University of California â¢ Berkeley
Purchased from the
James D. Hart Memorial Fund
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SEAMAN'S MANUAL ;
A TREATISE ON PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP,
A DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS;
CUSTOMS AND USAGES OF THE MERCHANT SERVICE ;
LAWS RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL DUTIES OF MASTER AND
BY R. H. DANA, Jun*.,
"two years before the mast."
EDWARD MOXON, DOVER STREET.
To all sea-faring persons, and especially to those commencing
the sea-life ; â to owners and insurers of vessels ; â to judges and
practitioners in maritime law; â and to all persons interested in
acquainting themselves with the laws, customs, and duties of sea-
men ; â this work is respectfully dedicated hy
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION.
This work is published at the same time in England
and in America. In the latter country it appears under
the title of the " Seaman's Friend ;" while that of the
" Seaman's Manual " is adopted in the British edition,
as more significant of the nature of the book. Mr. Dana
has here embodied in a small space and unpretending form
a variety of information, which it is hoped may be exten-
sively useful. Not that men who have been bred to the
sea can be supposed to derive much instruction from the
elementary hints of a book of this kind. Seamanship, like
every other manual art, is thoroughly acquired by prac-
tice; and skill in its various branches can only be
arrived at by actual experience. But young beginners
will find useful helps in their study of the duties of sea-
life, in the details and explanations here collected from
the best available sources. Very few of the terms or
the methods of management, in the Merchant Service of
America, differ in any material respect from those which
are used in English vessels. There is probably less
difference in the sea-language common to both services
than may be detected as peculiar in the different great
sea-ports of the mother country; and in like manner,
the received usages and modes of discipline have the
close affinity which is the natural result arising from
common origin, laws, and general customs. It may
therefore be expected without presumption, that the
abstract given in this little work of the rules established
in American ships will be found applicable to the prac-
tice in our own ; and even where they differ, may suggest
useful comparisons. At any rate, it is desirable to know
what system obtains and is successful among a body of
seamen which, in numbers, and the extent of commerce
carried on by them, are only second in importance to
those of Great Britain.
The laws of the United States relative to shipping,
are considered in Part III. of this work, in reference to
the rights and duties of the officers and crews respec-
tively. A gentleman of the legal profession has ap-
pended a few notes, with the view of showing points of
difference where they exist in the British laws.
Finally, it is hoped that the various classes of society
which are led by their callings, duty, or affection, to take
an interest in sea-faring men, and who may wish to know
something of their business and their language, will find
this little Manual useful for occasional reference. It
cannot be expected to have the same claims to public
favour as the Author's former work. But even in these
pages, which only aim at being useful, the reader will
not fail to perceive indications of the same good sense
and right spirit which were so conspicuous in that re-
London, 4th October, 1841.
A PLAIN TREATISE ON PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP.
GENERAL RULES AND OBSERVATIONS, PAGES 1 7.
Construction of Vessels, 1. â Tonnage and Carriage of Merchant
Vessels, 2 â Proportions of Spars, 2 â Placing the Masts, 4. â
Size of Anchors and Cables, 4. â Lead-lines, 5 â Log-line, 5. â
Ballast and Lading, 6.
CUTTING AND FITTING STANDING RIGGING, PAGES 7 14.
Cutting Lower Rigging, 7. â Fitting Lower Rigging, 8. â Cutting
and fitting Topmast Rigging, 9. â Jib, Topgallant, and Royal
Rigging, 10. â Rattling, 11. â Standing Rigging of the Yards,
11.â Breast-backstays, 14.
FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING, PAGES 15 19.
To reeve a Brace, 15. â Fore, Main, and Cross-jack Braces, 15.
â Fore and Main Topsail Braces, 15. â Mizen Topsail Braces,
16. â Fore, Main, and Mizen Topgallant and Royal Braces,
16. â Halyards, 16. â Spanker-brails, 17. â Tacks, Sheets, and
Clewlines, 17. â Reef-tackles, Clew-garnets, Buntlines, Leach-
lines, Bowlines, and Slablines, 18.
TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS, PAGES 19 26.
Taking in Lower Masts and Bowsprit, 19. â To rig a Bowsprit,
20. â To get the Tops over the Mast-heads, 20. â To send up
a Topmast, 21. â To get on a Topmast Cap, 22. â To rig out
a Jib-boom, 22. â To cross a Lower Yard, 22. â To cross a
Topsail Yard, 23. â To send up a Topgallant Mast, 23. â Long,
Short, and Stump Topgallant Masts, 23. â To rig out a Flying
Jib-boom, 24. â To cross a Topgallant Yard, 25. â To cross a
Royal Yard, 25.â Skysail Yards, 25.
TO SEND DOWN MASTS AND YARDS, PAGES 26 28.
To send down a Royal Yard, 26 To send down a Topgallant
Yard, 27. â To send down a Topgallant Mast, 27. â To house
a Topgallant Mast, 27. â To send down a Topmast, 28. â To
rig in a Jib-boom, 28.
BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS, PAGES 28 33.
To bend a Coarse, 28. â To bend a Topsail by the Halyards, 29 ;
by the Buntlines, 30. â To bend Topgallant Sails and Royals,
30.â To bend a Jib, 31 To bend a Spanker, 31.â To bend
a Spencer, 3). â To unbend a Course, 32. â To unbend a Top-
sail, 32.â To unbend a Topgallant Sail or Royal, 32.â To
unbend a Jib, 32. â To send down a Topsail or Course in a Gale
of Wind, 32.â To bend a Topsail in a Gale of Wind, 32.â
To bend one Topsail or Course, and send down the other at
the same time, 32.
WORK UPON RIGGING. ROPE, KNOTS, SPLICES, BENDS, HITCHES,
PAGES 33 44.
Yarns, Strands, 33. â Kinds of Rope : Cable-laid, Hawser-laid,
34. â Spunyarn, 34. â Worming, Parcelling, and Service, 34. â
Short Splice, 35. â Long Splice, 35. â Eye Splice, 36. â Flemish
Eye, 36.â Artificial Eye, 36.â Cut Splice, 36.â Grommet, 37.
âSingle and Double Walls, 37.â -Matthew Walker, 37.â
Single and Double Diamonds, 37. â Spritsnil Sheet-knot, 38. â
Stopper Knot, 38. â Shroud and French Shroud Knots, 38. â
Buoy-rope Knot, 39. â Turk's Head, 39.- â Two Half-hitches,
Clove-hitch, Overhand Knot, and Figure-of-eight, 39. â Stand-
ing and Running Bowlines, and Bowline upon a Bight, 40. â
Square Knot, 40. â Timber Hitch, Rolling Hitch, and Blackwall
Hitch, 40. â Cat's Paw, 41. â Sheet Bend, Fisherman's Bend,
Carrick Bend, and Bowline Bend, 41. â Sheep-shank, 42. â
Selvagee, 42. â Marlinspike Hitch, 42. â To pass a Round
Seizing, 42. â Throat Seizing, 42. â Stopping and Nippering, 43.
â Pointing, 43. â Snaking and Grafting, 43. â Foxes, Spanish
Foxes, Sennit, French Sennit, Gaskets, 43. â To bend a Buoy-
rope, 44. â To pass a Shear-lashing, 44.
BLOCKS AND PURCHASES, PAGES 44 46.
Parts of a Block, Made and Morticed Blocks, 44. â Bull's-eye,
Dead-eye, Sister-block, 45. â Snatch-block, Tail-blocks, Tackles,
Whip, Gun-tackle, Luff-tackle, Luff-upon-Luff, Runner-tackle,
Watch-tackle, Tail- tackle, and Burtons, 45.
MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL, PAGES 46 60.
To loose a Sail, 46. â To set a Course, 47. â To set a Topsail,
47. â To set a Topgallant Sail or Royal, 48. â To seta Skysail,
48. â To set a Jib, Flying Jib, or Fore Topmast Staysail, 48. â
To set a Spanker, 48. â To set a Spencer, 48. â To take in
a Course, 48. â To take in a Topsail, 49. â To take in a
Topgallant Sail or Royal, 50. â To take in a Skysail, 50. â To
take in a Jib, 50. â To take in a Spanker, 50. â To furl a
Royal, 50.â To furl a Topgallant Sail, 52.â To furl a Top-
sail or Course, 52. â To furl a Jib, 52. â To stow a Jib in
Cloth, 53. â To reef a Topsail, 53. â To reef a Course, 55. â
To turn out Reefs, 55. â To set a Topgallant Studdingsail,
56. â To take in a Topgallant Studdingsail, 57. â To set a Top-
mast Studdingsail, 57. â To take in a Topmast Studdingsail, 59.
â To set a Lower Studdingsail, 59. â To take in a Lower
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING A SHIP, PAGES 61 64.
Action of the Water upon the Rudder, Headway, Stern way, 61. â
Action of the Wind upon the Sails, Head Sails, After Sails, 62.
â Centre of Gravity or Rotation, 63. â Turning a Ship to or
from the Wind, 64.
TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, &C, PAGES 65 72.
To tack a Ship, 65. â To tack without fore-reaching, 66. â
Tacking against a heavy head Sea, 67. â Tacking by hauling of
all, 67. â To trim the yards when close-hauled, 67. â Missing
Stays, 67. â Wearing, 68. â To wear under Courses, under a
Mainsail, under bare poles, 68. â Box- hauling, 69. â Short-
round, 70. â Club-hauling, 70. â Drifting in a Tide- way, 71. â
Backing and filling in a Tide- way, 71. â Clubbing in a Tide-
GALES OF WIND, LYING-TO, GETTING ABACK, BY THE LEE, &C,
PAGES 72 75.
Lying-to, 72. â Scudding, 73. â To heave-to after Scudding, 73. â
Taken aback, 74. â Chapelling, 74. â Broaching-to, 75. â
Brought by the Lee, 75.
ACCIDENTS, PAGES 75 79.
On Beam-ends, 75. â Losing a Rudder, 76. â A Squall, 77. â A
Man Overboard, 78.â Collision, 78.
HEAVING-TO BY COUNTER-BRACING, SPEAKING, SOUNDING, HEAVING
THE LOG, PAGE8 79 82.
Counter Bracing, 79. â Speaking, 79. â Sounding, 80. â Heaving
the Log, 81.
COMING TO ANCHOR, PAGES 82 86.
Getting ready for Port, 82. â Mooring, 83. â A Flying Moor, 84
Clearing Hawse, 84. â To anchor with a Slip-rope, 85. â To
slip a Cable, 85. â Coming-to at a slipped Cable, 85.
GETTING UNDER WAY, PAGES 86 90.
Unmoor, 86. â To get under Way from a single Anchor, 86. â To
cut and fish an Anchor, 87. â To get under Way with a Wind
blowing directly out, and riding head to it, 88. â To get under
Way, riding head to the Wind, with a Rock or Shoal close
astern, 88. â To get under Way, riding head to Wind and Tide,
and to stand out close-hauled, 89. â To get under Way wind-
rode, with a Weather-tide, 89. â To get under Way tide-rode,
casting to Windward, 89. â To get under Way, tide-rode, wear-
ing round, 90.
A DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS, 91â135.
CUSTOMS AND USAGES OF THE MERCHANT SERVICE.
THE MASTER, PAGES 136 â 146.
Beginning of the Voyage, 136. â Shipping the Crew, 137. â Outfit,
Provisions, 138. â Watches, 139. â Navigation, 140. â Log-book,
Observations, 140. â Working Ship, 141. â Day's Work, 143.
â Discipline, 145.
THE CHIEF MATE, PAGES 146 154.
Care of Rigging and Ship's Furniture, 146. â Day's Work, 146.
â Working Ship, 147. â Getting under Way, 147. â Coming
to Anchor, 148. â Reefing and Furling, 148. â Duties in Port,
Account of Cargo, Stowage, 148. âStation, Watch, and All-
hands Duties, 149. â Log-book, Navigation, 153.
SECOND AND THIRD MATES, PAGES 154 162.
Second Mate : Navigation, 154. â Station, Watch Duties, 155. â
Day's Work, 155,158.â Working Ship, 159.â Reefing, Furling,
and Duties Aloft, 157. â Care of Ship's Furniture, 160. â
Stores, 160.â Duties in Port, 161.â Third Mate, 161.
CARPENTER, COOK, STEWARD, &C, PAGES 162 167.
Carpenter : Working Ship, 163. â Seaman's Work, Helm, Duty
aloft, Station, 163. â Work at his Trade, 164.â Berth and
Mess, 164. â Standing Watch, 164. â Sailmaker, 164. â Steward:
Duty in Passenger-ships, 165 ; in other Vessels, 166, â Relation
to Master and Mate, Duty aloft and about decks, Working
Ship, 166. â Cook : Berth, Watch, and All-hands Duty, care
of Galley, Duty Aloft, 166 â Idlers, 167.
ABLE SEAMEN, PAGES 168 173.
Grades, 168. â Rating 169. â Requisites of an Able Seaman, 170.
â Hand, Reef, and Steer, 170. â Work upon Rigging, 170.â
Sailmaking, 171. â Day's Work, 171. â Working Ship, Reef-
ing, Furling, 171. â Watch Duty, 172. â Coasters and Small
ORDINARY SEAMEN, PAGES 174 176.
Requisites, 1 74. â Hand, Reef, and Steer ; Loose, Furl, and Set
Sails; Reeve Rigging, 174. â Work upon Rigging, 175. â Watc
BOYS, PAGES 176 178.
Requisites, Wages, 176. â Day's Work, Working Ship, Duties
Aloft, and about Decks, 176.
MISCELLANEOUS, PAGES 178 186.
Watches, 178.â Calling the Watch, 179.â Bells, 180.â Helm,
180.â Answering, 182 (at Helm, 182). â Discipline, 183. â
Stations, 184.â Food, Sleep, &c, 185.
LAWS RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL DUTIES OF
MASTER AND MARINERS.
THE VESSEL, PAGES 187 196.
Title, 187- â Registry, Enrolment, and Licence, 188.â Certificate
of Registry or Enrolment, 193 Passport, 193 Sea Letter,
List of Crew, Bill of Health, Clearance, Manifest, Invoice, Bill
of Lading, Charter-Party, Log-Book, List of Passengers and
Crew, List of Sea-stores, 193. â Medicine Chest, 193. â National
Character of Crew, 194. â Provisions, 195. â Passengers, 195.
MASTERS RELATION TO VESSEL AND CARGO, PAGES 197 212.
Revenue Duties and Obligations, 197. â List of Crew, 198. â
Certified Copy, 199. â Certified Copy of Shippping Articles,
202. â Sea Letter, Passport, List of Passengers, Manifest, Sea-
stores, 202, 203.â Unloading, 202, 204.â Post-office, 204.â
Forfeitures, 203, 204, 205.â Report, 204. â Coasting License,
204 â Power to Sell and Pledge, 205. â Keeping and Delivering
Cargo, 208.â Deviation, 209 â Collision, 2 1 Pilot, 211. â
Wages and Advances, 212.
MASTER'S RELATION TO PASSENGERS AND OFFICERS, PAGES 212 214.
Treatment of Passengers, 212. â Removal of Officers, 213.
MASTER'S RELATION TO THE CREW, PAGES 214 224.
Shipment, 214. â Shipping Articles, 215. â Discharge, 217 Im-
prisonment, 219. â Punishment, 220. â Power of Consuls as to
PASSENGERS, PAGES 224 226.
Provisions, 224. â Treatment, 225 Passage Money, 225. â De-
portment, 225. â Services, 225.
MATES AND SUBORDINATES, PAGES 236 231.
Mates included in Crew, 226. â Removal, 226. â Succession, 227-
â Log-book, Wages, Sickness, 227-8. â Punishment, 228. â
Subordinates, 230.â Pilots, 230.
seamen; shipping contract, pages 231 â 235.
Shipping Contract, 231. â Erasures and Interlineations, 233. â
Unusual Stipulations, 234. â Violation of Contract, 234.
SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 235 238.
Rendering on Board, 235. â Refusal to Proceed, 236. â Desertion or
Absence during the Voyage, 237. â Discharge, 238.
SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 239 243.
Provisions, 239. â Sickness, Medicine Chest, 240 â Hospital
Money, 241. â Relief in Foreign Ports, 242. â Protection, 243.
SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 243 248.
Punishment, 243. â Revolt and Mutiny, 245. â Embezzlement,
247.â Piracy, 247.
seamen's wages, pages 248 â 259.
Wages affected by Desertion or Absence, 248. â By Misconduct,
253. â By Imprisonment, 254. â By Capture, 255. â By Loss of
Vessel or Interruption of Voyage, 256. â Wages on an Illegal
Voyage, 258. â Wages affected by Death or Disability, 258.
seamen, concluded, pages 259 â 264.
Recovery of Wages, 259. â Remedies, 259. â Time for commencing
Suits, 261. â Interest on Wages, 262. â Salvage, 262.
THE SPARS AND RIGGING OF A SHIP.
12 Fore chains.
13 Main chains.
14 Mizen chains.
17 Flying jib-boom.
18 Spritsail yard.
20 Bowsprit cap.
22 Fore topmast.
23 Fore topgall. mast.
24 Fore royal mast.
25 Fore skysail mast.
26 Main mast.
27 Main topmast.
28 Main topgall. mast.
29 Main royal mast.
30 Main skysail mast.
31 Mizen mast.
32 Mizen topmast.
33 Mizen topgall. mast.
34 Mizen royal mast.
35 Mizen skysail mast.
36 Fore spencer gaff.
37 Main spencer gaff.
38 Spanker gaff.
39 Spanker boom.
40 Fore top.
41 Foremast cap.
42 Fore topm.cross-tr.
43 Main top.
44 Mainmast cap
45 Main topm.cross-tr.
46 Mizen top.
INDEX OF REFERENCES.
47 Mizenmast cap.
48 Mizen topmast cross
49 Fore yard.
50 Fore topsail yard.
51 Fore topgallant yard.
52 Fore royal yard.
53 Main yard.
54 Main topsail yard.
55 Main topgallant yard.
56 Main royal yard.
57 Cross jack yard.
58 Mizen topsail yard.
59 Mizen topgall. yard.
60 Mizen royal yard.
61 Fore truck.
62 Main truck.
63 Mizen truck.
64 Fore stay.
65 Fore topmast stay.
66 Jib stay.
69 Fore topgallant stay.
70 Fore skysail stay.
71 Jib guys.
72 Flying-jib guys.
73 Fore lifts.
74 Fore braces.
75 Fore topsail lifts.
76 Fore topsail braces.
77 Fore topgallant lifts.
78 Fore topgall. braces.
79 Fore royal lifts.
80 Fore royal braces.
81 Fore rigging.
82 Fore topmast rigging.
83 Fore topgall. shrouds.
84 Fore topmast back-
85 Fore topgallant back-
86 Fore royal backstays.
87 Main stay.
88 Main topmast stay.
89 Main topgallant stay,
90 Main royal stay.
91 Main lifts.
92 Main braces.
93 Main topsail lifts.
94 Main topsail braces,
95 Main topgallant lifts,
96 Main topgalt. braces.
97 Main royal lifts.
98 Main royal braces.
99 Main rigging.
101 Main topgallant rig-
102 Main topmast back-
103 Main topgallt. back-
104 Main royal backstays.
105 Cross-jack lifts.
106 Cross-jack braces.
107 Mizen topsail lifts.
108 Mizen topsail braces.
109 Mizen topgallt. lifts.
1 1 Mizen topgal . braces .
1 1 1 Mizen royal lifts.
1 12 Mizen royal braces.
113 Mizen stay.
114 Mizen topmast stay.
1 1 5 Mizen topgallt. stay.
116 Mizen royal stay.
117 Mizen skysail stay.
118 Mizen rigging.
119 Mizen topmast rigg.
120 Mizen topgall. shrds.
121 Mizen topmast back-
122 Mizen topgallant
123 Mizen royal backst.
124 Fore spencer vangs.
125 Main spencer vangs.
126 Spanker vangs.
127 Ensign halyards.
128 Spanker peak halyds,
129 Foot-rope to fore yd.
130 Foot-rope to main yd.
131 Foot rope to cross-
A SHIP'S SAILS.
INDEX OF REFERENCES.
1 Fore topmast staysail.
3 Flying jib.
4 Fore spencer.
5 Main spencer.
8 Fore topsail.
9 Fore topgallant sail.
10 Fore royal.
1 1 Fore sky sail.
13 Main topsail.
14 Main topgallant sail.
15 Main royal.
16 Main skysail.
17 Mizen topsail.
18 Mizen topgallant sail.
19 Mizen royal.
20 Mizen skysail.
21 Lower studdingsail.
21 a Lee ditto.
22 Fore topmast studdingsail.
22 a Lee ditto.
23 Fore topgallant studdingsail.
23 a Lee ditto.
24 Fore royal studdingsail.
24* Lee ditto.
25 Main topmast studdingsail.
25 a Lee ditto.
26 Main topgallant studdingsail.
26 a Lee ditto.
27 Main royal studdingsail.
27 a Lee ditto.
THE FRAME OF A SHIP.
INDEX OF REFERENCES.
A. The Outside.
1 Upper stem-piece.
.2 Lower stem -piece.
4 Forward keel-piece.
5 Middle keel-piece.
6 After keel- piece.
7 False keel.
8 Stern knee.
9 Stern post.
11 Bilge streaks.
12 First streak under the wales.
14 Lower apron.
1 5 Fore frame.
16 After frame.
19 Plank- shear.
25 Fashion timbers.
27 Quarter pieces.
B. The Inside of the Stern.
5 Half transoms.
6 Main transom.
7 Quarter timbers.
8 Transom knees.
9 Horn timbers.
10 Counter-timber knee.
13 Counter timbers.
14 Upper- deck clamp.
C. The Inside of the Bows.
3 Step for the mast.
5 Lower-deck breast-hook.
6 Forward beam.
7 Upper-deck clamp.
9 Hawse- timbers.
10 Bow timbers.
11 Apron of the stem.
D. The Timbers.
2 Floor timbers.
3 Naval timbers or ground fut-
4 Lowe*" futtocks.
5 Middle futtocks.
6 Upper futtocks.
7 Top timbers.
8 Half timbers, or half top.
Ship. â A ship is square-rigged throughout ; that is, she has tops,
and carries square sails on all three of her masts.
Bark. â A bark is square-rigged at her fore and main masts, and
differs from a ship in having no top, and carrying only fore-
and-aft sails at her mizen mast.
Brig. â A full-rigged brig is square-rigged at both her masts.
Hermaphrodite Brig. â An hermaphrodite brig is square-rigged at
her foremast ; but has no top, and only fore-and-aft sails at
her main mast.
Topsail Schooner. â A topsail schooner has no tops at her fore-
mast, and is fore-and-aft rigged at her mainmast. She dif-
fers from an hermaphrodite brig in that she is not properly
square-rigged at her foremast, having no top, and carrying
a fore-and-aft foresail, instead of a square foresail and a
Fore-and-aft Schooner. â A fore-and-aft schooner is fore-and-aft
rigged throughout, differing from a topsail schooner in that
the latter carries small square sails aloft at the fore.
Sloop. â A sloop has one mast, fore-and-aft rigged.
Hermaphrodite Brigs sometimes carry small square sails aloft at
the main ; in which case they are called Brigantines, and
differ from a Full-rigged Brig in that they have no top
at the mainmast, and carry a fore-and-aft mainsail instead
of a square mainsail and trysail. Some Topsail Schooners
carry small square sails aloft at the main as well as the fore ;
being in other respects fore-and-aft rigged. They are then
called Main Topsail Schooners.
Full - rig ged Brig
Hermaphrodite Brig -
THE SEAMAN'S FRIEND.
GENERAL RULES AND OBSERVATIONS.
Construction of vessels. Tonnage and carriage of merchant vessels.
Proportions of the spars. Placing the masts. Size of anchors and
cahles. Lead-lines. Log-line. Ballast and lading.
Construction of vessels. â As merchant vessels of
the larger class are now built in the United States, the
extreme length of deck, from the after part of the stern-
post to the fore part of the stem, is from four and a half
to four and three-fourths that of the beam, at its widest
part. The Damascus, of 700 tons' measurement, built
at Boston in 1839, and considered a fair specimen of our
best freighting vessels, had 150 feet from stem to stern-
post, and 32 feet 6 inches extreme breadth. The Rajah,
of 530 tons, built at Boston in 1837, had 140 feet length,
and 30 feet beam ; â being each in length about four and
six-tenths their beam.
A great contrast to this proportion is exhibited in the
most recent statistics (1841) of vessels of the same
tonnage in the English navy; as the following table
( Dido . . 734
37ft. 6 in. 3.20
English Navy. 1 Pilot . . 492
33 6 3.13
( Alert . . 358
30 4 3.16
American J Damascus 694
Merchantmen. \ Rajah . . 531
32 6 4.60
Z TONNAGE AND CARRIAGE.
These may, perhaps, be considered the extremes of
ship-building ; and between these there is every grade of
Tonnage and Carriage of Merchant Vessels. â
The amount a vessel will carry in proportion to her ton-
nage depends upon whether, and to what extent, she is
full or sharp-built. A sharp-built vessel of 300 tons'
measurement, will carry just about her tonnage of
measurement goods. A sharp-built vessel of 200 tons