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HORSE FLIES (UIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA



By

RICHARD CHARLES WILKERSON



A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF

THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1978



Dedicated to my parents,
Warren and Helen Wilkerson



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF FIGURES x

ABSTRACT xv

INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND COLLECTING LOCALITIES 6

Ecological Zones 6

Collecting Localities 9

METHODS AND MATERIALS 14

Field 14

Laboratory 15

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY 16

BIOLOGY 19

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE 20

CHECKLIST OF THE COLOMBIAN HORSE FLIES 21

TAXONOMIC TREATMENT 27

Key to the Subfamilies of Tabanidae 27

Key to the Tribes and Genera of Pangoniinae

and Chrysopsinae 28

Key to Tribes, Genera, and Subgenera of Tabaninae .... 29

Genus Esenheakia 40

Key to Esenbeckia Species 40

Esenbeokia (E.) balteata n. sp 42

Esenbeckia (E.) illota osornoi 44

Esenbeckia (E.) minuscula n. sp 46

Esenbeokia (E.) prasiniventris 48

Esenbeckia (E.) testaceiventris 49

Esenbeckia (E.) tigrina n. sp 52

Esenbeckia (Ed. ) tinotipennis 55

Esenbeckia (E.) translucens 57

iii



Page

Subgenus Probosooides 5"

Esenbeakia (P.) eauadovensis ssp. chagvesensis . . . 60

Genus Fidena ^^

Key to Fidena Species 63

Fidena aureopygia ^5

Fidena aurihavha ^^

Fidena eviomevoides 69

Fidena flavipennis 71

Fidena flavipennis vallensis n. ssp 72

Fidena oahrapogon n. sp 74

Fidena rhinophora 76

Fidena sahildi 79

Fidena sulfurea n. sp 80

Genus Scione 84

Key to Saione Species 85

Soione albifasciata 89

Scione brevibecous n.sp 91

Scione aupreus n . sp 94

Scione equivexans n.sp 96

Scione flavesaens 99

Scione maaulipennis 101

Soione obscure femovata 104

Saione rhinothrix n. sp 106

Scione rufesaens 108

Saione serratus n . sp HO

Scione youngi n.sp 112

Genus Pityoaera H^

Key to Pityooeva Species 115

Pityoceva (Elephella) aervus 115

Pityoaera (Pityoaera) festae 117

Genus Chrysops 119

Key to Chrysops Species 119

Chrysops auroguttatus 123

Chrysops aalogaster 126

Chrysops ahiriquensis 128

Chrysops leucospilus 131

Chrysops metaenus 153

Chrysops mexicanus 155

Chrysops nexosus 158

Chrysops ren-jifoi 140

Chrysops reticulatus 141



Page

Chrysops soror . 143

Chrysops varians vslt. tardus 144

Chrysops variegatus 147

Genus Dasybasis 152

Key to Dasybasis Species 152

Dasybasis montium 152

Dasybasis sohineri 155

Genus Stenotabanus 158

Key to Stenotabanus Species 158

Subgenus Stenotabanus 161

Stenotabanus (St.) bvunneus n. sp 161

Ste7iotaba?ms (St.) chrysonotus n. sp 163

Stenotabanus (St.) detersus 165

Stenotabanus (St.) inoipiens 167

Stenotabanus (St.) luteoliyieatus n. sp 170

Stenotabanus (St.) nigriaulus n. sp 172

Stenotabanus (St.) obsaurus 174

Stenotabanus (St.) sordidatus 176

Subgenus Brachytabanus 177

Stenotabanus (B.) longipennis 177

Subgenus Stilbops n. subgen 179

Stenotabanus (Stilbops) roxannae n. sp 180

Genus Himantostylus 183

Himantostylus intermedius 183

Genus Diachlorus 186

Key to Diachlorus Species 186

Diachlorus curvipes 186

Diachlorus jobbinsi 187

Genus Hemiohrysops 190

Hemichrysops fasaipennis 190

Genus Bolbodimyia 193

Key to Bolbodimyia Species 193

Bolbodimyia bioolor 194

Bolbodimyia celeroides 196

V



Page

Bolbodimyia erythroaephala 197

Bolbodimyia galindoi 1^9

Bolbodimyia nigra 201

Bolbodimyia philipi 202

Genus Selasoma 203

Selasoma tibials 203

Genus Chlorotabanus 205

Key to Chlorotabanus Species 205

Chlorotabanus fairahildi 206

Chlorotabanus inanis 208

Chlorotabanus mexioanus 209

Genus Phaeotabanus 212

Phaeotabanus phaeopterus 212

Genus Spilotabanus 214

Key to Spilotabanus Species 214

Spilotabanus multiguttatus 214

Spilotabanus tviaurius n. sp 218

Genus Dichelacera 221

Subgenus Dichelacera 221

Key to Subgenus Dichelacera Species 221

Dichelacera (D.) ahocoensis 223

Dichelacera (D.) fasaiata 226

Dichelacera (D.) marginata 229

Dichelacera (D.) melanosoma 230

Dichelacera (D.) regina 232

Dichelacera (D.) submarginata 236

Subgenus Nothocanthocera 238

Dichelacera (N.) albomarginata 238

Subgenus Idiochelacera 240

Dichelacera (I.) subcallosa 240

Subgenus Desmatochelacera 243

Dichelacera (Desm. ) transposita 243



Page

Subgenus Orthostylooerus 246

Diahelaceva (0.) aurata n. sp 246

Genus Catachlovops • 249

Key to Subgenus Amphiahlorops Species 249

Catachlovops (A.) flavissimus 249

Catachlovops (A.) vespevtinus 250

Key to Subgenus Psalidia Species 252

Catachlovops (Ps.) fulmineus 252

Catachlovops (Ps.) umbvatus 256

Catachlovops (Catachlovops) alphus n. sp 256

Catachlovops (Psavochlovops) siculus n. sp 259

Genus Dasychela 262

Subgenus Dasychela 262

Dasychela ocellus 262

Genus Dicladoceva 265

Key to Dicladoceva Species 265

Dicladoceva avgentomacula n. sp 269

Dicladoceva basivufa 273

Dicladoceva heavevi n. sp 276

Dicladoceva calimaensis n. sp 278

Dicladoceva clavus 280

Dicladoceva dalessandvoi n. sp 282

Dicladoceva distomacula n. sp 284

Dicladoceva hivsuta n. sp 285

Dicladoceva leei n. sp. Fairchild 288

Dicladoceva macula 291

Dicladoceva minos 293

Dicladoceva nigvocoevulea 294

Dicladoceva pvuinosa n. sp 296

Dicladoceva viveti 299

Dicladoceva vuhiginipennis 300

Dicladoceva suhmacula 302

Genus Stibasoma 304

Key to Stibasoma Species 304

Stibasoma (S. ) apicimacula 306

Stibasoma (S. ) chionostigma 308

vii



Page

Stibasoma (S.) flaviventve 310

Stihasoma (S.) fulvohirtim 313

Stibasoma (S.) panamensis 315

Stibasoma (Rhabdotylus) venenatas 316

Genus Cryptotylus 319

Key to Cvyptotylus Species 319

Cryptotylus chloroticus 319

Cryptotylus uniaotor 320

Genus Philipotabanus 323

Key to Philipotabanus Species 323

Philipotabanus (Melasmatabanus) criton 325

Philipotabanus (M.) fascipennis 327

Philipotabanus (M.) nigvipennis n. sp 330

Philipotabanus (Mimotabanus) phalavopygus 331

Philipotabanus (Mimo.) porteri 333

Philipotabanus (Mimo.) tanypterus n. sp 335

Philipotabanus (Mimo. ) vulpinus 337

Philipotabanus (Philipotabanus) magnificus 339

Philipotabanus (P.) nigvinubilus 342

Philipotabanus (P.) pterographicus 344

Genus Stypommisa 346

Key to Stypornmisa Species 346

Stypommisa bipunata n. sp 349

Stypommisa captiroptera 351

Stypommisa jaculatrix 354

Stypommisa mavuccii 356

Stypommisa pequeniensis 358

Stypommisa serena 361

Syypommisa simplex 362

Stypommisa n. sp 365

Genus Leucotabanus 367

Key to Leucotabanus Species 367

Leucotabanus aanithorax 368

Leucotabanus exaestuans 369

Leucotabanus flavinotum 372

Genus Lepiselaga 375

Lepiselaga crassipes 375



Page

Genus Poeoiloderus 378

Key to Poeoiloderus Species 378

Poeailoderus allusiosis n. sp 379

Poecilodevus quadvipunatatus 382

Genus Tahanus 387

Key to Tabanus Species 387

Tabanus albociroulus 393

Tabanus aniptus 397

Tabanus alaripennis 400

Tabanus commixtus 402

Tabanus dorsiger 404

Tabanus eldridgei 405

Tabanus guapiensis n. sp 407

Tabanus hirtitibia 410

Tabanus importunus 413

Tabanus maoquarti 413

Tabanus neveus 416

Tabanus olivaoeiventris 417

Tabanus pvaeteritus 420

Tabanus pseudoculus 421

Tabanus pungens 423

Tabanus rubripes 425

Tabanus surifer 426

Tabanus thiemeana 430

Tabanus unipunctatus 431

Tabanus unistviatus 433

Tabanus sp 435

REFERENGES CITED 481

BIOGRAPHIGAL SKETGH 487



LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Page

1. Esenbeckia tvigvina n. s^. ,Esenbeck-ia minusaula n. sp.,

and Esenheokia eauadovensis chagresensis Fairchild 437

2. Esenbeckia balteata n. sp. and Esenbeckia testa-

oeiventris (Macquart) 439

3. Fidena sulfurea n. sp. and Scione cupreus n. sp 441

4. Scione ijoungi n. sp. and Scione rhinothrix n. sp 443

5. Scione albifasciata (Macquart) and Scione flavescens
(Enderlein) 445

6. Scione servatus n. sp. and Scione obscure femorata

Krober 447

7. Scione equivexans n. sp., Scione brevibeccus n. sp.,

and Chrysops reticulatus n. sp 449

8. Stenotabanus ohvyonotus n. sp., Stenotabanus nigviculus

n. sp., Stenotabanus brunneus n. sp., Stenotabanus roxannae
n. sp., Stenotabanus luteolineatus n. sp., and Philipotabanus
tanypterus n. sp 451

9. Chlorotabanus fairchildi n. sp. , Spilotabanus triauvius
n. sp., Bichelacera aurata n. sp., and Catachlorops

siculus n. sp 453

10. Catachlorops alphus n. sp., Dicladocera basirufa (Walker),

and Dicladocera argentomaoula n. sp 455

11. Dicladocera leei Fairchild n. sp., Dicladocera

calimaensis n. sp., and Dicladocera hirsuta n. sp 457

12. Dicladocera beaveri n. sp. Dicladocera pruinosa
n. sp., Dicladocera dalessandroi n. sp., and

Dicladocera distomacula n. sp 459

13. Dicladocera minos (Schiner) , Poeciloderus allusiosis
n. sp., Stypomnisa n. sp., Tabanus guapiensis n. sp.,
Cryptotylus chlorotious (Philip and Fairchild), and
Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann) 461



Figure Page

14. Esenbeckia tinotipennis 462

15. Soione cupreus n. sp 462

' 16. Soione flavescens 462

17. Saione equivexans n. sp 462

18. Scions maculipennis 462

19. Saione youngi n. sp 462

20. Saione vhinothrix n. sp 462

21. Saione albifasaiata 462

22. Saione obsourefemorata 462

23. Saione brevibeacus n. sp 462

24. Chrysops nexosus 463

25. Chrysops aalogaster 463

26. Chrysops soror 463

27. Chrysops melaenus 463

28. Chrysops chriquensis 463

29. Chrysops variegatus 463

30. Chrysops varians var. tardus 463

31. Chrysops aurognttatus 463

32. Chrysops mexiaanus 463

33. Cli2'>ysops retiaulatus n. sp 463

34. Chrysops leucospilus 464

35 . Dasybasis sahineri 464

36 . Dasybasis montium 464

37. Himantostylus intermedins 464

38. Hemiohrysops fasaipennis 464

xi



Figure Page

39. Selasoma tihiale 464

40. Spilotabanus multiguttatus 464

41. Spilotabayius tviauvius n . sp 464

42. Diahelaceva fasaiata 464

43. Diohelaoeva melanosoma 464

44. Diahelacera regina 465

45. Diohelaoeva tvansposita 465

46. Diohelaoeva suboallosa 465

47. Diohelaoeva ohoooensis 465

48. Diohelaoeva submavginata 465

49. Diohelaoeva mavginata 465

50. Diohelaoeva albomavginata 465

51. Diohelaoeva auvata 465

52. Cataohlovops fulmineus form ocellatus 465

53. Cataohlovops fulmineus 465

54. Cataohlovops flavissimus 466

55. Cataohlovops alphus n. sp 466

56. Cataohlovops siculus n. sp 466

57. Cataohlovops vespevtinus 466

58. Cataohlovops umbvatus 466

59. Dioladooeva dalessandvoi n. sp 466

60. Dioladooeva viveti 466

61. Dioladooeva beavevi n. sp 466

62. Dioladooeva hivsuta n . sp 466

63. Dioladooeva distomaoula n. sp 466

xii



Figure Page

64. Dialadoceva distomaaula n. sp 467

65. Dicladocera macula 467

66. Dialadoaera suhmacula 467

67. Dialadoceva basivufa 467

68. Dicladocera minos 467

69. Dicladocera argentomacula n . sp 467

70. Dicladocera rubiginipennis 467

71. Dicladocera pruinosa n. sp 467

72. Dicladocera calimaensis n. sp 467

73. Dicladocera nigrocoerulea 467

74. Dicladocera leei n. sp 468

75. Stibasoma apicimacula 468

76. Stibasoma chionostigma 468

77. Stibasoma panamensis 468

78. Philipotabanus fascipennis 468

79. Philipotabanus pterographicus 468

80. Philipotabanus porteri 468

81. Philipotabanus nigrinubilus 468

82. Philipotabanus magnificus 468

83. Philipotabanus vulpjinus 468

84. Philipotabanus nigripennis 469

85. Philipotabanus criton 469

86. Philipotabanus phaleropygus 469

87. Stijpommisa jaculatrix 469

88 . Stypomrnisa m.arucii 469



Figure Page

89, Styporrmisa pequeniensis Anchicaya 469

90 . Stypomwisa pequeniensis Buenaventura 469

9J . Stypormnisa aaptivopteva 469

92. Lepiselaga cvassipes Guapi 469

93. Lepiselaga arassipes Candelaria 469

94. Poeailoderiis quadvipunctatus 470

95. Poeciloderus allusiosus n. sp 470

96. Tahanus guapiensis n . sp 470

97. Tahanus eldridgei 470

98. Map of Colombia 472

99. Iloldridge life zone map of the department of

Choco with legend 474

100. Holdridge life zone map of the department of

Valle 476

101. Holdridge life zone map of the deparment of

Cauca 478

102. General horse fly morphology 480



Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council

of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for tlie Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) OF THE COLOMBIAN
DEPARTMENTS OF CHOCO, VALLE, AND CAUCA

By

Richard Charles Wi Ikerson

December 1978

Chairman: Graham B. Fairchild

Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

A survey of the horse fly fauna of the Colombian departments of
Choco, Valle, and Cauca was carried out during 1974 and 1975. Few
surveys of this nature have been reported in Colombia.

Survey methods included flight traps and the use of human and
livestock bait. An effort was made to collect in as many areas of
accessible primary forest, in as many different Holdridge ecological
zones, as possible. Collecting localities are indicated on ecological
maps and a description of each zone is given in the text. This treat-
ment will facilitate further collecting and provides a general state-
ment about the ecology of the species found at each site.

Keys and descriptions or redescriptions of 158 species are pre-
sented. Thirty-five species, one subspecies, and one subgenus are
described here for the first time. Figures of head characters of 39
species and of the wings of 81 species are given. A checklist of 226
Colombian species is included. In addition to the new descriptions,
19 new country records are noted.



INTRODUCTION

Surveys of the horse fly fauna of Colombia have been few. The
only work involving the entire country is that of Bequaert and
Renjifo (1946). They listed 129 species with localities and brief
taxonomic and distributional notes. Sixty of the names used by them
have been changed and the species list is now much more extensive.

In the area under consideration two studies have been carried
out, one published and one unpublished. Lee et al. (1969) studied
the biting arthropods, including the horse flies, in the Rio Raposo
area, 40km south of Buenaventura in the department of Valle . Their
study lasted from 1962 to 1965 in habitats ranging from mangrove swamp
on the coast to tropical rain forest 10km inland. Tlieir capture
methods included the use of human and livestock bait at ground level.
Other collections, using human bait in the forest canopy, were
especially valuable since these are the only long term canopy collec-
tions which have been made in this area.

The Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Studies survey (see the
"collecting localities" section for more detail) was carried out
between April and Dec. 1967. One of the survey sites was in the
department of Choco. They too utilized human bait at ground level



Departments, which are large political divisions in Colombia, are
underlined throughout the text for ease of reference.



-1-



-2-

and in the canopy in addition to flight traps. A species list from
this area, compiled by G. B. Fairchild was made available to me for
this study.

In addition. Porter and Defoliart (pers . comm. 1976) carried out
biting arthropod studies (1970-72) in the adjacent department of
Antioquia. A list of the horse fly species present was kindly pro-
vided by Dr. C. H. Porter.

The three departments under consideration, Choco , Valle , and Cauca ^
have a total land area approximately 33% larger than Panama. The total
number of horse fly species known at this time is similar in the two
areas - about 160 - but much more extensive collecting has been carried
out in Panama. Tlie entire United States, for example, has but 282
species (Philip 1965), and Europe only 166 (Chvala et al . 1972).

Fairchild's (1971) catalogue lists approximately 178 species (out
of a total neotropical fauna of about 956) from Colombia. Extensive
collecting by myself between Oct. 1972 and June 1976 in these three
departments has shown that much remains to be done since 34 new species
were found in that small part of the country alone.

The purpose of this work is to provide workers with a means to
identify specimens in this area of Colombia. In addition, by using
the references and descriptions it is my intention that any serious
worker will be able to study in depth the species present and their
knoiNm variation without time-consuming searches for references and
specimens .

The classification system of Fairchild (1969, 1971) for the neo-
tropical Tabanidae is followed throughout this paper. All three
recognized subfamilies and five of the seven tribes are present



-3-

in the study area. Tv;enty-seven of the 52 neotropical genera are
represented.

All keys are written for the identification of females. It is
not practical to design keys for the males at this time since so many
are unknown .

References provided with each species are not intended to be
complete. I give only the original description plus those with
figures, references, synonymies, and Colombian records. Fairchild's
(1971) catalogue may be referred to in most cases if additional
references are needed or if a name is found which is not listed here.
The literature cited section contains only those references cited in
the text.

Material examined includes collector unless that information was
not given on the label. All specimens from Colombia collected from
1974 to 1976 were collected by me unless otherwise stated.

This research was made possible by financial and logistical support
from several sources. Direct assistance during my stay in Call,
Colombia, was provided by Tulane University at the International
Center for Medical Research. I would like to thank Dr. Paul Beaver,
former director, and Dr. Tom Orihel, the present director, for their
complete assistance during my stay. In Call 1 wish to thank
Dr. Antonio D'Alessandro for daily assistance which made my effort
both efficient and fruitful. Dr. Joe Browne and Dr. Stephen Ayala
contributed significantly to my work by their professional assistance
and by easing my adaptation to Colombian culture.

Financial support while a student at the University of Florida
was provided by National Institute of Health Training Grant Number



5 TOl AI - 383-05 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases and by the Entomology and Nematology Department, University
of Florida.

Dr. David G . Young was instrumental in bringing me to Colombia
for the first time and instilling in me his enthusiasm for tlie noo-
tropics. He has also been of great help in preparing the manuscript.

I wish to express my gratitude to my graduate school committee
for their patient help throughout my graduate career. They are
Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Dr. Dale H. Habeck,
Dr. Stephen G. Zam, and Dr. Jerry F. Butler.

Dr. Howard Weems of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods
provided much help in the way of advice and materials for the care
and preservation of my specimens. Dr. Thomas J. Walker of the
University of Florida was very helpful in advising me at several
junctures during research and writing. John Randall provided those
illustrations so initialled. Dr. G. B. Fairchild is responsible for
the morphological sketches and the illustration of Dioladoaera leei.
Barbara Hise did an excellent job preparing the maps used here. Bill
Langford prepared the graphics and did exceptional work photographing
the wings. I am indebted to Roxann Ferguson who typed the entire
manuscrijjt .

I wish to express my appreciation to the following people who
worked with me in the laboratory and field in Colombia: Amelia Arias,
Hugo Rodriguez, Jairo Ardila, and Anibal Gomez.

Specimens for study were kindly loaned or donated by Dr. William
Eberhard, Dr. Pablo Barreto [both Universidad del Valle, Call),



Dr. Alberto Figueroa (Facultad de Agronomia, Palmira), and Dr. G. B.
Fairchild.

I am especially grateful to Dr. G. B. Fairchild for his always
patient and enthusiastic help. He provided advice and a great deal
of time in tlie preparation of this paper. In addition, many of the keys
were written in large part by him, or are adaptations of his keys from
other works .

llolotypes designated here are to be deposited in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville. Paratypes and the bulk of the
specimens will be retained in my collection. A synoptic collection will
be sent to the Universidad del Valle in care of Dr. Pablo Barreto.



STUDY AREA, GENERAL ECOLOGY, AND
COLLECTING LOCALITIES



The departments of Choco , Valle , and Cauca are located on the

Pacific coast of Colombia (Fig. 98). They have surface areas of

2
47,205, 21,245, and 30,495km respectively, a total land area nearly

equal to that of the state of Kentucky.

The habitats here are extremely varied, occurring from sea level
to over 4000m. They range from some of the wettest localities on earth
to near desert. There are two mountain chains in Southern Colombia, the
western chain branches in Narino and Cauca to form the Central and
Eastern Cordilleras. Choco has as its southeastern border the IVestern
Cordillera. This range extends through Valle and Cauca. Valle and
most of Cauca have as their eastern borders the Central Cordillera,
though in the southern part of Cauca there is only one range. In Cauca
the extreme boundary lies within the Amazon basin. This .Amazonian fauna
is quite different in many respects and is not treated here.

Species reported from both Panama and Antioquia , for purposes of
this study, are assumed to be found in Choco also. The two collecting
sites of Porter and Defoliart (pers . comm. 1976) are described below
(p. 10). Reference is occasionally made in the text to 2 sites in the
Intendencia (a political division of less dense population than a depart-
ment) of Putumayo. These also are described below.

Ecological Zones

The Holdridge Life Zone system (Holdridge, 1967) is based on
altitude, latitude, mean biotemperature (temperature converted to relate

-6-



to biological activity, here designated as °C) , and annual precipita-
tion. It is sueful here because it gives a general description of
any locality within a zone and it allows the reader to make assumptions
al:)out localities not yet collected.

The accompanying life zone maps (Figs. 99-101) were taken from
Espinal and Montenegro (1963) who treat all of Colombia. Espinal
(1968) later made a much more detailed map of the department of Valle .
There are some modifications in the later map not reflected in the maps
included here. Most notably, the Tropical Wet Forest zone on the coast
is all Tropical Rain Forest and the area below Lago Calima is Tropical
Moist Forest, not Tropical Wet Forest. For a complete explanation of
the Holdridge system see Holdridge (1967) .

The following are brief descriptions of those zones found in the
departments treated here (Espinal, 1968).

Tropical Very Dry Forest . Temperature greater than 24°C. Average
annual rainfall between 500 and lOOOimn. Altitude less than 1000m.

Tropical Dry Forest . Temperature greater than 24°C. Rainfall
between 1000 and 2000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Primarily found
in the Cauca River Valley.

Tropical Moist Forest. Temperature greater than 24°C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. This zone below
the dam at Lago Calima was extensively collected.

Tropical Wet Fores t. Temperature greater than 24°C. Rainfall
between 4000 and 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Lower Anchicaya
and the site on the Rio Zabaletas are in this zone.



Tropical Rain Forest. Temperature greater than 24°C. Rainfall
greater than 8000mm. Altitude less than 1000m. Found all along tlie
Pacific coast, at sites such as Guapi, Rio Raposo, and Ladrilleros.

Subtropical Dry Forest . Temperature between 17 and 24°C. Rain-
fall between 500 and 1000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 2000m.

Subtropical Wet Forest. Temperature between 17 and 24 °C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude from 1100 to 1900m.

Subtropical Rain F orest . Temperature between 17 and 24°C. Rain-
fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude 900 to 1900m. The site above
Santa Maria is in this zone.

Lower Montane Moi st Forest . Temperature 12 to 17°C'. Rainfall
1000 to 2000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 3000m.

Lower Montane Wet Forest . Temperature 12 to 17°C. Rainfall
between 2000 and 4000mm. Altitude 1800 to 3000m. Penas Blancas and
Pance CVC are in this zone.

Lower Montane Rain Forest . Temperature from 12 to 17°!:;. Rain-
fall greater than 4000mm. Altitude from 1800 to 2900m. A good repre-
sentation of species was taken from Cerro de Munchique in this zone.



Online LibraryRichard Charles WilkersonHorse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Colombian departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca → online text (page 1 of 30)