SIR RICHARD CARNAC TEMPLE, Bt
., CLE., F.S.A.,
ThirtV'Seven Years Editor- Proprietor.
INDIAN A NT 10 UAR Y
TO MY COMRADES
INDIAN ANTIQUARY PAST AND PRESENT
COMPLETION OF ITS FIFTIETH YEAR.
We've struggled, you and I, for fifty years
To pierce the veil of mystery, that lies
On India's past so heavily, and cries
Aloud for rending with the searcher's shears.
We've sought and found no guerdon, but the fears
Unflagging effort brings to him that tries
And greatly longs, or joy when he espies
A little light that, dancing, laughs at tears.
No recompense in kind for you and me
Shall issue from the light our labours find
To guide the realm's activities aright.
What of it ? Is it not enough that we
Have won unswerving steadfastness of mind
To reach the day that waits upon the night.
R. C. Temple^
Editor for 37 years.
FIFTY YEARS OF THE INDIAN ANTIQUARY.
The Indian Antiquary was founded as a monthly Journal in January
1872 by the late Dr. James Burgess, CLE., LL.D., at his private risk, and
its fiftieth year of existence was completed with the 640th issue for Decem-
ber 1921, many of the annual volumes having contained more than twelve
The objects and scope of the Journal are explained in two preliminary
notes by Dr. Burgess in Vols. I and XIII respectively. It was intended to
provide a means of communication between the East and the West on sub-
jects connected with Indian Research, and a journal to which students and
scholars, Indian and non-Indian, could combine to send notes and queries
of a nature not usually finding a place in the pages of Asiatic .Societies.
The main aim was to promote and encourage research. From this aim
the Journal has never swerved, though the high class of the communications
sent to it has always been beyond the original forecast, while the number of
Europeans and Indians joining to assist each other has increased as time
After a while Dr. Burgess's eyesight became so troublesome that he
decided to give up the Journal and it was taken over on the 1st January
1885 by the late Dr. J. F. Fleet, CLE., Ph.D., Indian Civil Service, and
Captain R. C Temple, Indian Army (now Lieut.-Col. Sir Richard Carnac
Temple, Bt., C.B., CLE., F.S.A.). It was conducted by them at their joint
risk and under their joint editorship for seven years, when Dr. Fleet retired,
and Captain (then Major) Temple carried it on at his own risk alone and as
sole editor-proprietor from the 1st January 1892 till the completion of the
half century in December 1921, and still so conducts it. From the 1st
January 1911 to date Professor D. R. Bhandarkar, M.A.,of Calcutta Univer-
sity, has been joint-editor with Sir R. C Temple. Dr. Burgess died in
October 1916, at a great age and Dr. Fleet in February 1917, and it is a
matter of pathetic interest to note that Dr. Fleet's last contribution, in
January 1917, was an obituary notice to Dr. Burgess. The late Mr. A. M. T.
Jackson, M.A., of the Indian Civil Service, a great friend of the Indian people,
would have been a joint-editor but for his untimely death, in December
1909, by the hand of a misguided political fanatic.
The chief feature of the Indian Antiquary in the first twenty years of
its existence was all along the reproduction and publication of Inscriptions, |Vl^Cr^DMc^^^
adequately edited from the originals themselves. The Inscriptions publish-
ed were largely sought out or collected and reproduced mechanically by
a staff directly employed by the proprietors and trained by them, and some
were also supplied by Government agency. During these twenty years
• -•••« •
; «: : :
4 Ft/i|y y^ars of the " Indian Antiquary "
^ the journal was the chief source for European scholarship of accurate
<^\ ' Y*1^^ information regardmg Indian Epigraphy. But about 1888 the Government
of India decided to reproduce the Inscriptions of the country under its own
oflficials, and an agreement was entered into in 1 892, by which the Government
Journal, the Epigraphia Indica, was published on the basis established by
the Indian Antiquary as an official quarterly Supplement to that Journal.
This agreement lasted twenty-eight years, till 1920, when it came to an end
owing to another mutual agreement, and the Epigraphia Indica is now
published directly by the Government. During the period it was a Supple-
ment to the Indian Antiquary thirteen biennial volumes were produced,
although it always continued to be a charge on the funds of the Journal.
The/wiian^w/z^Mary has throughout been conducted on an honorary
basis. No one has ever been paid for a contribution or as an editor or as an
assistant of the editors, while the proprietors have contributed annually
towards the cost of the Journal, sometimes heavily, despite the assistance
received from time to time, by way of subscription for copies, accorded by
the Secretary of State for India, the Government of India and its subordinate
Governments and by the Native Rulers.
The subjects with which the Journal has been principally concerned
have been the Archgeology, Ethnology, Geography, History, Folklore,
Languages, Literature, Numismatics, Philology, Philosophy and Religion of
the Indian Empire, and, to a certain extent, of its surroundings. Notable,
and in some cases epoch-making, contributions have been published on all
these subjects, several of them having been preliminary studies of books sub-
sequently well-known to Indian and Oriental students and even to general
The Editors have been themselves among the largest individual eontri-
butors to the pages of the Indian Antiquary, but they have had the co-opera-
tion of many great Indian and Oriental scholars in India itself as well as all over
Europe and in America. The list of contributors during the first fifty
years reaches a total of 527, every one of whom has been an earnest student
of things Indian, the great majority acquiring their knowledge at first hand.
This long list contains many names that have become famous, or at any rate
well and favourably known to those connected with Indian research. The
names of the more important Orientalists and of those contributing the most
notable articles are as follows : —
English and American. —Sir Clive Bayley, Sir James M. Campbell,
Sir Alexander Cunningham, Sir Walter Elliot, Sir George Grierson, Sir Henry
Howorth, Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Charles Lyall, Sir William Maxwell, Sir
Monier Monier-Williams, Sir Arthur Phayre, Sir Aurel Stein, Sir James
Wilson, Sir Henry Yule ; Professors : J. Avery, V. Ball, C. Bendall, H.
Blochman, Maurice Bloomfield, E. B. Cowell, E. Laumann, Max Miiller,
Fifty Years of the " Indian Antiquary
A.A. Macdonell, E. J. Rapson, G. Thibaut, W. Dwight Whitney ; the Reverend
(Bishop) R. C. Caldwell. Samuel Beale, F. T. Cole, T. Foulkes, H. Hosten,
S.J., F. Kittel, J. H. Knowles, C. Swynnerton; Doctors: L. D. Barnett, A. C.
Burnell, William Crooke, Edkins, J. D. Fergusson, H. Hirschfeld, A. F.
Hoernle, E. W. Leitner, F. Mason, James Morison, John Muir, G. N. Pope,
R. Rost, Hubert Weir Smyth, F. W. Thomas. J. H. Vogel, E. W. West, J. W.
Youngson ; Military Officers : Captain K. A. Creswell, Genl. A. Houtum-
Schindler. Colonel G. A. Jacob, Colonel W. Kincaid, Captain J. S. King,
Colonel J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Major J. Watson, Colonel L. A. Waddell ;
Messieurs : John Beames, H. C. P. Bell, Otto Blagden, G. H. Damant. M.
Longworth Dames, E. B. Eastwick, R. E. Enthoven, Donald Ferguson,
William Foster, C. E. Gover, F. S.Growse, T. Hart-Davis, S. C. Hill, Bernard
Houghton, C. E. Hyde-Clarke, W. Irvine, A. M. T. Jackson, G. R. Kaye,
J. Lockwood Kipling, M. Macauliffe, J. W. McCrindle, E. H. Man,
R. R. Morfill, F. E. Pargiter, E. H. Parker, J. B. Phear(Mr. Justice), Sidney
Ray, T. W. Rhys-Davids, B.L.Rice, C.J. Rodgers, H. A. Rose, R. Sewell.
W. F. Sinclair. Vincent A. Smith, H. Warington-Smyth, H. J. Stokes, C. H.
Tawney. Edward Thomas, J. Walhouse, Don M. de Z. Wickremasinghe.
Indian. — His Highness Rama Varma of Travancore, Sir R. E. Bhan-
darkar, Diwan Bahadur Swamikannu Pillai. Rao Sahib P. R. Bhandar-
kar, Rai Bahadur V. V. Venkayya ; Pandits : Anand Koul, Ram Gharib
Chaube, Bhagwanlal Indraji, Gaurishankar Hirachand Oza. Shankar
Pandurang, Ram Karma, Day a Ram Sahni, Haraprasad Sastri, Vish-
veshvanath Sahityacharya Sastri, G. D. Upreti; Babu Rajendralal
Mitra ; Professors: R. Basak, N. Bhattasah, V. Chakravarti, K. L. Chattre,
V. S. Ghate, P. D. Gune, D. Kosambi, K. B. Pathak, V. Rangachari, S. C.
Vidhyabhusana ; Doctor A. Venkatasubbiah ; Messieurs : Krishnaswami
Aiyangar, Subrahmanya Aiyar, H. B. Bhide, Sh. B. Dikshit, W. Goonetilleke,
B. A. Gupte, Srinivas Iyengar, K. P. Jayaswal, S. S. Majumdar, Jiwanji J.
Modi, R. Narasimhachar. G. K.Nariman, K. Raghunathji, R. Shamasastry,
S. M. Natesa Shastri, Visheshvanath Shastri, K. V. Subayya, D. V. A.
Sukthankar, A. Govindacharya Swamin, K. S. Telang, G. Yazdani.
German and Amtna,n.— Professors: J. Aufrecht, J. E. Biihler,
C. Capeller. J. Darmstetter, J. Eggeling, E. Forchhammer, 0. Franke, E.
Hultzsch, B. H. Jacobi, J. JoUey, F. Kielhorn, F. Knauer, Ludwig H. Olden-
berg, Albrecht Weber, R. Zimmermann ; Doctors : K. F. Burkhardt, P.
Deussen. A. H. Francke, W. Geiger, H. Grimme, H. Luders, B. Pischel,
Richard Schmidt, R. Schram, W. Schubring, M. Winternitz, Th. Zacha-
Chinese. — Taw Sein Ko.
Dane. — Prof. F. Schiern.
Dutch.— Prof. A. Kern, M. P. J. Ondaetje. Professor C. P. Tiele.
6 Fifty Years oj the "Indian Antiquary'^
French.— M. A. D'Abbadie, M. A. Barth, M. J. Bloch, M. Sylvain
Levi, M. de Milloue, Prof, de la Vallee Poussin, M. Emile Senart.
Italian — Dr. L. P. Tessitori.
Norwegian. — Prof. Sten Konow.
Russians.— Prof. S. d'Oldenburg, E. Rehatsek.
Swede. — Prof. J. Charpentier.
Women Autliors. — Lady Grierson, Miss L. M. Anstey, Mrs. Mabel
Bode, Mrs. Anna M. Childers, Miss Mabel Duff (Mrs. Rickmers), Mrs.
Murray- Ainslie, Miss E. Lyall, Miss C. A. Nicholson, Mrs. Ramabai (R. D.
M.), Mrs. F. A. Steel, Miss L. A. Thomas, Miss Putlibai Wadia (Mrs.
^ J. K. Kabraji).
w-ts*- The Journal has always been and still is, printed in the same Press
in Bombay (Mazgaon), at first owned by the Bombay Education Society's
Press and subsequently by the British India Press. The illustrations have
likewise been chiefly produced in the same building in London (Han-
over Street, Peckham) by the late Mr. William Griggs (W. Griggs and Sons)
and his successors Messrs. Charles Whittinghara and [Griggs Ltd. The
relations of the Editor-Proprietors with the Presses and the Illustrating
Firms have always been most cordial, enabling them to surmount together
the many difficulties of publication brought about by the conditions of
European life in India, by the many widely divergent vernacular characters
used, and latterly, by the Great War. One set of several expensive plates
had to be reproduced and despatched three times, owing to enemy action,
before they reached the pages of the Indian Antiquary. The meticulous
accuracy of the Peckham firm's reproduction of Inscriptions has been every-
where acknowledged by scholars. In this way 478 plates of Inscriptions
have been published in the Journal itself and 624 in its Supplement, the
Epigraphia Indica. In the matter of securing accurate reproductions of
Inscriptions, the Editor-Proprietors have never spared expense, owing to their
importance to historical research, notably in the case of the Asoka Inscribed
Edicts on the Iron Pillars at Delhi and Allahabad, which were scientifically
reproduced at great cost in 1883-4, in the result found to be justified [Vide
Prof. Buhler's fundamental article on the subject in the 13th vol. (1884) ].
The Indian Antiquary has seen many changes take place in the fifty
years of its history. Among them the following may be specially noticed
here. When the Journal was started it was still the fashion to talk of the
1000 years between Asoka and the Muhammadan ascendancy as a blank
as to dates and real history, but thanks to the efforts of many contribu-
tors to the Indian Antiquary it has been a principal means of filhng up this
great gap almost year by year. In the accompUshment of so great a feat,
its main contribution has been the systematising of the method of record-
ing reproducing and editing inscriptions and settling the principles of
Fifty Years of the "Indian Antiquary" 7
Indian chronological statement. The^ systema,tic record of folk tales and
the facts of folk-lore was. also in its infancy in 1872, and the /nijan^n^t-
quary has taken a leading part in the subsequent growth of that important
work, from the date of its publication of some Panjab folk-tales, which after-
wards proved to be the first effort at classifying the incidents on which
folk-tales are built up. But the most remarkable and far reaching change
that has taken place is in the advance made by Indian scholars in the
knowledge of the principles of critical research and reducing the results
thereof into readable English. When the Journal first started, Indians
with the requisite knowledge of these principles were very few, and those
who could write correct English were fewer still, but in the half century
intervening between 1872 and 1922 they have become so numerous as to
be able with great credit to themselves to fill nearly the whole Journal.
And not only that, they have made it possible to found, as additions to the
long estabUshed Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic
Society, Madras Literary Society and Calcutta Review, local Research
Societies in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad, Lahore, Patna, Ban-
galore, Hyderabad, Mysore and in several Native States, all contributing
adequately to a knowledge of the past in India. Another fact as regards
change of conditions in Indian learning and general knowledge is that, in
order to let Indians know the results of European research as it proceeded,
the more remarkable of them by Continental scholars were given in the
Indian Antiqiiary, from time to time, in translations. It will soon not
be necessary to continue this practice, as so many Indian scholars are
now acquainted with what the English call foreign languages.
* In order tp render the pages of the Indian Antiquary as valuable
as possible, general Indices to the first fifty volumes relating to authors
and subjects are being prepared with all the cross-references necessary.
It is hoped that the entries in the Indices which relate to Inscriptions,
their dates and find-spots, and the dynasties and eras concerned with
them, will be found to be specially valuable to students in the future.
The following very brief description of the contents of the first 640
issues of the Indian Antiquary will give those interested in Indian Research
some idea of the work that has been accomplished by the contributors
to its pages during the last fifty years.
Volumes under Dr. James Burgess.— The Contents of Volume I are
typical of all tlie forty-nine volumes that followed and show to some extent
how the work has been carried on during the whole half century and the
wide range of subjects discussed, scientifically and geographically. They
also show the sort of contributors from the first attracted to the Journal,
and thus prove the obvious want of it that has been felt. Where a name
has been added to the subject it means that the contributor was then, or
8 Fifty Years of the "Indian Antiquary]'
afterwards became, a well-known Orientalist. Archceology : Rude Stone
Monuments in Chota Nagpur ; Caves in Ceylon, Khandesh and Toungoo
(Burma).. Chronology: Date of Patanjali (R. G, Bhandarkar and Weber).
Epigraphy : Edited Inscriptions— Western India, Bengal and Madras (R. G.
Bhandarkar) ; Ceylon (Rhys-Davids) ; Madras (V. N. Narasimmiyengar) ;
Canarese (J. F. Fleet), commencement of a very long list running for
twenty years. Ethnology ; Dards (Leitner) ; Gonds and Kurkus of
Bhopal ; Madras (C. E. Gover) ; Palis of Bengal, G. H. Damant ; Dasyus
(Rajendralala Mitra). Folklore : from Orissa (Beames); Oudh (W. C.
Bennett) : Kathiawar (Burgess); Bengal (G. H. Damant); South India.
Geography : Place Names in Magadha ; Jungle Forts in Orissa (Beames);
Mathura (F. S. Growse). History : Mughal Grandees (H. Blochman) ;
Gauli Raj in Khandesh (W. F. Sinclair ); Bhar Kings of Oudh (W. C. Ben-
nett) ; Persian Map of the World (E. Rehatsek). Literature and Philology:
Indigenous in Orissa and Translation from Chand (Beames) ; Ramayana
(Aufrecht) ; Bhavabhuti, poet (K. M. Banerjea) ; Vrihatkatha (G. Biihler);
Bengali Songs (J. Murray-Mitchell) ; Search for Sanskrit MSS. in Gujarat
(Biihler), the commencement of a subsequently famous enquiry. Numis-
matics : Discovery of Grseco-Bactrian coins at Sonpat, Panjab. Palaeo-
graphy : Oldest Indian Alphabet (A. C. Burnell) ; Old Sanskrit Numerals
(R. G. Bhandarkar).
As already stated, subsequent volumes carried on the work outlined
in the first, but with ever-increasing knowledge. It is only possible, how-
ever, to notice the more important articles. Volume II (1873) contained
an article by Dr. Burgess on the art of copying inscriptions which began the
modern mechanical method of reproduction, and also the first reproduc-
tion by Lewis Rice on the lines then laid down, and the first of a long series
of articles on Chinese references to Indian Buddhism. In Volume III
(1874) were Yule's Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels, Burnell's original
Settlement Deed of the Jewish Colony in Cochin and valuable plans of the
Temple at Amaravati. In Volume IV (1875) began Fleet's very fine
series of well over 200 edited Sanskrit and Old Canarese Inscriptions. In
Volume V (1876) Biihler joins in the editing of inscriptions on the new
plan with the well-known facsimile reproduction, and Sir Clive Bayley has
a valuable early article on Gupta Coins. Volume VI [1^11) contains some
excellent plates of Rock-cut Temples at Badami (Dharwar) ; Griggs com-
mences his very fine series (some hundreds) of photographs from facsimiles
of inscriptions ; Bhagwanlal Indraji, Biihler, and others discuss old Indian
numerals. In Volume VII (1878) Biihler writes on three, then new,Asoka
Edicts and Dr. G. W. Pope on the Tamil Kurral. Sir R. C. Temple com-
mences his long series of contributions with a translation from a Pali Bud-
dhist Text. Volume VIII (1879) contains a very important article by J. F.
Fijty Years of the "Indian Antiquary" 9
Fleet on Indian Eras ; McCrindle commences his Periplus of the Ery-
thraean Sea, Dr. John Muir his Metrical Version of the Mahabharata, and
Yule and Burnell their Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms (Hobson-Jobson).
Dr. Hoernle also began his long epigraphic series with Grseco-Baktrian
Monograms. Volume IX (1880) contains Mrs. F. A. Steel and Temple's k
Folk-tales inthePanjab (afterwards Wide-awake Stories), SirH. Howorth's
Chinghiz Khan and his Ancestors, and Dr. E. West's Pahlavi Inscriptions.
In Volume X (1880) is McCrindle's Ktesias' Description of Ancient India.
Volume XI (1882) contains Steel and Temple's Folk-tales from Kashmir — ^
and Edward Thomas East India Company's Coinage and Exchange. In
Volume XII (1883) is an important paper, D. B. Hutcheon's Conversion of
Muhammadan Dates. Volume XIII (1884), the last issued by Dr. James
Burgess contains Professor V. Ball's Geologist's contribution to Ancient
Indian History and Biihler's fundamental articles on the Delhi and Allaha-
bad Asoka Pillars ; also K. T. Best's Proverbs of Ali Ibn Talebi, the first of
Dr. E. Hultzsch's many contributions to Epigraphy and S. M. Natesa Sastri's
Folklore in Southern India.
Volumes under Dr. John Faithful! Fleet and Sir Richard Carnac Temple.
— With Volume XIV (1885) Dr. Fleet commenced his long series, continued
for about twenty years, of notes and articles on early Indian Chronology,
with The Early Rulers of Nepal, and Sir George Grierson his many papers
on Indian Literature with a summary of the Alhakhand. Sir Alexander
Cunningham has an enquiry into the Indian origin of the names of the
week-days and Dr. Burgess a note on Sanskrit Geography. In Volume XV
(1885) is Fleet's Epoch of the Gupta Era, Lady Grierson's English-Gipsy
Index, Mrs. Kabraji's (Putlibai . Wadia) Western Indian Folk-tales (com-
mencement), and Sir Aurel Stein's Afghanistan in Avestic Geography :
while Colonel Jacob begins his discussion on Indian Philosophy. In
Volume XVI (1887) Dr. Fleet's Hindu Chronological Series takes definite
form ; J. Hinton-Knowles' Kashmiri Folk-tales commences, and Professor
F. Kielhorn's very valuable series of edited Inscriptions also commences ;
Sir George Grierson discourses on Indian Gipsies and Buhler on Geography.
Volume XVII (1888) contains many important items. Sh. B. Dikshit's
Calculation of Indian Dates (commenced). Dr. Fleet's well-known Summary
of the Gupta Era, and Professor H. Jacobi's Tables for verifying Hindu
Dates : Hoernle's Bakshali MS. (4th Century A.D.) on Arithmetic, Stein's
Zoroastrian Deities on Indo-Scythian coins, C.J. Rodgers' Rupees of the Suri
Dynasty, J. S. King's Somali Language and Edkins' Confucius. In Volume
XVIII (1889) Dr. E. Hultzsch draws attention to Kalhana's Rajataram-
gini and V. Kanakasabhai Pillai commences his series of Tamil Historical
Texts. Fleet has an article on the Coins and History of Toramana, Dr. R.
Schram his important Table for Hindu Dates, and Kielhorn his contribution
10 Fifty Years oj the "Indian Antiquary"
to chronology with his Sixty-year Cycle of Jupiter, while Taw Sen Ko com-
mences his Burmese Folk-lore Series. In Volume XIX (1890) is Biihler's
important paper on the Texts of the Asoka Edicts on the Delhi and Allaha-
bad Pillars, J. S. King's Aborigines of Sokotra, J. Foulkes' Buddhaghosha ;
and G. D'Penha's Folklore in Salsette commences. Volume XX (1891)
contains Sir R. C. Temple's Burmese System of Arithmetic and Hultzsch's
and Kielhorn's Inscriptions on Coins.
Volumes under Sir Richard Carnac Temple.— In Volume XXI (1892)
Dr. W. Crooke begins his series of Folk-tales of Hindustan, K. Sri-
kantaliyar his Folkore in Madras, Colonel L. A. Waddell his Folklore in
Tibet, and Mrs. Kabraji her Parsi Folkore. Dr. Hoernle has a note on his
important Bower Manuscript, Taw Sein Ko commences his Sanskrit Words
in Burmese, and Sir R.C. Temple has a paper on Succession in the Alompra
Dynasty of Burma. Volume XXII (1893) contains several important com-
munications : Mabel Duff's Chronology, Taw Sein Ko's Kalyani Inscriptions
of Dhammacheti (Pegu), Sir R. C. Temple's Antiquities of Ramannadesa
(Pegu), Sir George Grierson's Tulsi Das, B. Houghton's Burmese Folklore
(Arakan and Sgaw-Karen) and his Kudos of Katha (Burma). With
Volume XXIII (1894) commences Sir J. McN. Campbell's important and
long series, Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom (Bombay) and Sir R. C. Temple's
series of the Devil Worship of the Tuluvas (South Canara),Waddeirs Demo-
nolatry in Sikhim (Lamaism), Desikachari's and Rangachari's (Brothers)
Coins of the Vijayanagara Kings; also Sir George Grierson's Bhashyabhush-
ana of Jaswant Singh (Rhetoric). Volume XXIV (1895) contains Biihler's
important Origin of the Kharoshtha Alphabet, Grierson's Essays on Kashmiri
Grammar, E. H. Man's series on Nicobarese Art, E. H. Parker's Lolo
Writing, Sundaram Pillai's Madras History, and an important discussion
by Biihler, Dwight Whitney and G. Thibaut on Vedic Dates. In
Volume XXV (1896) are Sir George Grierson's Anamese Literature, Dr.
B. Liebich's Chandra- vyakarana (Grammar), Sundaram Pillai's Early
Sovereigns of Travancore. Volume XXVI (1897) contains H. Baynes'
Upanishads, Biihler's Jain account of the end of the Vaghelas of Gujarat,
Sir A. Stein's Kashmit^Geography, Sir R. C. Temple's Andaman Tokens,
and the commencement of his long series of Currency and Coinage among
the Burmese. In Volume XXVII (1898) are Sir George Grierson's Swat
Languages, T. S. King's Chand Bibi's Defence of Ahmadnagar, Subramiah
Pillai's Telugu Literature and an article by Wintemitz on the South Indian
Mahabharata. Volume XXVIII (1899) contains Sir James Wilson's
Gurezi Dialect of Shina, Sir George Grierson's East Central Indo- Aryan
vernaculars and Mediaeval Kings of Mithila, J. S. King's Bahmani Dynasty,
G. W. Pope's Tamil Anthology, Stein's Report on Buner, F. Fawcett's
Mopla Folklore and M. R. Pedlow's Central India Folklore, Sir R. C. Temple's
Tifty Years of the "Indian Antiquary" ^1