti dtva-manusya-loko vaddhdnjali^-cira-
taram sprhdydm cakdrci 11 Ten = emdn = ca GADADHAR = ADI-nilayavydjena
tdh kl-^

(10) klrttayah svetaMor = iva ra&mayah snghatitd\h]santdpa-Mntyai sadd Yatrdmbho-

nidhi vlcivad = daSadiSdm praksdlan-aikacchatdh pdtdla-prativdsi-ghora-timi-

(11) -ra-pradhvansa-dlpd iva w Etdh santu Gaydpurl sutarunl bhusdvall klrttayo ydvac

= candra-divdkarau ca gaganam Sri-viSvarup-dhvayth Kartdsdm ca tathd pu-

(12) -rdna-piirusdn rdjUo-pi dhikkrtya sad-yen-dkasmika-vismay-aika-rasiko loko

muhur = mure chit ah \ Ddksinydd ■= uparuddhena prltis-timita cetasd 1 PraSas-
tir-e-

(13) -sd vihitd VAIDYA ^RI-VAJRAPANINA 1 Vijndna-kau^al-olldsa-jdta-

naipuna karmmand . praSastir = esd likhitd Sarvvdnandena dhlmatd \ Ksl-
rdmbho-nidhi- mekha-

(14) -Id-mani-gun-rdarnkdritdyd bhuvo bharttiih $RI-N AY APALA-DEV A-nrpate

rdfnd&rlyam vibhratah samvrtte tarasaiva PANCA-DA^AME RAJYASYA
SAMVATSARE kirttih siddhim =updgatd bhagavatah
{15) Srl-mad-GADADHARIN AH 1

J Proc. A.S.B., 1902, pp. 66-67. ' V' added afterwards. i> Or — Kautaka

4 Read— manalpa-dauam = avirbbavat— » Read nisarga— 6 The last syllable of this line is superHuous.



THE PALAS OF BENGAL. 79

The main object of the inscription seems to be the recording of the ancestry and
the name of the donor as well as the date of the building of the Temple of Gadadhara
and several other minor temples of Visnu. As the inscription itself was found in the
temple of Narasimha which is only few paces behind that of Gadadhara at Gaya it
seems certain that the ancient materials which have been profusely used in the
modern temple of Gadadhara are the remains of the temple built by Visvarupa in
the fifteenth year of the reign of Nayapaladeva.

The Krsna-Dvarika temple inscription referred to above also records the erec-
tion of temple of Visnu in the fifteenth year of Nayapala :—

Saptamvu-raii-visarat {ac-ch) Slatha mekhalaya asya bhuvah kati na bhumi-hhujo-
vabhuvuh,

Siddhim na kasyacid = agdd-yad=analpa-kalpais=ten-atra Klrttanam = akan
J anardanasya ,—verse 17.'

The modern temple of Krsna-dvarika is built almost entirely of ancient
materials and it is quite possible that these materials are the only remnants of Vis-
vaditya or Visvarupa' s temple. The only other existing record of Nayapala is in the
colophon of a manuscript of Panca-raksa in the collection of the Cambridge
University : —

Deyadharmosyam = pravara-mahayana-yayinyah Paramopasika-Rajni-Uddakaya
yad = atra pvmyan = tad = bhavatv = deary = opddhydya-matd-pitr (purvangama)
n-krtvd sakala-satva-rdier-amittara-jndn = dvdptaya iti \\ Paramasaugata-Mahd-
rdjddhirdja-Parame^vara Srl-man = Nayapdladeva-pravarddhamana-vijayardjye
samvat 14 Caitra dine 27 likhit-eyaih bhattdrikd iti.^

Nothing else is known about Nayapala and his relations. He was succeeded by
his son Vigrahapala III. Nayapala's reign most probably did not extend beyond
the date of the Krsna-dvarika and Gadadhara temple inscriptions and seems to have
come to an end some time between 1045 and 1050 a.d. It is said in a commentary
on Cakradatta that Cakrapani Datta was the kitchen superintendent of king Naya-
pala.^

At the beginning of his reign Vigrahapala came into conflict with his father's anta-
gonistj the Cedi Emperor Karna. Karna's power at that time was at its lowest ebb.

He was being constantly defeated by the neighbouring

Vigrahapala III : his war. p^.-^^^^ jj^ ^^^ ^ ^^^y j^^g ^.g^g^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^i^h that of his

son having covered a century. In the height of his power he had overrun the whole
of Northern India but in his old age he suffered many reverses. He was defeated by
the Candella Kirttivarman/ by Udayaditya of Malava/ by Bhimadeva I of Anahil-
vad, who is eulogised by the grammarian Hema-candra for having defeated Karna in
battle/ and by the Western Calukya Somesvara I, which is recorded by the poet



1 J.A.S.B., 1900, pt. I, p. 184. 2 Bendall's Cat. Skt. JISS. in the Univy. Liby., Cambridge , p. 175. No. it

3 Cakrapani, Ed by Sivadasa Sena, Calcutta, b. s. 1302, p. 407.

» Epi. lud., Vol. I, pp. 220, 326, 130, 132.

6 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 192. 5 Biihler— XJber das Lebeu des Jaina Mouchs Hema — Chandra, p. 69.



80 R. D. BANER.il ON

Bilhana in his Vikramanka-deva Carita, where Karna is mentioned as the god of
death to the Lord of the Kalanjara mountains, e.g. the Candellas.' In his last war
with the Palas, Karna was defeated and sued for peace. Vigrahapala III married the

aged king's daughter YauvanasrI. Karna' s war with

Marriage with Princess Vigrahapala and his subsequent relationship was^ made

Yauvanasri, the daugh- known to us by Mahamahopadhyaya Hara Prasada Sastri's

ter of Karna. unique discovery, " The Ramacarita of Sandhyakara-

nandi ": —
Anyatra \ yo Vigrahapalo YauvanaSriya Karnasya rajnah sutaya saha Ksaunim-
ududhavan i Sahasa valen - avito-raksito ranajitah sangramajitah Karno Dahal
= adhipatir = yena , Ranajita eva parantu raksito na iinmiilitah — Commentary
on verse g^

It is evident from the commentary the Karna suffered a severe reverse at the
hands of his future son-in-law and that though defeated he was not " uprooted," i.e.
deprived of his kingdom. It may be that the proud Cedi gave his daughter to
Vigrahapala to avert a calamity. Vigrahapala III probably had a very short reign,
not exceeding thirteen years. Had he lived longer the Pala Empire may have lasted
for some time. His sons were continually quarrelling among themselves and reigned
for very short periods. The subordinate princes eagerly availed themselves of the
opportunity of throwing off the yoke and the Pala princes never gained the oppor-
tunity of subjugating the territories lost at this time.

Three inscriptions of Vigrahapala III have been discovered as yet, of which one
is on a copper-plate and the other two on stone. The copper-plate is the well-known
one from Amgachi in the Dinajpur District. The inscription has been edited many
times but the first twenty lines edited by the late Prof. Kielhorn^ and the remain-
ing portion bj'' Dr. A. F. R. Hoernle * are the only reliable versions. A fresh edition
of this important inscription is very urgently wanted I hope to take up this work
ere long and compare it with the Bangarh grant of Mahipala I as suggested by Mr.
V. A. Smith. ^ The Amgachi plate records the grant of half of the village named
BrahmanI in the Kotivarsa visaya of the Paundravarddhana bhukti to a Brahmana
named Khoddhata-devasarman on the ninth day of Caitra in the 13th year of the
king.'' On the othei two inscriptions of this king, the Aksayavata inscription is the
most important. It was noticed by Cunningham in the third volume of his Reports.
The late Dr. Th. Bloch published a summary of its contents but at that time the
last lines of the inscription were covered with plaster and so he missed the name of
the king and the date. After frequent trials I succeeded in removing the plaster
and copying the entire inscription. The central part of the inscription has suffered
seriously and is only partly legible. Otherwise the inscription is quite clear. It
records the erection of a linga (Vatesa) at Aksayavata and another called Prapita-



I Vikramanka deva-carita, I, 102 3, XVIII, 93. 2 Mem. A.S.B., Vol. Ill, p. 22.

3 Ind. Ant., Vol. XXI, p. 97. * Ibid , Vol. XIV, p. 166.

6 Ibid., Vol. XXXVIII, p. 240. 6 Ibid., Vol. Xl^^ p. 16S.



THE PALAS OF BENGAL. 81

mahesvara close by, in the fifth year of the reign of Vigrahapaladeva. As the record
has never been properly edited before I do so from the original stone : —

(i) Om Om namah Sivaya \\ Dayabhdndagdram niravadhi-jagad-dosa-vijayi

sphuraj=jnana-jyotih frasara-nihata-dhvanta-nicayam \ Kim-apy-antah

sdntam sahaj a-sukha-pJyusa-laharl

(2) -ra hrdayamangho haratu vah || Asandhdyd-kalankdn=prati-vapusa iva

brdhmandn = avja-janmd svargga-dvdr-ddhirohdm = amrta-pada-sukha-praptaye
pretya bhdjah | Saksdt samsdra-bhusava

(3) ^nmad-bhumim Sa$vat = trailokya-laksinl=nilayam = iva purlm $rl Gaydm=esa

cakte !| Gayaydm = etasydm puri sakala-saundarya nilaye dvijdtlndm mdnyo
dvija-pada-sarojdka

(4) -ma premnd parama-paritosasya janandd = abhud = dhanyah ^rlmdn si khahi

Paritos-dhvaya iti \\ Tasmdd = abhuj = jalanidh(r=iva SUaraSmih $n $u-
drako vimalakdntir = ananta-laksml [/i]

(5) kantha-sravabhirdmam^dnanditdniya^asd bhuvan-dntarani || Asddy = dmara-

rdja-rdjya-padavlm devlbhiy - dkrlditam divy-dtmatvam = ananga-darppa-dalan
= odgdr-aika-modam vapu [h

(6) -nti (?) kautuka-rasdn =-■ marttyo' vatlrnnas-tato jdto deva-kumdra-murttirasamah

$n ViSvarup=dhvayah || Yo vidhvasta-samasia-vairi-nivahah sphuryat =
pratdp-dnalah saujanyasya niddna

(7) -ma keli'drumah \ sdndrdnandamayo nisargga-madhura-vydhdra-ratndkaro din =

dndtha-vipanna-cdrana-gana-trdndya cintdmanih || Gandasthale mrgamad-
dmala-patra-bhangdn svairam

(8) -lekhanlbhih \ Adydpi yasya sura-kinnara-glyamdndm devyah Sildsti, vijaya-

stutim - dlikhanti || Dharmmen = otsvasitam mudd. vihasitam samloka maryd-
dayd trayyd visphuritam

(9) -ttribhir-jjrmbhitam | yasmin-dsvdmini sarvvatah samudaye tepy-arthinah sdhasam

sdndrdnandamaydh sva-dainya-virahdn-nrtyanti purnndtaydh \\ N = occaif-
canda-karo na c =dpi vigata

(10) fen-dstam ydii jaldtmabhih pratihato n-dnyair = apurnno bhavah | Jihvdgrena

vindgasah prati muhurtt-dpya sthirdn-agrahin-naivdsamga- digamvar-aika
nirato yo viSvarupah . . ||

(11) -marddhipo pi cakito Vrahmdpi yad-vismito devo Visnurapi sphutam vihasito

Rudropi rommcitah \ Udddma-prasarat-prasanna-vahule yat-klrtti-kallolini
-gambhlr-dmbhasi majja

(12) -pi samvodhita || Yad=durggamam saratt durataram durdpam yac = cetasa

I yam lavdha ta. . . . dsit \ sahasra .... sramavirdhana caturdasydm-

drambha-rdma iti yah sphutatdm=upetah || Asydm bhu

(13) -pd dharmmena maryddayd rajya-^ribhir-alamkrtdh punar-aml bhog-aikadd . .

3ri-vi$vdvidhe (?) esa kirttana-kathd giya

(14) \ Kirtti tvdm vismayakara dpi sauryydd^asau nta[^nr-api

ni...ddhi punar-UnSi bhavati kim ^n Vi&varUp=-oddhrta-rekh-eva prati-
pa , .



82 R. D. BANERJI ON

(15) yat-te. .adbhuta \ asy-aiva. . . .Prapitamahasya mahatim-asthapya kirttiih.. .

. . . .tatah sadhitah \ Uddhrtarthi-nisargga-dharmma-nirato yo

(16) siddhim-anayat-tam-eva kirttim punah \\ Kim vrumah yasy-

dsddhu-gunasya nasti mahatah kinna

(17) rMih suviSrtavayo yen-dkasmika-vismayena mukhar-dlokah karttur-agri

.... nivasanah sphtirad-dharagaram visrja

(18) -vydmvara-samcara-trptir-vvahu-manoja | praSamanam sura-bhandani

jaladah \\ kanakeivara jaladah .... $n ViSvarup-dvaro

(19) tya sadacarau suviditah ^rl-satkula . . . .sarvva^ah satkuladrto' ksayavato devo

VateS-ahvayah || Ity-adyah sumanonurupa-racana-ratnd

(20) -jnam ca yah | Yen-aty-adhhuta-vikramena tarasa Sn-mad-Gaya-mandale

asamsayam-udagra-dharmma-vijaya-stambha iv-ffropitah \\ Ten-d i

(21) -la visamam mhar-avataradbhutaih \\ Kirttih ^veta-gabhasti-hasta-racite iti-raja-

tam devasya Prapita-mahasya mahati $ri-i

(22) -ti namadheya \ Sattvaiva dhaninah kimva vahu vrumahe | kim tv=idrg = yadi

kirttanam bhagavatah ken^api nispadita ^rt-ViSvdvi

(23) yah svatvapa-moksa (?) | — yavac-candra-divakarau surasarid-dhatri nabho-

mandalam \ kartium Kirttikadamba {?) s' a vijayi-$yi-VUvarup-dhvaye . . . .

(24) ganitum-alamkarito bhagavan bharttur-Vigraha-paladeva-nrpate rajya^riyam

vibhratah \ samprapte tarasaiva panch-ganite rajyasya samvatsa
re

(25) V i&vaditya-gun-otksepa prltis-timita-cetasa

(26) PraSastir-vvihita c = aisa Vaidya-$ri-Dharmmapanina ||.

The original stone has suffered very much from the effects of weather so that it
is almost impossible to decipher the central portions of the lines at the middle of the
inscription. The only other known inscription of this king is the Bihar inscription
of the twelfth year noticed for the first time by Cunningham. ' He states that it is
inscribed in the pedestal of an image of Buddha and belonged to the Broadley
collection. The contents of the Broadley collection, afterwards called the Bihar
Museum, were added to those of the Indian Museum at the request of the Govern-
ment of Bengal in 1895 and the collection was transferred to Calcutta under the
supervision of the late Babu Purna Chandra Mukharji. But this inscription could
not be traced in the Indian Museum either by the late Dr. Bloch or by his successors.
Mention should be made in this connection of an inscription on a stone on which
the present image of Gadadhara at Gay a now rests. It seems to have been dis-
covered by the late Babu Purna Chandra Mukharji and pointed out by him to the
late Dr. Bloch. As the image of Gadadhara cannot be moved without wounding
the religious susceptibiHties of the Hindu population of Gay a, only the first five
lines could be copied : —

(i) Om namo marttandaya \\ Jagartti yasmin-nudite prayaii c-dstantu $ete



1 Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, p. 121, No. 7.

2 Annual Report of the Archl. Survey, E. Circle., 1901-2, p. 2.



THE PALAS OP BEXGAL. 83

Janata samasta i Trailokya dlpam tam-ananta-murttim-avyahatahham.
Saranam prayata \\ (i).

(2) S-eyam vrahmapuri Gay-eti jagati khyata svayain vedhasa sthatum vrahma-

vidam piir-lva ghatita moksasya saiikhyasya ca \

(3) Vrumah kifi-ca bhavanti ya'.ra pitarah pretalaya-vasinah pada-sprsta-jala-

pradana-vidhina nak-ahgana-nayakah \\ (2). Asyarii va-

(4) -bhuva purl vakragati dvijihva sanira i-bhuj ahga ripur-acyuta-pddasevJ \
Yo nima visnu-rathavad-dvijaraja-varyah prltya satam ca Pa

(5) -ritosa iti prasiddhah \\ TasmUd-vidheriva vahhuva

This inscription has been referred to the reign of Vigrahapaladeva because its
writing resembles that of the Aksayavata inscription.

Nothing is known about the relations of Vigrahapila III save his three sons

Surapala II, Mahipila II and Raniapala, all of whom succeeded him one after another.

The Ramacarita mentions two uncles of Rimapala, Mahana

Succe?isors and ^^ Mathanadeva and his brother Savarnadeva, who belonged

relations. _ .jo

to the Ristrakuta family. So Vigrahapila must have

married another lady of the Rastrakuta family whose name has not come down to

us. Ramapala was the sjn of the Rastrakuta princess and not of the Cedi princess

Yauvanasri.



CHAPTER V.

The Decwne of the Pai.as.

After the death of Vigrahapala III, his eldest son Mahipala II ascended the

throne of his ancestors. According to the author of Ramacarita, untoward things

began to happen in this reign.' He did not act according to the advice of his

ministers and was not well disposed towards his remaining brothers Surapala and

Ramapala. He was told by the people that Ramapala was an
Accession of Mahipala II, , , t, . ,, ■, , . j • • j. .

imprisonment of the Princes ^^^^ Prmce, as well as a popular and Vigorous admmistrator,

Ramapala and Surapila. and that he would kill him and take away his kingdom. So,
Bencal '^ ^ °^ '^'^" ^^ ^°^ cunning, he tried to kill him, and at last succeeded in

confining him in a prison.* It appears that Mahipala's
younger brother Surapala was sent to prison at the same time as his youngest brother
Ramapala: — Aparena bhratira Su:apalena saha kastagaram kara^yfham mahattava-
nam raksanam yatra.^ This Surapala was older than Ramapala, because the author
of the Ramacarita states, that Ramapala 's son succeeded to the throne, though Sura-
pala was Ramapala' s elder.* The brothers were reduced to very great straits while
in prison.^ The author adds in another place that both brothers were sent to prison
because Mahipala had apprehensions of being dethroned by them.'' About this time
Divvoka, a former servant, by cunning, took away a part of Ramapala' s paternal
kingdom Varendri.'^ Mahipala went to fight against the confederate rebel's with the

small force at his command and fell in battle. This hap-

^Sitii^fS^pakTr^' P^°^^ ^liil^ Ramapala was in prison. ?« Elsewhere it is

specified that the Kaivartta King killed Mahipala." After
Mahipala's death Ramapala seems to have been set free, but driven out of the country^
as the author of Ramacarita states, that Ramapala became careless of his body and
mind, because he was kept out of his kingdom.'" Nothing is known about the period
following the death of Mahipala II up to the accession of Ramapala. Surapala II
seems to have been recognized, by the adherents of the Pala Princes as the successor
of Mahipala II, as he is mentioned by name in the Manahali grant of Madanapaladeva.

The importance of this grant lies in the fact that it does not

igntrrd^'br'ISytkJi; ^g^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^S of the Pala dynasty from Gopala I to
Nandi but recorded in the Madanapala. Thus it might have omitted the names of
M_anahali grant of Madana- Q^^^i^ ju g^d KumSrapala, because these two Princes are

not ascendants of Madanapala and such names are usually
omitted in the genealogical part of a copperplate grant. If Surapala II had not
actually reigned his name would have surely been omitted from this grant. For a

1 Comm. on V 31, p. 29, Mem. A.S.B., Vol. III. 2 Comm. on V 37, SC. L.C, p. 31.

'i Comtn. on V 33, L.C. p. 29. * Comm. on V 28, I/.C, p. 28. 8 Comm on V 35, I/.C, p. 28.

6 Comm. on V 36, L.C, p. 36. 1 Comm. on V 38, L.C, p. 31. 3 Comm. on V 31, L.C, p. 29.

9 Comm. on V 29, L.C., p. 28. 10 Comm. on V41, L.C, p. 32.



R. D. BANERJl ON THE PALAS OF BENGAL. 85

similar reason we do not find the name of Rajyapala, the eldest son of Ramapala, who
could not have reigned as he died in his father's lifetime : —

Vigrahapala III

.__l

Mahipala II Surapala Ramapala



Rajyapala Kumarapala Madanapala.

(died in his father's lifetime) |

Gopala III.



The mention of Surapala's accession to the throne or the recognition of his chief-
ship in the Pala dominions, may have been omitted by Sandhyakaranandi, either
through carelessness, or as not being relevant to his subject. It may also be possible
that Surapala was Ramapala's rival for the throne, and though he had succeeded
temporarily he was overthrown in the long run and perhaps murdered at the instiga-
tion of his younger brother. Nothing is known about the extent of Surapala's reign
or his death. But it is quite certain that he was succeeded by his younger brother
Ramapala. In the course of time Diwoka had died and was succeeded by his brother
Rudoka. Rudoka was succeeded by his son Bhima, who on his succession, began to
harass the people, living in the tract of land, which was stiU left in the possession of
the Palas.^ At that time Ramapala was in great straits and thought himself to be
without friends.^ But his son and his advisors sought him, and urged him to take

the necessary steps, and he regained courage.* The author

Ramapala is urged by his of the Ramacarita states in another place that he became

Sefiefd^aiSrshima.'^''' very anxious to fight with Bhima/ His first step was to

travel round the country to propitiate the feudatories and
subordinate kings of his father's kingdom, and he succeeded in gaining over the
forest feudatories.^ During his travels he became convinced that all feudatories were
well disposed towards him.** By giving away lands along river banks and immense
wealth, Ramapala succeeded in obtaining horse and foot soldiers and elephants from
the feudatories. Sivaraja, the son of his maternal uncle and a Mahapratihara, crossed


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