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A GLIMPSE OF THE
BUSINESS AND RESOURCES
BY jAt^ DODGE
NASHUA, N. TI. :
PUBLISHED BY DODGE & N0YE3.
To business men, absorbed in their own concerns,
and habitually engaged in a tread-mill round of
duties, it is sometimes refreshing to extend the circle
of thought and observation, and especially interest- '
ing is it to practical men, to survey the intricate and
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curious machinery by which the Ivorld is growing
wiser, better and wealthier. So intent is the busi-
ness man of to-day upon the pursuit of his oWn,
that he scarcely knows how the gieat world is surg-
ing on by his side. "With these ideas in his mini,*
the compiler imagined that others might feel to some
extent the same interest which he attaches to a faith-
ful daguerreotyping of Old Hillsborough, in her so-
cial, physical, educational and moral relations. How
successfully it has been accomplished, in much haste,
amid other pressing duties, is left with the clemency
and just judgment of the public for decision.
August, 1853. .J, R. 1),
.. HILLSBORO' C'^U^Tf EE€OEI).
OUR COUNTY .'—ITS ORIGIN AND PROGRESS.
One hundred years ago the settlements in the ter^
ritory now known as Hillsborough were seaMily
peopled, though some of them had been occupied by^
a few hardy settlers for a considerable length of
timcj the first grants of land to individuals having
been made two centuries since. The old township of
Dunstable, comprising the present towns of Nashua^
Nashville, Ilollis, Hudson, Litchfield, and Merri-
mackj were settled early j New Ipswich and Peter-
borough, one century agOj were attractive settle-
ments j Bedford and Amherst, known as Souhegan
East and Souhegan West, with New Boston, and
SocieEy Land, or the Masonian Proprietors' Lands,
including Antrim, Hancock, Bennington, Deering,
and parts of Francestown and Greenfield, complete
^the list of the most prominent settlements. The
population of this territory was but a moiety of the
Its soil is light and sterile, compared with the fer-
tility of other sections of the country ; the southern
portion is especially sandy and unproductive, a stint-?-^
4 HILLSBOROUGH COTJXTY.
ed pine being mainly the original growth ; the
northern and western portions have generally a *
stronger and deeper soil, of sandy loam, or clay,
yielding with assiduous labor good crops of corn, po-
tatoes, and most of the cereal grains. The north of
the County is particularly adapted to the growth of
Xyheat, and the south to the culture of rye. Much
attention has recently been given, in the vicinity of
large towns, to the cultivation of garden vegetables
and fruit, and the production of milk, which is al-
ready proving a source of much profit. The notion
that the fruit market may be easily glutted is wear-
ing away, as people are just beginning to discover its
value and indispensable necessity as an article of
food, and to learn that its present demand is but a
tithe of what it will be when its price shall bo a
Its rock is principally granite, of various textures ^
and qualities, some of it superior for building pur-
poses. Its growth is various, consisting of several
kinds of pine, oak and birch, with hemlock, spruce,
maple, beech, chestnut, cedar, walnut, elm, ash, and
a number of other less common kinds.
Whatever poverty of soil Hillsborough may pos-
sess, scarcely a County in the union can be richer in
natural manufacturing resources. The Merrimack ^r,
at Manchester alone, affords fticilities scarcely infe-
rior to those at Lowell, Avhile at Goff 's Falls and
other j)laces arc unoccupied privileges of more or
less value. The Nashua runs 50,000 cotton spindles,
Vfith much other machinery. The Souhcgan, flow- j
niLLSBOKOUGH COUXTY. d
ing from the south-Tre?tern border through the cen-
tre of the County, has valuable pri"ileges at alniost
every mile. The Contoocooiz turns many a mill in
Peterborough, as Trell as in manufacturing villages
in Merrimack County. The Piscataquog, rising in
the centre of the County, makes itself useful in all
its course through Xew Boston, GofFstown and Bed-
ford. Xumerous tributaries of these main streams,
cveryvrhere leaping from the hills, turn hundreds of
wheels, and add to the general prosperity. There
were in the County, in 1850, 379 manufacturing es-
tablishments producing more than $500 each yearly.
The value of factories and machinery was $3,680,-
275 ; of mills and carding machines, $159,436. The
importance of m-anufacttires may be gleaned from
the fact that the population has increased more than
33 per cent, in the last ten years, mainly through
manufacturing ; and the value of landed estate in
It may be interesting to note a few of the general
statistics of valuation, based upon the official returns
of 1852. The value of land is $12,500,599, equal
to the government price of 10,000,471 acres of wild
land, or 15,625 square miles, or a territory nearly
twice as large as the whole State ; the value of
horses, $352,144, 6,254 in number, averaging $56-
4G each ; neat stock, $715,413, 31,507 in number,
averaging $22 71 ; sheep, $37,042, 18,123 in num-
ber, averaging $2 04 ; carriages, $37,700 ; corpo-
ration stocks, $704,668 ; money taxed, $993,226 ;
stock in trade, $1,342,068 ; locks and canals, $203,-
6 HILLSBOROUGH COUXIY.
1)00 ; total of inventories exclusive of railroad?,
$23,709,611 ; railroad property, $1,582,509. Were
this equally divided, each man, woman and child in
the County would be taxed for S:435 — probably fully
equal to the average for the whole United States,
This County can boast many names distinguished
in their country's history, names that have adorned
the halls of State and shed glory upon the field, —
such as Gen. Stark, the hero of Bennington — Gen.
JVIiller, whose "I'll try, sir," is immortal — the valiant
Mc'Neil — Matthew Thornton, a gigner of the Great
Declaration — Franklin Pierce, our popular President,
with many others that might be named.
Within the past ten years much has been done for
the advancement of popular education in the County,
A healthier public sentiment and a better apprecia-
tion of the best means of improvement are now in
existence ; better teachers are employed and better
pay given ; school houses have been improved, and
High Schools instituted. A High School house has
just been finished in Nashua, in a rich style of archi-
tecture, and in an admirable location, whieli will bo
inferior, in no respect, to any school house in the
State. Its cost is about $13,000. A good High
School is in progress in Manchester, another in
XashTille ; and Amherst is abo\it to institute another.
Also, Milford and Pelham.
There are many good Academies and Select Schools^
which will be noticed under another head. Promi-
nent among these, in value of instruction and ex-
tent of patronage, are the Merrimack Normal In-
stitute, the New Ipswich Appleton Academy, the
Appleton Academy at Mont Yernon, and the Fran-
Doubtless much is owed, likewise, to the Hills-
borough County Teacher's Institute, formerly sus-
tained by a distinct organization, but now managed
by thfe County School Commissioner. The office of
School Commissioner, when intrusted to suitable
hands^ is a valuable auxiliary in the work of true
educational progress. The present Commissioner is
Rev. Solomon Laws, a gentleman well qualified to
^ advance the interests of education.
The report of the Board of Educatiou for 1853
shows a general increase in the wages jDaid to teach-
ers, and a larger proportion of female teachers em-
ployed. During the past year eight school-houses
were built in the County. In the schools of last
winter were nearly as many female teachers as males
— 1 82 females, 185 males. In the summer schools
were only eight male teachers. Bedford, Frances-
town, Gofi"stown, Hudson, Lyndeborough, Mont Ver-
non, New Ipswich, New Boston, Weare, and Wilton,
have local school funds, Weare the largest, amount-
ing last year to S502l 23. Weare also contributed
most in board and fuel. 3 1 g districts reported.
i. GRADFATED TABLE.
Showing the rank of each town in common school'^
expenditure, and the amount raised by taxes, whole
amount appropriated to each scholar, and the num-
ber of scholar*; in each, according to the returns of
JVIont Vern ^n,
• 1 63
116 5090 1025 191 223 13 32 9
The table upon the preceding page is from the
report of our recent School Commissioner, Lewis C . ^
Browne, and shows the present state of the schools
examined with regard to important furniture and
New Ipswich Appletox Academy. — Incorporated
in 1789. This was the second Academy in the State,
Phillips' Academy at Exeter being the first.
Trustees, Samuel Lee, New Ipswich, (Prrs.) A.
W. Burnham, Rindge ; Josiah Ballard, John JPres-
ton, Stephen Thayer, (xeo. Barrett, ^\^ W. Johnson,
New Ipswich ; Nathaniel Kingsbury, Temple ; A.
A. Gould, Boston ; Jeremiah Smith, New Ipswich,
E. T. Quimby, A. B . Principal.
Appleton Acabemy, Mont Yernon. — Incorporated
in 1849. A new house is in process of erection.
Trustees, Nathaniel Bruce, (Pres.) Wm. Conant,
J. A. Starrett, John Bruce, F. 0. Kittredge, Thos.
Cloutman, Matthew (>. Botch.
Secretary, S. G. Dearborn.
Treasurer, Wm. A. Stinson.
George Stevens, A. B., Principal.
Mrs. Abby Jaquith, Preceptress.
Merrimack Normal Institttte. — This institu-
tion was started and for some time superintended by
Prof. Russell. Its present Principal is Harry Brick-
ctt, A. M., with whom is associated Mrs. Brickett
and several other able teachers.
MiLFORu Femalr Seminaut. — Trustees, Joteph
Crosby, Frederick Crosby, Robert. Knights, d. W.
Geo. Dustin, A. B., Principal.
Fkancestowx Academy. —
Trustees, Wm. Bixby, (Pres.) L. Taylor, Paul
11. Bixby, Jesse AYoodbury, Thomas B. Bradford,
Secretary, Israel Batchelder.
Treasurer, Samuel D. Downcs. •
Henry E. Sawyer, A. B., Principal.
Miss H. A. Bouton, Preceptress.
Peterbouougii Academy. — Incorporated in 1836.
Trustees, Albert Smith, E. B. Cutter, E. S. Cutter.
AVoQYi S. Scott, Principal.
Nashua Literary Ixstitution. — Incorporated in
1840. The Board of Trustees consists of twenty.
David Crogby, A. M., Principal.
Miss Julia Ann Hunton, Assistant.
PiscATAQUoG VILLAGE AcADEMT. — Incorporated
in 1849. "\Vm. P. Riddle, President. Jonas B. Bow-
Deerixg Academy. — Incorporated in 1851.
Trus-tees, Wm. Manahan, Herod Chase, John Wil-
kins, S. S. Clement, Wm. P. Gale, Daniel F. Frye,
John 11. Goodale, Bartlett Simons, Horace Gove.
Haxcock Academy. — This institution is at pr'
ent under the direction of J. C. Kimball, as P dncipM.
la «ONG. COUNTY CONFERENCE.
COUNTY CONFEREXCE OF CONGREGATIONAL
AND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES..
In this association are tliirty-six churches, of
which the smallest is that in Litchfield, and the
largest that of Rev. Mr. March in Nashua, the First
Congregational. Their members [number about 5,-
700, their congregations about 20,000 ; their Sab-
bath Schools hare 6,000 scholars, with three hundred
teachers, and libraries containing about 12,000 vol-
umes. The following is a record of their benevolent
■contributions for the past year :
Greenfield Cong. Ch.,
" Evan. "
.^.ii.cii;.sti.'r, ist. Church,
" Franklin bt..
Nashua, 1st Church,
COXG. COUNTY COXffERENCE. 13
in Nashua, Olive St.
" New Boston,
" New Ipswich, Ist.
" " " 2d,
MILFORD BAPTIST ASSOCIATION.
This religious organization, embracing the Baptist
Churches in a portion of the towns of the county,
numbered, at the last annual report, 10 Churches, 11
Pastors, 17 ordained Ministers, and 1 Licentiate,
with an aggregate of 1913 members. Below we give
the cash receipts for missionary and other charitable
purposes, from the several towns :
Church in Amherst, $37 57
" " Bedford, 11 00
" '•' (^offstown, 66 75
" " Hudson, 125 16
" " Hollis, 12 50
" " Londonderry, 15 00
" Milford, 175 43
" « Mason, 38 80
" 1st '•' Manchester, 227 25
" 'Id " " 78 41
" " New Ipswich, 30 85
" " New Boston, 59 0'
" Nashua, 782 \
" Wilton, 48
Collections for ^Vidows' and Orphans' Fund, 7
Supreme Court. — There is no Justice of this Court
resident in the Count}'. A Clerk is .appointed for
each County respectively. For Hillsborough County,
Perley Dodge, of Amherst.
Circuit Court. — One of the Circuit Justices, Geo.
Y. Sawyer, is resident in the County, at Nashua.
Cotirt of Commo7i Pleas. — In this Court the Chief
Justice, or one of the Associate Justices of the Su-
perior Court, or one of the Circuit Justices of the
Court of Common Pleas presides, and one or both of
the County Justices as Associates. At the trial of
capital cases, two Justices of the Superior Court, or
two of the Circuit Justices, or one Justice of the
Superior Court and one of the Circuit Justices, are
required to be present.
County Justices, William Parker, Franeestowi
Martin Heald, Temple.
This official receives $3 per day during the session
of the court for services, and ten cents per mile to
find from the place of session.
County Solicitor, Samuel H. Ayer, of Manchester.
Terms at Amherst, 3d Tuesday in April ; Man
Chester, 4th Tuesday in October.
Probate Cmirt. — For Hillsborough County, W. C.
Clarke, Manchester, Judge ; Geo. W. Moor, Am
Its terms are as follows :
Amherst, on the first Tuesday of every month.
Francestown, on the AVednesday next following
the first Tuesday of January, ,Vpril, July and Oc
Xashua, on the AVednesday next after the firsl
Tuesday of December and February.
Temple, on the AA'ednesday next after the firs<
Tuesday of May and August.
Manchester, on the AVednesda,y after the first Tues-
day of March, June, September and Xovember.
Amoskeag Baxk, Manchester. Capital, $150,000.
President, John S. Kidder. Cash^r, Moody Currier.
Directors, John S. Kidder, Mace Moulton, Isaac
C. Flanders, E, A. Straw, Herman Foster, R. I).
Mooers. Riifus Baker, Book Keeper.
Discount Day, Monday.
Bills in circulation, 139,900,00
Debts due, $309,001,65
Bills of other Banks, 2,400,00
Due from other Banks, 20,342,34
Excess of means over liabilities, 11,094,49
Francestown Baxk, Francestown. Capital, $60,000.
President, Daniel Fuller. Cashier, Paul H. Bixby.
Directors, Daniel FuUei', William Bixby, Mark
Morse, Herbert Yose, Thomas B.^, Bradford, Israel
Batchelder, John Aikin.
Discount Day, Monday.
Bills in circulation, 58,667,00
Debts due, $124,276,57
Bills of other Banks, 41,00
Due from other Banks, 12,431,46
Excess of means over liabilities, $3,433,43
Indian- Head Bank, Nashville. Capital, $100,000.
President, "William D. Beasom. Cashier, Albert
Directors, W. D. Beasom, John H. Gage, Francis
Winch, Robert Read, John Reed, J. G. Graves, E.
Discount Day, Monday.
Bills in circulation, 100,000,00
Debts due, $211,619,61
Bills of other Banks. 4,054,00
Due from other Ba^nks, 25,665,38
Excp3s of means over liabilities, $11 ,982,00
Manchester Bank, Manchester. Capital, $125,000.
President, James U. Parker. Cashier, Nathan
Directors, J. V. Parker, D. A. Bunton, J. T. P.
Hunt, I. Riddle, G. ^Y. Pinkerton, Daniel Watts,
Discount Day, Monday.
Bills in circulation, 124,226,00
Debts due, $248,2?2,26
Bills of other Banks, 2,342,00
Due from other Banks, 42,340,84
Excess of means over liibilities, $8,222,72
Nashua Bank, Nashua. Capital, $125,000.
President, Isaac Spalding. Cashier, John M. Hunt.
Directors, Isaac Spalding, Jesse Bowers, Zebediah
Shattuck, James Pierce, Ebenezer Dearborn, Clark
C. Boutwell, Perley Dodge.
Discount Day, Monday.
BiUs in circulation, 123,688,00
Debts duo, $263,063,06
Bills of other Banks, 5,021,00
Due from other Bank.s 6,000,5S
Excess of means over liabilities, $18, 574, 20
New Ipswich Baxk, Xew Ipswich. Cap'l, $100,000.
President, Jonas M. Melville, Cashier, George
Directors, J. Minot Melville, Josiah Henry Mel-
ville, James Chandler, Stephen Wheeler, Lucius A.
Elliot, James W. Bliss, Stilman Gibson.
Discount Day, every day but Saturday and the
Bills in circulation, 90,977,00
Debts due, $108,246,69
Bills of other Banks, 1,407,00
Due from other ]5anks, 25,120,28
Excess of means over liabilities, ' $2,617,40
JNIaxchester Savings Baxic, Manchester.
Sec. and Trens. Nathan Parker.
Amount of Deposits, ^80,000.
Amoskeag Savings Bank, Manchester.
President, .Mace Moulton. Treas^r, Moody Currier.
Amount of Deposits, 68,000.
New Ipswich Savings Bank, New Ipswich.
Preset, Jeremiah Smith. Trtas'r, Jolin Proston.
Amount of Depoi?its, $30,000.
Nashua & Lowell Railroad. — Incorporated
ine 23, 1835 ; length 15 miles ; opened to Nashua
Jt, 8, 1838. Stations at Edgeville, Little's, Tyngs-
•rough, N. Chelmsford, and Middlesex. Fare 40
nts. Capital, $600,000.
Directors, Robert Read, Nashville, (Prcs.) Jesse
owers, Nashua ; William Amory, Boston ; F. B.
•owingshield, Boston ; "Wm. P. Abbott, Nashville.
Superintendent, Geo. Stark. Clerk, Abraham Mitch-
1. Treasurer, Chas. E. Merrill. Transportation
[aster, Harrison Hobson.
CoxcoRD Railroad. — Incorporated June 2Tth,
535 ; length, 35 miles ; opened to Concord Sept.
1842. Stations at Thornton's Ferry, Reed's Fer-
Goifs's Falls, Manchester, Amoskeag, Martin's
erry, Hooksett, Robinson's Ferry. Fare from
ashua to Concord, 90 cents. Capital, $1,485,000.
Directors, Isaac Spalding, Nashua, (Pres.) Josiah
:ifkney, Boston ; Charles H. Peaslee, Concord ;
ricl Crocker, Boston ; Francis C. Manning, Bos-
in ; John S. Kidder, Manchester ; A. C. Pierce,
Superintendent, N. G. Upham. Treasurer, N. P.
overing. Clerk, John H. George. Transiwrtation
[antcr, J. A. AVeston.
AVoKCESTER & Nashua Railroad. — Incorporated
[arch 5, 1845 ; Groton and Nashua, Dec. 24, 1844 ;
toads united June 2G, 1845 ; length 44 miles. Fare
|l,25. Capital, $1,500,000. Stations at Hollis,
pperill, Croton Centre, Groton Junction, Harvard,
till River, Lancaster, S. Lancaster, Clintoa, Ster-
fig, Oakdale and West Boylston.
Directors, Alexander DeAVitt, ( Pres.) Oxford ;
tephen Salisbui-y, AA^orcester ; Jacob Fisher, Lan-
ister ; Thomas Chase, Nashua ; George T. Rice,
orccster ; George Bowen, AA'orcester ; Seth AV.
owle, Boston ; A. E. Hildreth, Groton ; F, H.
WiLTOx Railroad. — Incorporated Dec. 28, 1844
opened to Danforth's Corner, in Xov. 1848 ; openec
to E. Wilton in Dec. 1851. Length 15 l-'i miles
Fare 50 cents. Capital, $227,000. Stations at S
Merrimack, Danforth's Corner, Milford. The roac
is leased by the X, & L.
Directors, Daniel Abbot, (Pres.) Joseph Gi-eeley
Clark C. Boutwell, Wm. Eamsdell, David Whiting
Zebediah Shattuck, John Reed.
Maxchester & Lawrexce Railroad. — Ineorpo
rated 1847. This road is in confederacy vrith th'
Concord, Nashua & Lowell, Boston <fe Lowell, an<
Boston & Maine roads. Stations at Londonden
Derry, Windham, Salem and Methuen.
Directors, George H. Dodge, (Pres.) Hampto;
Falls ; Mark Ilealy, Boston ; E. J. M. Halo, "Jia
verhill ; Edward Crane, Boston ; Benj. Eastn
Derry ; Joseph Low, Concord ; D. A. Bunton^ Man
CoxTOOcooK Yallev Railroat). — Incorporate
1S49.— Capital, $200,000. Length U 1-2 mile.'
No dr\ndcnds. From Hillsbcro' Bridge to Contoc
cookvillc. Stations at West Henniker, Hennikc
and V.'est ilopkinton.
Directors, Matthew Harvey, (Pres.) Dayid Steek
Jrbmes Boyd, John Aiken, John G. Fuller, Cyr
Barton and John Whipple.
Treasurer, James N. Sargent.
Clerk, J. A. Potter.
SuperintendQnt , Joseph A Oilmore.
N. 11. Cextral Railroad. — Incorporated 184