these places for ceremonial or other purposes. Here have been
found several desiccated human bodies commonly called mummies.
"The ruin is divided by a street into two sections, the northern
and southern, the former being the more extensive.
Light is pre-
vented from entering the larger of these recesses by rooms which
reach the roof of the cave. In front of these rooms are circular
subterranean rooms called kivas, which are sunken below the sur-
rounding level places, or plazas, the roofs of these kivas having
been formerly level with the plazas.
"The front boundary of these plazas is a wall which when
the excavations were begun was buried under debris of fallen
walls, but which formerly stood several feet above the level of
You might be surprised, to know that these ruins contain
plazas and courts, balconies, circular rooms and kivas; the kiva
laeing always a circular subterranean room, supposed to be cere-
monial room, all of them having a fire-hole with an upright slab
or rock, or a narrow, thin wall of masonry placed between the
fire-place and the wall of the kiva. There were circular rooms
other than kivas — a mortuary room, lodge house, stairways, re-
fuse-heaps, opening upon the main street, while many minor an-
tiquities were found when these ruins were first opened by the
famous Dr. Fewkes. They were discovered as late as 1888, but
Dr. Fewkes did not go there until 1891. Since this he has per-
formed a colossal labor in uncovering these ruins and restoring
many of their unique and interesting features.
Our small party reached the ruins about the same time with
nearly 70 sightseers who came from Mancos, all in automobiles.
The Methodist Episcopal conference had just closed, the evening
before in Mancos. and they had been honored with the presence
of Bishop Eugene Hendrix who presides over that dicJcese. He
himself was in the party. President Halls knew some of the
ministers in Mancos and introduced members of our party to
those with whom he was acquainted.
It was to laugh when one minister was introduced to the
vv-riter with the added explanation that she was a daughter of
"Would you pardon me." said the minister hesitatingly, "what
number of child were you?"
"I really do not know." I replied smilingly, "my father had
RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE.
fifty-six living children, ten of them dying in infancy. Out of the
forty-six I am one, but I haven't the remotest idea just where I
belong in the line."
The shocked expression which stole over the ministerial fea-
tures gave way to another glance of eager inquiry.
"What number of wife was your mother?" he inquired gently.
"L am as little able to answer that question as the first one," I
"Didn't you mother know?" he asked.
"Not that I ever heard of. I don't think she ever counted,
and I am sure I never did, although I am the genealogist of the
family. We all lived together in the same house when we were
children, and I can't recall any of the wives stating what number
they were, or any of the children figuring out just where we be-
longed. We loved each other and our mothers and we adored
father. I never heard one of my father's wives quarrel with an-
other wife in my life. I never heard a disrespectful word spoken
to my father or about him by any member of his family. He was
a very great man, and an ideal father and husband."
All day long we heard remnants of this conversation as we
passed groups of the party, in going about the ruins, but everyone
with whom we came in contact treated us with respect and con-
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THE CLIFF DWELLERS.
sideration, a very different attitude of mind from what some of ns
knew a quarter of a century ago.
From the Spruce-tree House we still went on the mesas to
the Balcony House. This is said to be the most difficult ruin to
reach. In one place there is a ladder to climb, set against the
face of a rock, about 30 feet high; one must climb the face of
the rock itself, placing the feet in steps cut into the rock; but we
succeeded all right and enjoyed the wonderful view from the
Balcony House. It is without question, the most artistic and
DET.ML OF BALCONY HOUSE.
beautifully located ruin of them all. The breast-high walk guards
the outer edge of the precipice. Here one can stand and gaze in
awe at the wild majesty of the gorge below, and at the mesas and
mountains falling and rising across the canyon.
The next ruin to claim our attention was the Cliff Palace,
which is so extensive and elaborate as to merit the name of palace,
given by its discoverers.
We next went by auto to the Sun Temple which, unlike the
others, is built on top of the mesa. The theory of the discoverer
is that it was intended as a temple or house of worship. The
floor bears a symbol resembling a sun. There are three massive
circular wall rooms, two in the main plaza and one in the annex.
630 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE.
Inhere are many rooms, entered from the roofs. Beside these
three kivas, none of the rooms could be entered except through
the roof, which seems to indicate secrecy and mystery in per-
mitting only the initiated to enter. Unlike the other ruins which
have been constructed in a more or less haphazard fashion, one
building patched on to another, the Sun Temple is definitely
planned ; its walls are very extensive and the dressing of the stones
is very carefully done. The discoverer, Dr. Fewkes, says :
"Those who made it must have belonged to several clans
fused together, and if they united for this common work, they
were in a higher state of sociological development than a loosely
connected population of a dwelling.
"In primitive society only one purpose could have united the
several clans who built such a structure, and this purpose must
have been a religious one. This building was constructed for
worship, and its size is such that we may practically call it a
A tree was cut down near the summit of the highest wall
which undoubtedly sprouted after the desertion of the building
and which had grown after a mound had developed from the
fallen walls. This tree had 360 annual rings which would indi-
cate that it bcigan to grow shortly after the year 1540, when Cor-
onado first entered New Mexico.
We next retraced our steps and rode back to the Spruce-tree
House Inn. There are other ruins, but we did not attempt to visit
them. Our party learned that Dr. Fewkes was at the ruins. He
is the famous discoverer and lecturer, who had had charge of the
ruins under the Government for twenty-five years, and who is now
engaged in uncovering another mound which, like the Sun Tem-
ple mound covers an ancient temple or ruin. We learned he in-
tended giving a brief lecture to the ministerial party, and we were
\ery glad to join in the courtesy. We found Dr. Fewkes some
miles from Spruce-tree House Inn busy with his men and teams,
hauling out the red sand soil from the new ruin referred to.
Gathering under the shade of the cedar trees, at the edge of
the mesa, on the brow of another canyon gorge, we listened while
Dr. Fewkes explained to us something of the purpose and plan of
these ancient clifif dwellers. He told us that the building he was
uncovering was much older than the Sun Temple. He described
to us some of the habits and customs of the Indians, suggesting
that the Hopi Indians were probably their descendants. He
sketched vividly the probable life and activity of this prehistoric
people. Among other things he stated that he himself had lived
among the Hopi Indians in order to study their tribal language,
and thus to reach the root of their traditions and habits and cus-
toms. He said they posessed, in common with the Mexican In-
dians, a belief in the return of the Fair God who would come to
THE CLIFF DWELLERS.
redeem His people. When he first went among the Indians to
dwell they thought he might be this Fair God. How strange that
men will hear such traditions and not connect them with the Book
of Mormon !
After the part}- broke up, I took the liberty of addressing Dr.
P'ewkes and told him who I was, offering to send him a Book of
Mormon. He thanked me cordially, and said that he had just
come into possession of a copy of that Book, given to him by one
of his workmen who is a member of our Church. He added that
he was reading it carefully and attentively.
• On our return, our own little party camped out in the moun-
tains a few hours ebcause of a broken auto axle, and had a de-
lightful visit around the camp-fire while we were being rescued
from our comfortable plight. The return journey on the train to
Montrose found our party in company with the ministerial party,
who were returning at the same time, and we enjoyed a very de-
lightful, occasional visit with the genial and learned bishop who
could not forget that I could not remember what number of wife
my mother was in my father's family. The gentleman had met
one of my brothers twenty years ago, and was very liberal and
interested in all that we told him concerning our religion and our
people. Such, then, is the chronicle of a delightful visit to one
of the most remarkable ruins of ancient America.
SUN TEMPLE. WITH KIVAS.
Home Science Department.
Janette A. Hyde.
Since the organization of our Church, and more especially
after coming to Utah, our people have been taught the necessity
of preparedness, not in the exact war sense, as it is taught today,
but in a sense of a general preparation for life in all its phases.
One of the first steps toward material preparedness was made
by President Brigham Young when he advised each family, in
securing land, to take up enough to allow a small portion for
a kitchen garden. The culture of this would teach thrift, and
give a general knowledge of the soil and climatic conditions. A
most important point, however, was that a kitchen garden would
produce the amount necessary for the family to consume, not
only during the growing and productive period, but for the win-
ter season, as well. I wonder if we have forgotten the early train-
ing, and if we are drifting into careless habits, thinking perhaps
that canning factories, packing houses, etc., will be able to supply
us with ready prepared foods ! Are we coming to be known as a
people who live from cans and paper bags, saying, prehaps, ''it is
cheaper," yet, forgetting the effect it has upon our home life?
Are we forgetting, too, that the boys and girls are not receiving
the early training necessary to equip them for better husbands and
better wives? One of the greatest joys of a real house wife and
mother is to stock the winter larder with delicious fruits and
vegetables for family use. We should always ask ourselves this
question : "What is the most economical and best method of sup-
plying the family with prepared foods?" After careful investiga-
tion, we will find that the home dried, canned, and preserved
fruits and vegetables are the most profitable to the frugal house-
Let us not lose the precious inheritance of our mothers and
grandmothers, and let ^is add to these the new methods furnished
us by the Agricultural Colleges of the country and by our own
Home Science Department.
Europe has demonstrated to American people what it means
to be prepared on the food question, both in times of peace and
of war. But we can do no better than to follow the early teach-
ings of our Church, on the subject.
HOME SCIENCE DEPARTMENT. 633
RECIPE FOR CRYSTALLIZED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
In the preparation of the crystahzed fruit, great care must be
exercised in securing fruit that is a little under-ripe. Choose the
smaller sizes of fruit for this purpose. The following varieties
are really better for this purpose : pears, white cling-stone peaches,
and French prunes. Such vegetables as young carrots, tender
stocks of celery, and small tomatoes are delicious additions.
Peel the fruit and vegetables, and prick them with a darning
needle, making several incisions that the flavor of spices, etc.,
may penetrate to the core. Put fruit over the fire and cook in a
very weak syrup of one teacup of sugar to a pint of water. Allow
three pints of water to a peck of fruit, putting in a little fruit at
a time, till all is used. This prevents sticking and scorching, and
the overcooking of fruit.. When the fruit is just barely cooked
through, remove and place in earthen jar. Allow three-quarters
of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, the juice of two lemons
and one-half teacup of good white vinegar Mix vinegar, lemon
juice, and sugar, and pour the cold mixture over the hot fruit.
Let stand over night. In the morning, re-heat the whole, adding
to the juices, etc., a dozen whole cloves, a dozen allspice, a tea-
spoonful whole white mustard seed, a teaspoonful coreander seed,
and 10 cents worth of crystallized ginger root. Boil for 10 or 15
minutes. Take the fruit from the syrup, place on platters in
warm oven until the outside of the fruit is coated over, or has a
dried appearance. Return the fruit to the jar, and pour over it
the boiling hot syrup, which contains the spices, etc. Seal, and
put away for use.
Prunes and plums, may be treated in the same way, with
the exception of searing the skin over in the oven, which is not
necessary on account of the outside condition of the fruit. Prunes
are delicious if pitted when ready to serve, and filled with pecan
and walnut meats.
These fruits are not only delicious, but make the most beau-
tiful ornamental dishes one could possibly imagine, for table dec-
orations. Arrange in a cut glass bowl the beautiful peaches, pears
with stems, crab-apples, plums stufifed with nuts, and here and there
a young carrot, with a little green top, as well as a tiny stock of
celery, and they will serve as a really decorative center piece for a
holiday dinner table.
Notes from the Field.
Amy Brown Lyman, General Secretary.
Cottonwood Stake. — The Cottonwood stake held a very
successful bazaar on August 30 and 31. Each of the twelve wards
provided a booth and sold food articles, the proceeds going to the
ward. The stake board sold articles donated by the business
houses, provided for and conducted a cafeteria, and presented a
tableaux play with special orchestra music. The funds raised by
the stake board were given to the ward organizations averaging
$25 to each ward. A children's dance was given in the afternoon
TABLEAU OE COTTONWOOD STAKE WORKERS.
on the second day, free of charge, and a baby show was con-
ducted at which fifty-two babies under one year were exhibited.
Each baby received a small prize, and the winner a special prize.
The proceeds from the stake and wards amounted to near $1,000,
and will be used for charity. We congratulate this energetic
young stake on this excellent and profitable undertaking.
NOTES FROM THE FIELD. 635
Hearty Response to a Call. — A call recently came to the
General Board from the temple authorities, asking for seven
hundred yards of carpet-^one hundred yards for the Salt Lake
temple and six hundred yards for the Logan temple. The fol-
lowing stakes were asked to contribute this carpet: Alpine, 100
yards ; Utah, 100 yards ; Nebo, 100 yards ; Juab, 100 yards ; Box
Elder, 100 yards ; Wasatch, 100 yards ; North Davis, 50 yards,
and South Davis, 50 yards. It is gratifying to report that, as
usual, the request was responded to with a sweet spirit of willing-
promptitude, and the carpet has already been received at the tem-
ples. The temple authorities and the General Board appreciate
this generosity on the part of these stakes, and we take this op-
portunity to thank them publicly for their hearty response to our
An Estimate of "Mormon" Women. — In a recent issue of
the Beach Mirror, published at Long Beach, California, Mrs.
Myra Kingman Miller, a gifted author of that city, in an article
on "The 'Mormon' of Today," speaks enthusiastically of the "Mor-
mon" women and their work. Mrs. Miller met a number ot our
women at a convention in California, during the great fair, and
later she visited in Salt Lake City. She says : "Raised to think
that the 'Mromons' were a grade worse than the heathens, you
may well imagine the writer's surprise to find that after intimate
association with a group of women at a great international con-
vention for some weeks, admiring their personality, their accom-
plishments, their broad-mindedness, on matters of general and
national interest, that they were 'Mormons.' It was a test of poise
to keep the shock hidden from public notice, but then and here a
decision was made to visit the lion in his den, to see and study
first hand these women and conditions that created so much criti-
cism, and at the same time were so charitable, so thorough, so
conscientious and so likeable.
* * * "These 'Mormon' women have been a big factor in
the building of this great city of Salt Lake, which was described
in a previous chapter, for they are home-makers first of all. They
are bright, lovable, intelligent women, above the average. They
are loyal, conservative, alert, industrious, frugal, competent, and
charitable. They are self-sacrificing, generous, happy, peaceful,
contented ; women of high standards of morals, of large intellects,
and deep thinkers, and they are giving to the world some of her
most prominent business and professional men, some of her hap-
piest homes, and some of her most talented sons and daughters.
God bless these women, true to convictions, through trials and
tribultaions, through joys and comforts. May their like increase."
North Weber Stake.— All Relief Society workers will re-
636 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE.
gret to learn of the resignation of Mrs. Georgina G. Marriott as
President of the North Weber Stake Relief Society. Mrs. Mar-
riott is a woman of rare intelligence and ability, and was partic-
ularly active and energetic in her labors in connection with this
position. We take comfort in the thought that although the So-
ciety has lost an efficient officer, Mrs. Marriott is still a loyal
member of the organization, and will always give us the best that
is in her in the way of interest and support. The new stake offi-
cers pay the following tribute to Mrs. Marriott: "The North
Weber Stake Relief Society sustained a great loss in the resigna-
tion of Mrs. Georgina G. Marriott as stake president, and at the
first monthly officers' meeting, which ocurred after her with-
drawal, a testimonial was tendered her. We were especially fa-
vored with the presence of our beloved General President, Mrs.
Emmeline B. Wells, her counselors, Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams,
and Mrs. Julina L. Smith, Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry and Mrs.
Annie Wells Cannon ; also two members of the stake presidency,
the stake clerk, members of the high council, and several bishops.
"An enjoyable program was rendered and refreshments
"All who were asked to speak testified to the sterling qualities
of Mrs. Marriott and expressed their regrets in losing such an en-
ergetic, faithful and intelligent worker as she had proven herslef
"Mrs. Marriott was presented with a fountain pen and a cut
glass vase filled with flowers. She has been actively engaged in
Relief Society work for many years, and officially so since the
organization of the stake, in 1908. She has been untiring in her
efforts for the advancement of the Relief Society cause in the
stake, and the community at large. She was not discriminating
in the kind of work she did, so long as others were benefited. She
served others because she enjoyed the blessed spirit of helpfulness
and found it a part of her nature to be of use in every possible
manner to those it was her pleasure to help on in the world."
At the re-organization of the stake, Mrs. Lucy A. Steers was
made president, with Mrs. Julia E. Parry, as first counselor, Mrs.
Annie L. Middleton as second counselor, and Mrs. Mary A. Terry
Bannock Stake has recently been re-organized. Mrs. Julia
A. Pond, who has been such a faithful and diligent president,
found herself obliged to retire from her arduous labors. She cer-
tainly carried with her the love and good wishes of all her as-
The new officers are: President, Gwynnie Redford; first
counselor, Katherine Sorenson; second counselor, Sarah M. Mc-
NOTES FROM THE FIELD. . 6Z7
Clelland ; secretary, Agnes Lloyd ; chorister, May Barrett ; organ-
ist, Emily Sorenson.
Box Elder Stake. — In the Box Elder stake, during the past
year, some very successful teachers' conventions have been held
in the various wards. The programs have consisted of talks and
papers on the work and duties of teachers, interspersed with
musical numbers. After the programs, refreshments have been
served, and a social hour indulged in. These conventions have
been helpful to the general work and an incentive for better ser-
vice. A paper on "The Mission of the Relief Society Teacher,"
prepared and read at a recent convention, was exceptionally inter-
esting and inspiring.
Utah Stake. — The Utah Stake Relief Society Teachers'
department is making a special effort to gather a greater amount
of wheat this year than has every been gathered before in any
one year. The teachers have been organized and instructd to
make a special visit to every houes with a hope of securing at
least one bushel of wheat, or the value of one bushel, in cash, from
each family in the stake.
Relief Society meetings have been held in all the wards on
an appointed Sunday evening when one or more members of the
stake board spoke on the history and importance of wheat storing.
In connection with the subject of wheat, the teachers are also
discussing and promoting the Penny Subscription Fund.
From a report of the Home Economics section of the Relief
Society of this stake we learn that all the wards in the stake have
followed the outline as given in the Magazine, and in addition
the stake held a Home Economics convention, in Provo, at the
Brigham Young University, in February. This convention con-
sisted of three sessions, with eight hundred members in attend-
ance. In March, workers from the extension department of the
Agricultural College visited Provo with their special train, and
in connection with the inspection at the station, lectures were
given at the Central School by Mrs. Gertrude McCheyne and
Mrs. Margaret Hull Eastman, under the auspices of the Stake
Relief Society. Three hundred women attended these lectures.
New Zealand. Mrs. Horace C. Holbrook has just reached
New Zealand where she expects to do missionary work in con-
nection with her husband. She has written for copies of the
Magasine in order to put the Society there in close touch with the
work at home.
James H. Anderson.
Breadstuffs in the United States continue to go up in price
and down in quantity on hand.
Peace talk is forbidden in Germany by putting in jail those
who engage in it freely. The treatment doubtless is effective.
Women's skirts, of ankle length and less flaring, is the
promise of fashion leaders ; this is at least an extension of the
covering factor, for which we are thankful.
Salt Lake City's taxes, for 1916, are the highest in history.
A notable effect of the present system of assessing and levying
taxes is to incerase unnecessarily the home-owner's burden.
Utah troops, or at least a large portion of them, are being
permitted to return home from the Mexican border. They had no
Election success this fall is claimed by both the great na-
tional political parties, but the contest appears to be so close that it
will take November 7 to decide.
Statistics given out by the leading nations in Europe would
indicate greater prosperity there than before the present war
began. Seems like whistling to keep up courage.
Private Banks in Chicago are having a hard time of it, ten
having failed during the month of September. Their proprietors
have ceased to boast of good times. ^
China was the scene of disastrous floods in September,
many thousands of square miles of country being inundated, and
more than two million people rendered homeless.
Congress came to the end of its sesision in September. It
•was not the longest session on record, but bears the palm as the
most costly to the national exchequer.
Interurban rail extension from Utah County into Sanpete
County via Nephi, Juab County, is now porrnised in connection