serves to supply the engines employed in the collieries with water. From this
basin, as from a centre, the little river issues in two directions. The one, taking
its meandering course by the Church, &c., falls into the ocean at St. Bees ; the
other being towards Whitehaven, where for about a mile from the harbour it is
arched over, passing under the market place, and then mingles with the ocean in
the harbour.' (Jefferson's AUerdale Ward, p. 331.)
* Cumberland for thatch, in general use. Cumb. Gloss. Dickinson, Eng. Dial.
Soc. vol. vi.
* The Rev. John Mirehouse, M.A., the present Rector of Colsterworth, kindly
supplies the following list of Rectors: — 1571, William Hotchkine; 1607, Nicolas
Walker, D.D.; 1641, William Walker, B.D. ; 1684, George Parish, M.A. ; 1690,
William Parkins, M.A.; 1 720, Thomas Mason, B.D.; 1 753, Robert Cane, B.D.; 1 756,
Richard RadclifTe, M.A. ; 1766, Henry Dodwell, M.A. Radcliffe seems to have
continued on as young Dodwell's curate till 1777, when he went to Holwell. Dr.
1758 J LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES, 1 1
his connections with the Grantham Justices prevailed upon them to
grant no warrants to any of his parishioners, but upon really proper
and important occasions. We are now, hke our neighbours, in a
midling sort of a way, neither rigidly virtuous, nor scandalously
licentious. Considering we are situated on a great high road, and of
consequence pestered with a multitude of alehouses, post-boys,
waggoners, and the like, I do really think we are tolerably regular.
All my parishioners (an old Presbjrterian maid excepted) profess the
Church, though I am sorry to say that some of them seldom see the
inside of it. A more numerous congregation I have often seen, but
never a better behaved one ; most of them being able to read, and all
of them strictly decent and regular in their postures. One thing I
observed at the Sacrament, with great pleasure, which was that the
husband and wife kneeled always together, and joined with seemingly
great devotion in the commemoration of their Saviour's suflferings,
a fair presumption, my friend, that they sometimes carry their thoughts
beyond the grave, and have serious hopes of meeting in another and
better world. May it be my endeavour to promote and strengthen
these good dispositions in them I
I perceive you have heard that I was under a necessity of turning
housekeeper; and I am much obliged to you for the concern you
express upon that account. But I desire you will make yourself easy,
for I am settled, I assure you, much to my satisfaction. The Colster-
worthians, though not extravagantly polite, are very civil and friendly;
and though I would not choose to board with any of them, I can
smoke a very comfortable pipe with many of them. In this same
county I have unexpectedly met with a couple of parsons, with whom
I was formerly concerned in murdering Homer, Horace, and some
other outlandish gentry at St. Bees School. Their names are Dick
Stoup and Davy Walker. They are both in very good bread ^ but
Dodwell had the patronage of Colsterworth as Prebendary of South Grantham.
It was vested in the holder of this prebend from the days of Osmund, Bishop of
Salisbury (temp. Hen. I) tiU the beginning of the present Queen's reign, when it
was given to the Bishop of Lincohi. Henry Dodwell, who held Colsterworth for
rixty years, was also Rector of Harlaxton, a living the patronage whereof is now in
Queen's College, which received it as the result of a tripartite exchange, whereby
Brough upon Stainmore went to the Bishop of Carlisle and Honicastle to the
Bishop of Lincoln. Mr. Mirehouse thinks Mr. Mason is referred to in Sir David
Brewster's life of Sir Isaac Newton, who was bom at Woolsthorpe, in Colsterworth
parish, but the passage is not to be found. ,
* Dr. Murray writes : — I am very familiar with the common modem Scotch
to be in bad breid, but never knew whether breid was here bread or breed.
Jamieson, however, has to be in bad bread, to be in a dilemma or in an evil taking-
U LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. [1758.
live at too great a distance to hold any great society with. My most
intimate acquaintance is a neighbouring curate, of whom thou wilt
not conceive a very high opinion when I assure thee that the word
tnim being once accidentally mentioned, he actually and positively did
not know the meaning of it. However, he is a very honest, friendly
fellow, and master of many good qualities — qualities that will be of
service to him, when Latin and Greek will be no more.
I rejoiced to hear of the Cloth's translation, and most heartily con-
gratulate him and the good folks at Hawkshead upon the event. What
a round the rogue has danced within these few years I about and about
in Yattendon* — from Yattendon to Alton — from Alton to Hawkshead —
and now to Alton again. The removal of books will not cost him much ;
I wish he could say the same of his wife and cubs. I wrote to him
about the same time that I wrote to thee, and received his answer a
full fortnight ago — an answer, in the true pedagogical strain and spirit,
i, e. saucy, insolent, pert, petulant, and pragmatical. I should be sorry
to see him alter his stile. I have heard from his Fishship twice ; he
has met with an agreeable pond, and finns and flounces it to his
heart's content. To the Twig * I have wrote twice, but cannot extort
one line from him. I [do no]t yet know whether he has received a
pretty considerable bill that I sent him from Whitehaven last Sep-
Thou wilt now be pleased to withdraw, and make room for better
company. I am now to address myself to Mrs. James, and to make
my acknowledgments for the favour she did me in condescending to
put her hand to a schoolmaster's letter, and giving it so agreeable a
conclusion. Nothing in the world would give me greater pleasure
than to annihilate about two hundred miles of space, and to get into
the neighbourhood of St. Bees. I must not forget to add, that I am
just beginning my evening Walks upon the lea-land '. My best and
warmest wishes attend you both.
Yours, with the sincerest affection,
As we have a Post-ofl5ce in our own village, you need only direct
^ Yattendon, in Berks, about a mile or so from Bucklebmy. Rowe Mores makes
Docker curate of Basildon and Ashampstead, co. Berks. These villages are
further from Bucklebury ; Ashampstead is between Yattendon and Basildon.
^ That the ' Twig ' is a nickname for Thomas Hodgson (see above, note 4,
p. a), appears from Letter IX, where Radcliffe goes into Gloucestershire to see
the * Twig and Twiggess.' - Hodgson had then been at Northleach school about
^ Dr. Murray kindly writes as follows: — 'Lea-land. — Lea, a meadow or grassy
1769.] LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. 13
(if your dilatoriness will ever give you leave to direct more) to Col-
sterworth in Lincolnshire,
R. Radcliffe to J. James, Senior.
My dear Friend,
I have now got a little time to acknowledge the favour of my
friend's letter, and to return an answer to it. Thou woudst read in
the news-paper (if haply a news-paper ever reaches thee) that our
honoured Lord and Chancellor^ was dead; and so it was that the Doctors,
Proctors, and Heads of Houses were not able to appoint a successor
without my assistance. The candidates were, the Earls of Westmore-
land^ and Litchfield', and the Bishop of Durham*. Our college warmly
espoused the cause of the first, and mustered almost forty votes in his
favour. Lord Litchfield declined the day before the election, and
most of his party coming over to ours, enabled us to contund and de-
molish the episcopalians y and to beat them by a majority of 1 2 1 '^. I
plain, is also used attribntively as in lea-ground, lea-lark, lea-rig (Scottish), etc.
Lea-land occurs from the fourteenth century downward (is very common in mod.
Scotch), also lea-field ^^ field in grass, left lying < lea.'
1300. Gloss, to Walter de Biblesworth in Wright's Vocab. 153 : — 'terefreche
1599. Angr. Women of Abingdon (Percy Soc. Repr. 1841) 103 : —
' They should set her on the leland. '
Scott, Heart of Midlothian, ch. xxix : —
' If Robin said stand on the King's lea-land,
Pray, why should not we say so too?'
* Charles Butler, Earl of Arran, and really Duke of Ormonde, who died Dec. 17,
1758. He was elected Chancellor in 171 5, when his brother and predecessor in
office was attainted.
^ John Fane, Earl of Westmoreland, elected Chancellor Jan. 4, 1759. He was
installed on July 3, and held the office for three years only.
' George Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield, elected Chancellor, Sept. 23, 1762,
installed October 1 762 at his seat at Ditchley. He was High Steward in 1 760. See
Green's Oxford in the Last Century, iii. 10, O. S. and Letter IX.
* Hon. Richard Trevor, son of Thomas, first Lord Trevor of Bromham, Bishop
of S. David's 1743-4 » Durham 1752 ; entered Queen's as Up. Comr. July 3, matri-
culated July 3, aet. 16, * Tho. f. Peckham, c Surrey Baron*" fil.' ; B.A., May 13, 1727;
Fellow of All Souls, Nov. 1727 ; M.A. Jan. 28, 1730; Canon of Ch. Ch. 1735 >
D.C.L., as grand Compounder, June 10, 1736 ; died June 9, 1771, buried at Glynde
in Sussex. Published a sermon preached for London Hospital, April 24, 1751. In
London Daily Advertiser, July 21, 1753 (Rawl.T. fol. 19, 174), is a congratulatory
speech made to him on his arrival at Durham by Archdeacon Sharp, and his
reply. There is a portrait of him drawn by R. Hutchinson, engraved by
' The numbers were, Earl of Westmoreland 321, Bishop of Durham 200,
14 LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. [1759-
had the pleasure of meeting with most of my old acquaintance, Denton,
Lowthian, Monkhouse, Nicolson^, Hay garth*, Wilkinson, &c., &c., &c.;
we spent about six days together very idly, and as many evenings very
jovially. Little Eli Harrison' was just then dead, who had a college
living in Hampshire, and as it happened to be one of an inferior value,
it came down to Bolton Simpson *, and was accepted by him with all
thankfulness. It seems he has had a housekeeper ready this dozen or
fourteen years, and wanted nothing in all that time but a house to put
her in, and an income to maintain her upon. She had though originally
a fortune of two thousand pounds, and she has had the fortune to get
five thousand more in the last lottery or last but one. Old Snod * is
candidate for the Professorship of History, which, it is supposed, will
be soon vacant by the death of Dr. Frewin •. We have all promised
^ Thomas Nicholson, entered as Batler 1744 (O. S.); matriculated March 18,
jet. 17, 'Clement, de Whitehaven com. Cumberland Pleb fil.' Admitted Taberdar
1748; B.A. (as Thomas Nicolson) 1750; M.A. 1754; B.D. 1765; and D.D.
1773. He was elected Fellow 176a, admitted in the following year, became
Vicar of Newbold Pacey 1781 (see p. 174), and died in 1803. He was Senior
Proctor in 1764. We shall find frequent mention of him below.
* James Haygarth, entered Batler 1747 ; matriculated June 17, set. 16, * Jacob! de
Kendall, com. Westmoreland Pleb. fil.' B.A. 1751, M.A. 1755, and was elected
Fellow 1764. In 1778 he died at Leghorn, where he was Chaplain to the British
» Heli (in Cat. Grad.) or Heley (in List of Fellows) Harrison entered Batler 1717,
matriculated July 11, set 16, • Rob. fil. Carlisle, Cumb. Pleb. fil.' B.A. 1723, M.A.
1726, was elected Fellow in 1733* and held the living of Milford-cum-Hurdle-
Capella, value if 279 with a house (temp. Will. IV).
* Bolton Simpson entered Batler 1733 (O. S.), matriculated April 4, set 16,
' Johannis fil. de Redmayne, com. Cumbr. Pleb. fil.' He proceeded B.A. 1739;
M.A. 174a ; B.D. and D.D. 1759. He was elected Taberdar 1739, was * Collector
in quadiagesimalibus' 1741, and Fellow 1752. He died in 1786. The library
has of his (i) an 8vo. edition of Xenophon*s Memorabilia, Oxford, 1741 (Taber-
dariorum Societati dono dedit Bolton Simpson A.B. Ipse Taberdarius hujusce libelli
Editor et Reginensium Cultor amantissimus), and (2) The Superior Excellency of
the Righteous or Moral Character. A Sermon preached at the Assizes, held at Win-
chester, on Wednesday, February 29, 1743-4, by Bolton Simpson, M.A., of Queen's
College in Oxford ; and Minister of West-Cowes, Isle of Wight, 4to., London,
1744. He was probably then Chaplain to the High Sheriff, Sir Edward Worsley.
* See prefatory note.
* Richard Frewin, son of Ralph, of London, educated at Westminster and
Christ Church, where he matriculated 4 July; admitted 24 Dec. 1698 ; B.A. May
2, 1702; M.A. March 22, 1704; B.M. June 14, 1707; D.M. April 19, 1711 ;
Camden Professor of Ancient History 1727 to 1761. His portrait is in Ch. Ch.
UfFenbach thought he didn't care about the laboratory in 17 10 (Wordsworth's Univ.
Studies, p. 176). Mentioned by Freind (quoted Rawl. T. 40. 6. 146), in preface to
his Chymical Lectures as ' virum, loci in quo nutritus est genio abundantem, dis-
ciplinaque omni liberaliore et praesertim medicina eruditum.' There is a letter of
his about Fevers, dated Ch. Ch., 20 July, 1710, in Freind's works, p. 273.
1759.] LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. 1$
(as in duty bound) to appear for him on the shortest notice. His
antagonist is Mr. Wamford ^, of Corpus, a man unexceptionable in his
character, and, I used to think, one of the best practical preachers that
ever peeped over the cushion at St. Mary's. Mr. Wamford has been
making interest for the place these seven years, though it seems to be
the opinion of most people that our old tutor will stand the best
chance. I heard accidentally that thy old master Phil. Sayer* has
been dead this year and a half, and that young Walker is possessed
of the bishoprick and resides upon it. Thy last letter save one is still
in my custody, and I have a good mind to enclose it in this ; there thou
wouldst see what a promise thou made, and that I had just cause to
charge thee with breaking of it. ' / intend thee a longer letter in a fort-
n^hfs time J at present I am too unsettled /or it* The very identical
words of thy epistle I profess. Thy Nancy, I hope, has either given
up the business of nursing, or is more able to support the fatigue of it*
Every thing good attend you both, and young lulus '.
Yours sincerely and affectionately,
CoLSTERWORTH, January a;, 1759.
R. Radcliffe to J. James, Senior, and Mrs. James.
September 22nd, 1759.
My Good Friends,
Though this letter is directed to the revived Mr. James, it is
principally intended for you. Madam, in answer to the humorous and
obliging epistle with which you lately favoured me. The procrastinat-
ing temper of my friend I know so well, that I am not easily surprized
at any of its effects ; yet a seven mpnths silence was so deadly abomin-
* John Wameford, C. C.C., B.A. May 9, 1739 ; M.A. March 2, 174a ; B.D. Jnne
4, 175a ; Camden Professor of Ancient History, i76i-i773,to which office he was
* Mr. G. M. May, Churchwarden of Stanford Dingley, says that the name Phil.
Sayer, Rector, occurs in the receipt and expenditure book of the Churchwardens for
1737, 40, 41, 4a, and that the accounts for 1769-70 are signed B. Walker, Rector
(perhaps Benjamin Walker of All Souls, B.A. 1750, M.A. 1754). No record of
Mr. James* connexion with the parish occurs in the book. James Bomell or
Burnett was curate in 1757-59. A Philip Sayer was curate of Silchester, Hants,
' Mr. James* eldest son Thomas, horn July 31, 1758. The reference is of course
to ' parvus lulus,' Aeneas' son.
l6 LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES, [1759.
able, that I thought no man alive could have been guilty of it. How-
ever, let his offence be never so great, you have been so kind as to
make ample amends for it ; and I see an advantage that married men
have, which I was not before aware of. I wish he may long enjoy
that advantage, for there is not a person that has oftner occasion
It will be needless, I hope, to assure you that I should be ready and
glad to assist the poor psedagogue to the utmost of my power, and that
all my sticks (both hazel wands and substantial oaks) are entirely at
his service, only I think the distance and danger rather too great
for carrying on a trade of that nature. I really don't say this by way
of excuse, for I could spare 20 or 30 for half a year, without any in-
convenience to myself. Besides, as he has subsisted for two years, he
is able to subsist fifty times two.
Last week I returned from a ramble into Derbyshire, where I had
spent a fortnight with a couple of old acquaintance. That part of the
county which is called the Peak, has seven things curious and remark-
able in it, commonly known by the name of the seven wonders, I had
only an opportunity of seeing two of them, viz. the romantick scenes
about Matlock, and the celebrated water-works at the Duke of Devon-
shire's. The first may, perhaps, be surprizing to a south country
man, but were not at all so to me, as they are equalled and exceeded
by a hundred places about Keswick. But the j^^^«</ were very astonish-
ing indeed ; at least, I never saw anjrthing that can bear a comparison
with them. Halton ^ and Denton, whom I went to visit, are both actual
fellows, and Lowthian and Monkhouse, for whom there are vacancies,
elect. The gentleman' who is quidding' and staring at Smyrna, stands
first in the list of masters, and close at his heels comes the poor parson
^ Miles Halton, entered Batler 1739; matriculated Oct. 16, aet. 15, * son o
Timothy, of Graystock, com, Cumb. Pleb.' (Chester); B.A. 1744; M.A. 1748;
elected Fellow 1758, and was presented to the livings of Church Oakley and S.
Cross, Southampton, in 1773. He vacated his preferment in 1792.
* Philip Brown, entered Batler 1743; matriculated Oct. ai, set. 17, 'Joliis
fil. de Millom. com. Cumb. Pleb. fil.' ; B.A. 1748; M.A. 1751 ; and was
elected Fellow 1762. In the list of Fellows he is described as 'Mercat' apud
Smymam e sacris dein Vicar* apud Sparsholt.' (For the Chaplaincy of the
Levant Co., see Chaplaincy to the Levant Company y by J. B. Pearson, D.D.,
Cambridge.) He was presented to Sparsholt, 1769, and died at the end of 1798 or
beginning of 1799. Not to be confounded with the Rector of Bletchingdon of the
same name, above p. 2, n. 6.
' Dr. Murray is unable to give any instance of the use of * quidding.' He
suggests it is probably a nonce-word connected with quidnunc, tiien commonly
used for an inquisitive person.
1769.] LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES, 17
of Colsterworth. Hodgson sends me word that the appearance at the
late installation* was very magnificent and brilliant. The first epithet,
he says, belongs to the gentlemen, the second to the ladies. He's
obliged to be thus particular, because people in Lincolnshire Fens can-
not be supposed to understand the beauty and propriety of language.
Clark* is chosen Geometrical Professor of Gresham College'; the
place is quite a sine-cure, and worth about sixty pounds per annum.
It is unfortunately clogged with a very severe condition, not being
tenable (alas !) with the greatest of earthly blessings, you will easily
suppose I mean a wife. I wait with impatience for an account of
the Olive; especially since I saw in the papers that some of the
transports in St. Lawrence's River had been driven ashore and
wrecked *. The names in this letter that you are not acquainted with,
will be explained with pleasure by old Busby. If he has not paid
you the six-pences, abuse him by the hour in my name. I hope your
youngster is quite recovered, and will live to copy after his parents.
All happiness attend you both.
Yours sincerely and affectionately,
* The installation of Lord Westmoreland and the proceedings of the Encgenia
lasted from Tuesday July 3, 1759, to Saturday, July 7. In the Gentleman's Maga-
zine it is described as *■ the most numerous and brilliant assembly of persons of
quality and distinction that had ever been seen there on any occasion.' See also
Green's Oxford during the Last Century, Old Series, ii. 7.
* Wilford or Wilfrid Clark or Clarke, entered Batler 1743 ; matriculated Jan.
27, set 16, *Wilf. fil. de Wigton, com. Cumb. Pleb. fil.' j B.A. 1747; M.A. 1751 ;
Chaplain to Thomas Rawlinson, Esq., Lord Mayor of London, 1753 ; published a,
Sermon preached before the Lord Mayor, &c., at St. Paul's, Jan. 30, 1754;
elected Lecturer in Geometry, in Gresham College, 28 Aug., 1759; resigned in
Feb., 1765, on being married. (J. Watney, Esq.; Clerk to Mercer's Company.)
* For Gresham College, see Dean Burgon's Life of Sir Thomas Gresham, vol. ii.
especially pp. 437 (where there is a view of the College reduced from Vertue's plate
in Ward) and 516 sqq. : * The Geometrician was to read every Thursday in Trinity
Term Arithmetique, in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms Theorical Geometry, and in
Easter Term Practical Geometry.' See also Ward's Lives of the Professors of
Gresham College, which however ends before Clark's time. Among Clark's
predecessors were Briggs, the inventor of Logarithms, Isaac Barrow and Robert
flooke. The value is now ^^00 and the celibate restriction is abolished.
* In a letter from Admiral Saunders of Sept. 5, 1759 (Gent. Mag. 29. 470),
he says : ' Directly after landing the troops,' on the Isle of Orleans, on June 26, ' a
very heavy gale of wind came on, by which many anchors and small boats were
lost and much damage received among the transports by driving on board each
other.' In the same letter, he says he has sent to Boston ' 27 sail of American
transports, those which received most damage in the gale of the 27th of June.'
Saunders commanded the fleet that landed Wolfe at Quebec,
1 8 LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. [1760.
R. Radcliffe to J. James, Senior.
Hy dear Friend,
I perceive by the date of thy last letter, that it is almost two
months since it came to hand ; and yet I declare upon my honour,
I made a resolution to answer it immediately: why that resolution
was not put in practice, I would not advise thee to ask; because
I cannot tell thee. When the bearer of it arrived at Colsterworth,
I happened to be puffing at a neighbouring parson's ; and though I
returned very early the next morning, the bird had taken its flight
towards the banks of Cam. By this means I missed the opportunity
of seeing the man who had seen thee, and asking a hundred thousand
questions. The titles of ungenieel, unreasonable ^ unconscionable y which
directly or indirectly thou bestowest upon me, I defy and despise ;
because I don't deserve them. But perhaps this is a point, that will
not bear examination on either side; proceed we therefore to other
I had actually and positively wrote thus far, when lo I a second
epistle was brought me. I am now quite ashamed of myself, and
sorry to find that the affair is grown so serious. I dare say, no
offence has been intended or taken on either side; and therefore
let us banish this subject, and resolve to write to each other as often
as is convenient.
To Queen's and all its transactions I am an utter stranger, having
heard nothing fi-om it or of it these four months. When the second
vacancy happens, an acquaintance of thine will hope to reap the
benefit of it ; and may possibly be induced thereby to take a journey
into Cumberland ; not by way of ostentation, but because he will then
be provided with proper viaticum. The account thou gave me of
Docker, though very unaccountable, did not surprise me much : it
only convinced me, that he is still the same; thoughtless and in-
considerate, and resolved, if possible, to ruin himself. But what shall
I say about our great man at Queen's * ? This I can safely say, that
* Probably the Provost, Joseph Brown, entered Batler, March 2a, 17 15 (O. S.) ;
matriculated March 24, set. 15, * Georg. fil. New Church, com. Cnmb. Pleb. fil.' ;
B.A., May 2, 1721 ; M.A., Nov. 4, 1724; Fellow, April i, 1731 ; B.D.,
Nov. 12, 1737; D.D., July 9, 1743; Rector of Bramshott, Prebendary of
Hereford, 1746; Canon Residentiary and Chancellor of Hereford, 1752. He was
Sedleian Professor, 1 741-1767 ; was elected Provost, Dec. 3, 1756, and held
the office of Vice-Chancellor from 1759 to 1765. He died July 7, 1767.
1700.] LETTERS OF RADCLIFFE AND JAMES. 19
when I was in Oxford last Christmas, both old and young almost
adored him. I feel for and pity the younkers most heartily, having
formerly myself received some favours of the same kind from the same