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Rhode Island

Historical Society

Collections



Vol. XXIX



JANUARY, 1936



No. 1




EARLY LOCAL PAPER CURRENCY



See page 10



Issued Quarterly



68 Waterman Street, Providence, Rhode Island



<^



CONTENTS



PAGE

Early Paper Currency . . . Cover and 1

Advertisement of 1678

Communicated by Fulmer Mood ... 1

A Rhode Island Imprint of 1 73 1

Communicated by Douglas C. McMurtrie . 3

New Publications of Rhode Island Interest . . 9

New Members . . . . . . . 10

Notes 10

The Gore Roll

by Harold Bowditch . , . . . 11

Ships' Protests 30



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T^n-



rrr



RHODE
HISTORICAL




ISLAND

SOCIETY



COLLECTIONS



Vol. XXIX



JANUARY, 1936



No. 1



H. Anthony Dyer, President Gilbert A. Harrington, Treasurer
Howard W. Preston, Secretary Howard M. Chapin, Librarian



The Society assumes no responsibility for the statements or the opinions
■of contributors.



/-



An Early American Advertisement
Concerning Rhode Island, 1678

Cotnmunicated by Fulmer Mood

The advertisement which is given below is now printed,
it is believed, for the first time since it was originally pub-
lished. The original is to be found in the archives of the
Public Record Office, London, where I consulted it first
in the autumn of 1934. On referring to Charles Evans,
American Bibliography, volume I, and Willard O. Waters,
American Imprints, 1 648- 1 797, in the Huntington Library,
Supplementing Evans' American Bibliography (Hunting-
ton Library Bulletin Number 3, February, 1933) I could
not locate this item, and provisionally decided that it was
unknown. But in conversation with Mr. Waters at the
Huntington Library I learned that that indefatigable ex-
plorer, Worthington Ford, had preceded me on the trail,
and that he had listed the document as number 64 in his
work on Massachusetts Broadsides and Ballads, 1639-1800.

The advertisement is filed in the collection at the Public
Tlecord Office as C. O. 1/42, 149. I. It should be read in



2 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

connection with three other documents listed as number 836,
number 837 and number 839 of the Calendar of State
Papers, Colonial, America and West Indies, 1677-1680,
London 1896.

Although this specimen of domestic promotion literature
is indeed primitive, when compared with the identical type
of literature produced in London at about the same period,
yet it would seem as though a useful purpose is being served
by presenting it here, as historians of Rhode Island and of
American advertising may perhaps find in it some thing
of interest.

AN ADVERTISEMENT.

WHereas the Lands of Narrhaganset^ and Niantick Coun-
try es, and parts adjacent, are places very pleasant and
fertile, fit and commodious for plantation, and several
Townships; the true & legal Right whereof belongs to
certain Gentlemen in New-England , (the most part of
them dwelling within the Colony of the Massachusetts)
by purchase from the chief Sachims, that were sole Proprie-
tors of the same; and was long since allowed and approved
by the Honoured Commissioners of the united Colonies,
and recorded in the Book of Records for the Colony of
Connecticot, under which Goverment and Jurisdiction the
Land aforesaid lyeth.

These are therefore to certifie & inform all Christian
Peo-pley that are willing or may be desirous to settle them-
selves in a regular way of Townships on the said Lands,
that they may please to apply themselves to the Subscribers
hereof in Bostony who are by the said Gentlemen, the
Proprietors, chosen and appointed a Committee to act in
any of their Concerns touching the Premises ; with whom all
such Persons may treat and agree on very easie and reason-
able Terms.

T^^y-Tj . w on. 7 1 Simon Brads treet.

IJatedm noston the JOth. of j , ,^ ^^

T 1 1 ^ -7 o John Safhn.

July. 16 7 8 T-r 1 Tj . , •

rJtsha Hutchinson.



A RHODE ISLAND IMPRINT OF 1731 3

A Rhode Island Imprint of 1731

Communkated by Douglas C. McMurtrie

In the Public Record Office, London, is preserved an
early Rhode Island imprint which appears to be previously
unrecorded. It is a four-page leaflet bearing the imprint:
"Newport, Rhode Island: Printed by J. Franklin. 1731."
It may be thus described:
Jenks, William, and Walton, John.

The I Arguments j Of The Honourable | William
Jenks Esqj and Wr'.John Walton, B. A. & V, D. M. |
Against the rash and irregular Proceedings of the Prov-
ince of I the Massachusetts-Bay, against the Inhabi-
tants of that Land | in Controversy between the said
Province and the Colony | of Rhode-Island. . . [Colo-
phon, p. 4] : Newport, Rhode-Island: Printed by
/. Franklin, 173 1.
16x26.5 cm. 4 p.
Public Record Office, C. O. 5/838
As this printed document does not lend itself to repro-
duction, and as the contents seem of considerable interest,
it seems worth while to transcribe the text herewith:

ARGUMENT I.

The Land in Controversy is in Fact within the Charter
of Rhode Island Colony, and so Rhode-Island may justly
claim the same, unless the Province can shew some Title,
or Right, paramount to that Charter.

ARGUM. II. It has not yet appeared that the Province
ever had any Charter of the same j for they pretend to hold
it by Ply^nouth Charter, which was bounded by the Country
of Sewampsit, which leaves out the Land in Controversy,
and also considerable other Land, lying between Rhode
Island Colony and Old Plymouth, which never was at all



4 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

comprehended in the Province Charter, and yet belongs to
His Majesty, and contains, by Estimation, a Tract of Land
Twenty Miles long, and Seven Miles wide, at one End,
and only a Point at the other.

ARC III. It doth not yet appear, that there hath been any
Agreement, whereby the Province could justly claim the
Jurisdiction of the said Landj and especially, because the
pretended Settlement made by the King's Commissioners,
was done without the Assistance of Richard Nichollsy and
so was contrary to their Commission: And what was done
was only p-o Tempore, till the King's Pleasure could be
known.

2. What was done by the Commissioners, was expresly
contrary to their Orders; for they were to settle the Bounds
according to Charter, which they did not do; for, a North
Line from Pattucet Falls, which is according to Rhode-
Island Charter, in Fact takes in the Land in Controversy;
and the Delivery of the Charter to Rhode Island, gave
them the Possession of the Jurisdiction, et Jus in foro Regis.

3. The King afterwards chose thirteen Commissioners to
settle the said Line, and expresly declared. That the First
had done Nothing. So that the King's Pleasure is known,
and the Doings of the former Commissioners vacated.

4. The Colony of Rhode-Island never assented to any
Thing done by the Commissioners, and that because it was
done contrary to their Orders, and to the Charter, and
without Richard Nicholls; and so nothing passed by
Agreement.

ARC IV. The Province made an Act which superceded all
Processes respecting Taxes, till the Line should be settled:
So that it seems unreasonable to do Violence to their own
Acts, and to interpret them expresly contrary to their Gram-
matical Sense; and especially seeing that Act was federal,
and founded upon a Letter sent from the Colony of Rhode-
Island, and could no more be violated, than a Grant of
Land be vacated.



A RHODE ISLAND IMPRINT OF 1731 5

And if the Province intends to be more religious than
Rhode-Islandy we would entreat its People to set good
Examples, and learn to keep their Covenants, and show a
Christian Moderation, and not prey upon their Neighbours,
nor let Might overcome Right; but let them imitate Christ,
and not cast Stumbling Blocks in the Way, to hinder the
Growth of Christianity.

ARC V, But suppose for Argument's Sake, that Rhode-
Island had not Right to the Land; yet inasmuch as they
claim it, and have (by Order of Assembly) granted Prohi-
bitions, forbidding all Persons at their utmost Perils to
meddle with any Rates, and commanding all the Inhabi-
tants, by a special Warrant to assist the Constable in appre-
hending all such Persons as should dare to strain for Rates,
how unreasonable is it to pretend to punish those who
obey'd the Authority of Rhode-Island Colony? For it was
impossible to obey both Governments. Our Saviour has
told us. No Man can serve two Masters. These poor People
who live upon the Land in Controversy have two Masters,
qui sunt oppositiy one opposite to the other; and let them
disobey which they please, they are sure to be punished,
viz. according to the Method of the Province; which to us
seems contrary to a Christian Temper, as well as contrary
to Law and Justice, and that which we think cannot be
accounted for by any other than an Arbitrary Power: For by
the same Rule, Rhode-Island might Punish them for not
resisting the Province. Now we should think it more rea-
sonable for the Province and Colony to fight the Battle,
than each by Turns to tug and tear the poor People that
ly between them: For if they have done any thing by Order
of Authority, they can't in Justice be punished.

1 . Because if the Thing was wrong, they were not Judges
of it.

2. They dare not dispute the Authority of Rhode-Islandy
for fear of being punished.

3. It was the Authority that ought to be blamed, if there
was any Blame.



O RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

4. While the Line was unsettled, the People ought
wholly to be let alone, or to submit to which Government
they please; otherwise we affirm, there can be no fair Tryal
of their Cases relating to Rates and Taxes, and that because
all such Cases should be tryed in eodem Comitatu: And who
can yet say in what County the Land in Controversy lies?
So that the Jurisdiction of Bristol Court may justly be
deny'd: And who in that Case can be Judge? Will any Man
be so left of God, as to judge in his own Case? The Law
forbids Relations to sit as Judges, and a Sheriff that is
Cousin to one of the Partys, may not pannel the Jury,
because the whole Array may be challenged if he does. How
then can the Persons living on the Land in Controversy be
tryed by Boston or Rhode-I sland Government, since they
are all Partys in both the Province and Colony. Vide Trials
per Pais, which will -plainly shew, that the Court has no
Jurisdiction of the Case: The Sheriff can't pannel the Jury,
nor are there any Men fit for Jurors, because they are all
interested in the Case, and will all take the Benefit of the
Country Rates, and are engaged as a Party: And it seems
the Province has had sufficient Experience of its own Mis-
takes in judging in its own Case. And tho' we own them to
be wise Men who rule the Province, yet. Nemo simper
sapity <y Humanum est errare. No Men wise at all Times,
and especially when they are interested in the Case. Then
all good Men should be jealous of themselves, lest they
should be sway'd by Interest j and should be willing to leave
the Matters to impartial Judges. So in the Case before us,
What Need is there of vexatious Suits to be carry'd on by
the Violence of one Party, since if the Foundation be settled,
all things will soon come to rights. For the People own the
Authority of the best of Kings, and are as true Subjects as
any in the World; but till they know in what Government
they live, they look upon themselves at their Liberty to
submit to which they please; and that because as at first.
Men submitted themselves to Government by Consent, and
deposited their own share of Dominion into the Hands of



A RHODE ISLAND IMPRINT OF 1731 7

Rulers. So these People look upon themselves so far in the
same original State, as to have Liberty of submitting to that
Government which they think has received Power from our
most Rightful Sovereign King GEORGE, by his continu-
ing the Charter granted. Not that they pretend to assume
the original Right Mankind had in sharing in Government j
for they re Joyce 'tis in th'e Hands of our Gracious King:
But they are submitting to those Persons whom their Con-
science witness to have been impowered by the King's Char-
ter, and are waiting to know his Majesty's Pleasure respect-
ing the Line. If they fall into the Province, they'll obey
their Authority.

Object. But why did not the People submit to Boston
Province since they had the Possession of the Land?

Anszv. 1. They' could not in Conscience submit, because
the Land is expresly taken into Rhode Island Charter, and,
as they think, was never rightly claim'd by Boston^ and so
they would have been Rebels to deny the King's Charter to
Rhode Island J and yield Obedience to an exorbitant Power,
which, as they think, was never allow'd by the King.

2. The Province never had any legal possession of the
Land; for it was neither chartered to them, nor theirs by
Agreement: And their forcing Rates gives them no Posses-
sion, unless an unjust Usurpation, or rather forcible Entry,
could give Possession. But supposing Plymouth Charter
had included the Land, yet since his Majesty afterwards
granted the same by Charter to Rhode Island, how can the
Province, Vi et Armis, take the same away, any more than
Ply^nouth can assume the whole of its ancient Jurisdiction?
Unless the Province can suppose themselves so much above
his Majesty, as to disregard his Instructions, break his
Charters, and imprison his Majesty's good Subjects, and all
in Compliance to their own Humours, and to promote their
own Interest. For as the King is Dominus SupremuSy he as
such ought to be regarded, and his Charters so valid as not
to be violated by his Subjects. Therefore the Cause ought
first to be heard by such an Excellent Judge as is our Gra-



8 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

cious and most Excellent King, who is as much prized in
Rhode-Island Colony, as in any Parts of the World: Or it
should be try'd by such Judges as His Majesty directs to,
and all Processes should be discontinued till the Line be
settled. For why should Children go to Club Law, endan-
gering Life and Limbs, and cause much Hatred, when they
have a tender Parent ready to put an End to their Differ-
ence? Why should we have civil Wars, and cause needless
vexatious Suits? Why should we judge in our own Cases,
and disturb one another, when there is no Necessity of it,
but the Matter might well be finished in another Method?
If Men would be Christians, they must promote Justice,
though it were in their Power to violate the same: For the
Satisfaction of a good Conscience, and the Promotion of the
Honour of Christianity, might justly out ballance the
deceitful Views of filthy Passion, and worldly Interest. And
as we must all give an Account of our Actions to the most
upright Judge, who then would do such things as would be
abhorr'd by a Seneca or a Cato, and break thro' the sacred
Rules of Justice, and measure the same by the Length of
their Swords? Oh that the present Honourable Judges
would endeavor to put an End to all Occasions of Com-
plaint of this kind! They well know, the Province is much
out of Favour in England, by its Opposition to its Gover-
nours, ^c. And it has submitted to decide the Controversy
with New-Hampshire, and why won't they take the same
Method with us? Why will they of the Province insist
upon judging in their own Case, unless they think His
Majesty will never hear of it?

ARC VI. The Province will not lose their Rates, if they
stay till the Line be settled, viz. If the Land falls into their
Government; for then they may settle the Arrearages. But
on the other Hand, if it falls into Rhode Island Colony,
how will the People get their Rates back? And who will
satisfy for all their vexatious Suits? If the Province will be
bound to return all the Rates they have ever taken, or shall



A RHODE ISLAND IMPRINT OF 1731 9

take, provided the Land falls into Rhode Island^ we dare
be bound to produce Bondsmen, that they shall not be
resisted in taking the Rates.

ARC VII. Such Quarrels will be resented by His
Majesty, in such a Manner as will be detrimental to the
Province.

ARC VIII. Have we not the same Reason to catch the
Province Men, and fine them in our Government, v'vz.
Those who acted in carrying away and fining our Men. And
we believe it would never quit the Cost, to raise an Army in
the Bay to fight Rhode Island; for we are able to defend
our selves, so as that it would cost more to take us than the
Gore of Land is worth j and such Fighting is a poor Exam-
ple: For who would be willing to kill one of his own Nation
for the sake of the Jurisdiction of a small Piece of Land?
And who knows what may be done in the Mob, either in

Publick or Private. And besides

King will never suffer any of his loving Subjects to be
abused, but will assume the Authority justly due to him-
self, and will still the tumultuous Rage of those who impi-
ously exercise Authority over their innocent Neighbours,
and will relieve the Distressed, when they crave his Paternal
Aid. And we believe the Province will be mistaken in sup-
posing, that the Colony of Rhode Island will not assist and
stand by the Inhabitants who have yielded to their Govern-
ment: For this last Week our Honourable Governour has
granted several Warrants, in order to Protect them. And
we hope and trust, that God and good Men will protect
them whilst in a just Cause.



New Publications of Rhode Island Interest

Early Medical History in Rhode Island by Walter L.
Munro, M.D., has been reprinted from the Rhode Island
Medical Journal as a pamphlet of thirty-eight pages.



10 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

The Catholic Educational Review for September 1934
contains an article on Rhode Island's Early Schools and
Irish Teachers by Richard J. Purcell.

Patrick M 'Robert's A Tour Through Part of the North
Provinces of America, Edinburgh, 1776, recently reprinted
in the Pennsylvania Magazine, April 1935, and as a sepa-
rate, by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania contains a
letter dated at Newport in 1 774, giving the author's impres-
sions of Rhode Island.

The Arnold Memorial, William Arnold of Providence
and Pawtuxet 1 587-1 675, and a genealogy of his descend-
ants, which was compiled by Elisha Stephen Arnold, has
recently been printed as a volume of 3 1 1 pages.



New Members

The following persons have been elected to membership
in the Society:

Mr. Alexander Van Cleve Phillips
Mr. Marshall Morgan Miss Marjorie L. Bean

Miss Madeleine M. Bubier. Mr. Ralph A. McLeod



Notes

The illustration of the one cent piece of local paper cur-
rency is contributed through the courtesy of the owner,
Mr. Ed. H. Wolff, 7 1 2 W. 1 2th Street, Pueblo, Colo.

The Gore Roll, the most important American colonial
heraldic document, has been known only through an imper-
fect copy until the original manuscript was recently discov-
ered. Its present owner. Dr. Bowditch, has contributed the
following account of it.



THE GORE ROLL OF ARMS 11

The Gore Roll of Arms

By Harold Bowditch

Four early manuscript collections of paintings of coats of
arms of New England interest are known to be in existence}
these are known as the Promptuarium Armorum, the Chute
Pedigree, the Miner Pedigree and the Gore Roll of Arms.

The Promptuarium Armorum has been fully described
by the late Walter Kendall Watkins in an article which
appeared in the Boston Globe of 7 February 1915. The
author was an officer of the College of Arms: William
Crowne, Rouge Dragon, and the period of production lies
between the years 1 602 and 1616. Crowne came to America
and must have brought the book with him, for Mr. Watkins
has traced its probable ownership through a number of
Boston painters until it is found in the hands of the Gore
family. That it served as a source-book for the Gore Roll is
clear and it would have been gratifying to have been able to
examine it with this in mind j but the condition of the manu-
script is now so fragile, the ink having in many places eaten
completely through the paper, that the present owner is
unwilling to have it subjected to further handling. Fortu-
nately it was carefully examined about the year 1 9 1 5 by the
well-known expert in matters of heraldry, Dr. Howard M.
Buck of Boston, and the present compiler has the advantage
of the courteous loan of the notes made on that occasion.

The Chute Pedigree is also in private hands. There is
good evidence that this manuscript, containing the English
alliances of the Chute family, was brought to America by
the immigrant, Lionel Chute of Ipswich, Massachusetts,
about 1 635. A description will be found in the New England
Historical and Genealogical Register, XIII, 123, and in
the Heraldic Journal, I, 142. Its heraldic contents appear
in the Gore Roll.



12 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

The Miner Pedigree is in the custody of the Connecticut
Historical Society in Hartford, Connecticut. An officer of
this Society states that Thomas Minor obtained the manu-
script from the College of Arms in 1 684. For notices of this
manuscript see the New England Historical and Genealogi-
cal Register XVIII, 161 ff., and the Heraldic Journal,
I, 168. Its heraldic contents consist of the arms of Miner
consorts, shown impaled by the arms of Miner. None are
copied into the Gore Roll.

The Gore Roll of Arms first received public notice in
1 865. In that year Mr. William H. Whitmore described in
the Heraldic Journal, Volume I, an early American roll of
arms, known at that time only through a copy made by
Mr. Isaac Child, then living, which contained 99 paintings
of coats of arms, chiefly of New England, and in the main
of Massachusetts, families. In 1866 Mr. Whitmore re-
published in his Elements of Heraldry that portion of the
list which referred to New England; and, as each of his
lists is numbered serially, the numbers designating the arms
differ almost from the first.

In 1865 Mr. Whitmore wrote: "The original MS. is at
present inaccessible," and in 1866: "One manuscript, how-
ever, of quite considerable antiquity, recording the bearings
of numerous families in New England, was in existence
recently, and is doubtless still preserved. . , . The original
manuscript has disappeared within a few years."

Mr. Child made his copy about the year 1847 and after
his death late in 1 885 it was presented to the New England
Historic Genealogical Society. This copy has been the only
source of knowledge respecting the contents of the original
Gore Roll. A careful examination in 1 926 revealed the fact
that it differs greatly from Mr. Whitmore's description.
Whether the alterations were made between 1 865, when
Mr. Whitmore described it, and 1885, when Mr. Child
died, or after its acquisition by the Society in 1886, is a
matter of speculation.



THE GORE ROLL OF ARMS



13



The differences from the published description were so
numerous and so marked that the writer prepared a descrip-
tion of the Child copy as it was in 1 926 with a view to publi-
cation j but this is rendered unnecessary by the reappearance
of the original Gore Roll, still in the hands of members of
the Gore family, after its whereabouts and even its very
existence have, for the past seventy years, been matters of
doubt in the minds of those interested in heraldry.

The arms are painted in a blank book bound in full parch-
ment; its condition is good, one leaf only having become
detached and its edges consequently folded and worn, but
without loss of essential text. The lower margins of the
leaves are damp stained, rendering some of the writing
faint.




Fig. 1



The paper is Dutch, and bears two water-marks, one or
the other appearing on each sheet. The principal water-
mark is shown, reduced, in Figure 1 , the actual diameter of



14 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY

the outside circle being 3 7/16 inches or 8.7 centimeters.
The other water-mark is the name H O N I G, the manu-
facturer of the paper. The principal water-mark was found
on some sheets which once made part of Dr. Thomas Dale's
translation of Regnault's "System of Physics," published in
London, apparently in the year 1731, and to the kindness of
Professor Percy Bridgman and Professor George Sarton,
both of Harvard University, is owing the verification of this
date. Through the courtesy of Mr. William J. Hoffman of



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