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HISTORY



ALLEGHENY COUNTY



PENNSYLVANIA.



INCLUDING



ITS EARLY SETTLEMENT AND FROGEESS TO THE PRESENT TIME; A DESCRIPTION

OF ITS HISTORIC AND INTERESTING LOCALITIES; ITS CITIES, TOWNS AND

VILLAGES; RELIGIOUS, EDUCATIONAL, SOCIAL AND MILITARY HISTORY ;

MINING, MANUFACTURING AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS ;

IMPROVEMENTS, RESOURCES, STATISTICS, ETC.



PORTRAITS OF SOME OF ITS PROMINENT MEN, AND BIOGRAPHIES OF MANY
OF ITS REPRESENTATIVE CITIZENS.



IN TA\^0 PARTS.




CHICAGO, ill:

A. WARNER & CO., Publishers,



r/^7



Copyright 1889, by A. Warner & Co.



CHICAGO. ILl



PREFACE.



THE story of the struggle for empire in the Mississippi valley, stretching
away from the line of the Alleghanies to the farthest summits of the Rocky
mountains, which had its rallying point and termination at Fort Duquesne, has
often been told in a more or less fragmentary way. In view of the local impor-
tance of this event it has been thought proper by the f>ublishers of this work to
give it here complete, making brief statements of the parts which, fi'om frequent
repetition, have become hackneyed, and giving with more fullness of detail the
other portions.

The controversy between Pennsylvania and Virginia, inaugurated by the
Ohio Company under charter of the British Parliament — the uncertain track of
the southern line of the state — the long and wasting wars with the natives of the
forest, luminous with deeds of savagery novel even in a barbarous age — the part
taken by the bounty in the revolutionary war, the war of 1812, the Mexican,
and the recent civil war — the material resources in soil and mineral treasures —
the vast manufacturing interests — the tonnage upon river and rail — the hand
which the county has shown in state and national policy — the educational and
religious interests of its people — and its eleemosynary institutions, have all been
treated with the care and fullness of detail which the plan of the work would
allow.

The plan was settled and work begun in the spring of 1887, and has been
carried to completion by the following-named corps of writers:

Dr. Thomas Cushingi, of Barre Centre, N. Y. , general supervisor, and writer
of Chapters X, XII, XVII, XXXVII, and parts of XXXIV and XXXVI.

A. A. Lambing, LL. D. , Chapters I to VIII inclusive.

Hon. Russell Ereett, Chapters IX, XIII, XIV, from XIX to XXXIII
inclusive, and parts of XXXIV and XXXVI.

Mr. R. H. Kelley, Se. , of Verona, Pa. , Chapter XI.

Rev. W. J. Holland, Ph. D. , History of the Presbyterian, Reformed Pres-
byterian, Cumberland Presbyterian and Reformed (German) Churches.



IV PUEFACE.

Ukv. J. C. Boyd, D. D., the United Prosbytcrinii Chinch.

Rev. M. Byllesby, the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Rev. C. W. Smith, D. D., the Methodist Churcli.

Rev. B. F. Wooi>bui!N. D. D., the Bapti.st Cliurch.

Rev. W. F. Cowden, the Disciph^s of Christ.

Rev. a. a. Lambing, LL. D., the Catholic Church.

Prof. T. J. Vandergrift, Chapter XVIII, with diagiam.

George J. Luckev, A. M., first part of Chapter XXXV.

John Morrow, M. S., last part of Chapter XXXV.

Mr. H. C. Bei.l, of Waynesburg, Pa., township and borough histories.

Acknowledgments are due to the Hon. John Harper, and N. B. Hooo,
Esq. — to the secretary of the board of trade for courtesies extended — to Messrs.
Snowden & Peterson for use of cuts — to the public press of Pittsburgh, the
Gazette, the Chronicle, the Post and the Dispatch, and other of the daily and
weekly issues for access to their files — to the Pittsburgh Library association for
the use of its historical collections — to the officers and teachers in the various lit-
erary institutions, the officers of the benevolent and charitable institutions, and
to the many intelligent citizens throughout the county for the valuable aid which
they gave to the writers.

The part devoted to biography and genealogy includes representatives of
nearly every important calling in the country. The large number of sketches
necessitated brevity of treatment. They were submitted for correction before
printing, and constitute an interesting portion of the work, which will increase in
value with the lapse of time.

Trusting that it may prove satisfactory to the citizens of the county, it is
submitted to their considerate judgment.

THE PUBLISHERS.



CONTEJSTTS.



PART L



CHAPTER I.— Eakliest Times to the
French War. — Aborigines and Pioneers —
Indian Villages and Trails — Royal Land Pat-
ents — Adventurers — Land Companies — In-
dian Treaties — Forts — Settlements 9-33

CHAPTER II. — Contest for the Ohio Val-
ley. — War-Clouds — French and Eujjlisli
Claims — Defeat of the Colonial Forces — Gen.
Braddock's Defeat — Gen. Forhes' Operations
— Destruction of Fort Duquesne — End of
French Rule in Pennsylvania 23- 4i

CHAPTER in.— Ali.eohext from 1759 to
1779.— The Fourth Treaty— Fort Pitt— Con-
centration of Forces — Chief Pontiac — The
Shawanese and Delawares — Advent of Set-
tlers-Land Sales 45-61

CHAPTER rV'.— The Boundary Dispi te.—
Territory Grants— The Ohio Company— Earl
of Duumore — Subdi\isious of Virginia and
the Disputed Territory- Dr. John Connolly
— Fort Pitt the Bone of Contention — The
Manor of Kittanning — Mason and Dixon
61-74

CHAPTER v.— The REvoLtTioxARY Period
— News of the Battle of Leximrton — Meetings
at Hannastown and Pittsburgh — Fort Pitt in
the Struggle — Gen. Hand — Gen. Mcintosh —
Regiments Ordered to Fort Pitt — Concentra-
tion of Storehouses at Fort Pitt— Fort Mc-
Int'ish — Fort Laurens 74- 91

CHAPTER VL— The Revoli tio.vary Period
(Co.vcn ded). — Fort Crawford — Fort Arm-
strong — Brodhead's Expedition — Capt. Isaac
Craig — Defeat of the Delawares — Col.
Clarke's Expedition — Internal Di-affiction
— Crawford's Expedition — His Fate — Indian
Attack on Hannastown and Miller's Station
91-109

CHAPTER Aai.— From 1784 TO the Erection-
op THE CorxTY. — Conflicting Claims — Penn-
sylvania's Last Treaty with the Natives —
"The New Purchase" — Settlements and
Land-Titles — Depreciation and Reservation
Lands — .\dministratioa of Justice — Court-
houses, Jails, etc. — Erection of County —
First County Officers, etc 109-122



CHAPTER VIIL— Pioneer Life. — High-
ways — Early Preaching — "Whisky Path" —
Homes of the Pioneers — Caravans — Taverns
— Scarcity of Mechanics — Primitive Mill.'' —
Sports, Weddings, etc.— Witches and Wiz-
ards — Religion and Education — Conclusion
12-i-149

CHAPTER IX.— The Whisky Ixsurrec-
Tiox. — Condition of Things in Western Penn-
sylvania in 1791 — Surplus Produci — Distil-
leries— Tax on Spirits— Public M.i-tiiigs—
Condition of Affairs from 1792 to 1794— The
Revolt — ^Arrival of Troops — Elcetion.s — Re-
trospect 149-1 73

CHAPTER X.— The War of 1812— Prelim-
inaries of the Struir^le — .\lle!^heny County
in the War— The Pittsburgh Blues— BriL'ade
of Militia at Pittsburgli— Rigging for Flur-
ry's Fleet 174-179

CHAPTER XL— Mexican- War.— Soldiers
from Allegheny Conntv — ^Siege of Vera Cruz
—Battle of Plan del "Rio— Capture of the
City of Mexico — Peace Proclaimed — Return
of the Troops— Losses 179-183

CHAPTER Xn.— War of the Rebellion.
— Regiments from Allegheny — Relief and
other Committees — Military Supplies — The
1863 "Scare" — Defense of Pittj-burgh-
SkeUhcs of RcgimenU li*4-323

CH-\PTER XIIL— Politics— Early Elec-
tions — Gallatin and Brackenridge — Party
Politics — Volunteer Candidat«.s — The Jones
and Po.stlethwaite Contest — The Slavery
Question — The Anti-Masonic Party — Elec-
tion Returns 323-341

CHAPTER XIV— Bench and Bar.— Early
Courts — Judicial Officers — Stocks and Pil-
lory — William Penn's "Peacemakers" — Cir-
cuit and Judicial Districts — The Bench — The
Bar 341-280

CH.\PTER XV.— Churches. — Presbyt»?rian
— United Presbyterian — Reformed Presbyte-
rian— ^Cumberland Presbyterian — Reformed
(German) 380-329



Vi



COKfEKTS.



CIIAP'I'KK .\\1.— I'm liciiKs (CciNTi.rnET.).
— I'rnlrstiuil Ki,iM..|,;il-K..nn:ili..ii ..f tin-
Diocsc (if I'ittsl.urL'li-.M'tlinilist Epis.MiiKil
—Till- Bunk Dtpusiliiry— licniiim Cciii'Trga-
tiou— Luthuruu— Baptist^Disciples of Christ
— t'litliulie-Tjcwish Congregation 339-411

CHMTEK XVII.— Tiiii-K' TssTiTrTioxs.—
Tli(M,l,..M,;il S.-iiiirKirifs— IVuf ;iih1 Dunil. In-
slitutiun— Wcslrni l',-iiiis,vlv:iiii;i Jlo^pitul—
Tli.^Couiilv lloiiK— \Vurkl.(m.-.c:uulI'Liiitrn-
tiary ." -"1^34

CHAPTER XVIIT.— (Jeoi.ooy axo Topog-

KAiMiY.— InlrDihi.tiirv— (■ohniiii:ir Sc^cticiii—
Tl.c- E:irUrs Crust— TIm- I'ittsUui -1. Bitumi-
uous Coal— IVtrdUuni ami Natural (ias—
Samlstoni-s, etc.— tieuural Toposrapliy. .-tio-ia-

CIIAPTER XIX.— The Centennial Cele-
BmTioN.— OUl and New County Buildings—
The Celebration— Object of the Parades-
Dedication of New Buildings— Civic and
Military Procession 427^.«

CHAPTER XX.— PiTTSBi'KGn.— Advantages
of the Site of Pittsburgh— McKee's Rocks
and "The Forks "— Eorts-Intlux of Settlers
— C<d. Campbell's Town— Early Growth of
Pittsburgh— Fort Pitt— Temperanceville—
The Pontiac Conspiracy— Siege of Fort Pitt
433-450

CH \PTER XXI. — PiTTSBUROH (CONTIN-

i;ed).— Pittsburgh from 1763 to 1768— Coal
Hill— Land-Claim Disinites— Tlie Manor of
Pittsburgh— Sale of Fort Pitt^Pittslnirgli in
and after the Revolution— The Penns' Sale
of Lands 4'>(M75

CHAPTER XXn.—PlTTSBUBGH(CONTINUED).

-Divesting the Penns of their Title— Sur-
vev of the Town of Pittsburgh— Vickroy's
I),-'po.Mtiun— The Town in 1786— Bracken-
rid^i's Description of It— Comments .. .476-509

CHAPTER XXIIL— PiTTSBUKGH and Alle-
gheny.— From 1786 to 17(M:.— Rcdemptioners
—Early Schools and Professions— Mail and
Postofiice Established- High Freights— Mar.
ket-Housc— Lotteries, etc.— F.>rniation of
Allegheny City — Chartering of Pittsburgh
as a Borough 510-533

CHAPTER XXIV.— PiTTSBiTRGH and Alle-
gheny (CoNTiNiEO). —Effect of Wayne's
Victorv — First (ilasshousc — Paper-mills-
Pittsburgh in 17Hli — Boat-buildiu^' — Oriiriuof
the Coal Trade- Pittsburuli from 1810 to
1830— In 1828— Mrs. Royall's Account of the
Place 53^-557

CHAPTER XXV.— PiTTsBiuGn and Alle-
gheny (CoNTixrEii).— Transjiortation—
Earliest Modes— First Stau'cs fr.im Pitts-
burgh — Canals — Railroads — Steamboats-
Bridges 557-.576

CHAPTER XXVI.— PiTTsniKGH and Alle-
gheny (CoNTiNi!Ei>).—Floods— Disappear-
ance of Smoky Island- Low Water— Fires-
Conflagration of 1845— Relief Appropria-
tions— 1.09ses 57ft-582



ClIAn'ER XXVIl— I'lTTsTU-non and AllS-
oiiF-.NV (CiiNTiM i:oi, — BaiiKinL.'— TbcPitts-
liuri;li Manufacturiim- (.mipanv— Insurance
—Manufactures ami Trade, 18<>1-13— Manu-
facturing Advantages of Pittsburgh — General
Business — Statistics .585-614

CHAPTER XXVITL— PiTTsniBon and Ai.le-

(iiiENY (Contixiedi. — Lost Indiistri's of
Pittsburgh — First Oil-Burings— Gaswclls—
Sources of Sujiply — .\rliliiial m. Natural
Gas — Decrease in the Amount of Coal Used
—Qualities of the Gas 014r-t!20

CHAPTER XXIX.— PiTTsniKGii and Alle-
gheny (Ciintixi;ed).— Pujiulatinii — Health
— W.alth — Water — Strc-ts— Debt- City
Boundaries- The Wards— Additions . . . .620-636

Chapter XXX.— Pittsburgh and Alle-
gheny (Continied). — Fire Department —
Its History— The Bucket Brigade— FireEn-
gines— The Paid Department — Police De-
partment — Its Growth in Numljcrs and Effi-
ciency : 636-047

CHAPTER XXXL— PiTTSBiKGH and Alle-
gheny fCoNTiNVED). — The Medical Profes-
sion — First and Other Early Pliysicians of
Pittsl)urLrb— -VUcuhcny Comity Medical So-
ciety — Medical Colleges — Homeopathic
Pliysicians and Hospital 648-653

CHAPTER XXXII.— Pittsburgh and Alle-
gheny (Continied). — The Press — The
Pittsliurgh Giuitte and Mr. Scull— Subse-
qent Newspapers — Contrast Between the
Press of 1786 and That of 1889 6>4-<Jt)0

CHAPTER XXXIII.— PiTTSBrROH and Al-
LEGHENY (Continced). — The Riots of 1877
— Origin of tlie Outbreak— Destruction of
Property and Loss of Life — Sympathy with
the Rioters— Outrages 6»i(>-(><K;

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Pittsburgh and Alle-
gheny (Continied). — Principal Officers of
Pittsburgh from its Incorporation — Princi-
pal Officers of Allegheny as Borough and
tity.... 666-669

CHAPTER XXXV.— Pittsburgh and Alle-
gheny (Continued). — Educational — Pitts-
burgh Public Schools— Private Schools—
Academy— Classical School— Allegheny Pub-
lie Schools— High-School 669-687

CHAPTER XXXVL— Pittsbuhoh and Alle-
gheny (Continued).— Public Institutions
— Literary Societies — Universities — Com-
mercial— Scientific — Military— Bcneliccnt—
Hospitals and Dispensaries 687-714

CHAPTER XXXVai.— Cemeteries.— Home-
wood Cemetery— Allegheny Cemetery . .717-730

CHAPTER XXXVIII. — McKeesport.— The
McKee Faniilv— Early History of McKees-
port- Original" Lot-Owners— The Place in
1830— Early Trade, Commerce and Manu-
factures—Growth of the Town 733-740

CHAPTER XXXIX. — McKeesi'Out (Con-
cluded). — Additions — Incorporation- List
of Burgesses— I'uliliilnii.n.venients— Banks,
etc. —Population — Ncwsjiapers — SihooLs—
Secret Societies- Churches 741-758



ILLUSTRATIONS.



PORTRAITS.



Batclielor, Charles W 413

Beilstein, J. F 551

Beymer, Simon 517

Booth, .James .J 573

Breading, James E 117

Brown, A. M 451

Brown, James 67

Brown, William H 325

Brunot, Felix, M. D 17

Brunot, Felix R 217

Brunot, Hilary 137

Bushnell, Daniel 473

Clarke, Thomas S 307

Converse, E. C 539

Copley, Josiah 337

Coursin, B. B 715

Cox, John F 633

Croghan, William 37

Cunningham, D. 627

Dabbs, B. L. H : .... 583

Dalzell, John .507

Davis, John .53!)

Dickson, John, M. D 319

Dravo, John F 363

Edwards, Riehard 347

Eiehbaum, William 87

Errett, Russell 341

Evans, Oliver 737

Flagler, J. H 441

Flemiui;, Huffh S 479

Frew, William 385

Goff, M. B 671

Gourley, Henry I , 693

Harbaugh, William 495

Harper, Albert M 197

Harper, John.. _ 187

Hartmau, William, Sr 683

Hays, Abraham 419

Herron, Rev. Francis 47

Herrou, John 147

Herron, William A 347

Hofmann, H. H., M. D 639

Hosrg, George 97

Hostetter, David, M. D 391

Howe, Thomas M 257

Hukill, Edwin M 567

Hutchinson, F. M 611

Hussey, Curtis G 277



Ingham, John B 661

Inskeep, A 6,55

Jennings, John F 303

Johnston, Samuel R 157

Jones, B. F a53

Jones, William R 501

Kier, Samuel M 375

Lambing, Rev. A. A 407

Liggett, Thomas 137

McClelland, J. H., M. D 485

McClurg, Alexander 107

McCIurg, Joseph 167

McCIurff, Thiimas B 605

Mc( 'ully, William 337

Mellon,' TIk.tuh.s 297

Messier, Thomas D 457

Metcalf, Orlando : 177

Moorhead, J . K 267

0' Hara, James 27

Penney, Tliomas 74S

Pitcairn, Robert .561

Porter, J. W .523

Reel, Casjier, Sr 77

Rook, A. W 331

Ryan, M. F 705

Sadler, O. W., M. D 649

Scott, Graham 589

Simon, Michael 677

Spang, Charles F 369

Stewart, John W 699

Stowe, Edwin H 439

Taggart, Jolin .545

Thaw, John .57

Thaw, William 387

Vandergrif t, J.J 435

Vandergrift, T. J 617

Varner, Thomas 309

Verner, James 463

Wampler, W.P 595

Wells, Calvin 397

White, James P 737

White, T. L., M. D 749

Williams, James Clark Til



MISCELLANEOUS.



Bouquet's Redoubt 439

First Pittsburgh Bank Building 585

First Postofflce 513

Geological Diagram opposite 435

Map of Allegheny County opposite 9

Map of Pittsburgh in 1795 4»i



New Postoffice 513

Old Almshouse 698

Old Courthouse and Market ,516

Old Town Hall, Allegheny 668

Old United Evangelical Church 377

Pittsburgh in 1817 Frontispiece.



CONTENTS.



PART II.



CHAPTER I.— TOWNSHII-SAND Bokougiis.—
Moon (C'oraopolis) — Findlay — Crescent. 5- 16

CHAPTER II.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued). — North Fayette — South Fay-
ette— Collier Iti- 38

CHAPTER III.— TowNSHirs and Bokoighs
(Continued). — Robinson (Chartiers) —
Stowe— Neville 28-43

CHAPTER IV.— TowNSHii'.s and Boroughs
(Continued). — Upper St. Clair — Snowden —
Betliel 43-49

CHAPTER v.— Townships and Boroughs
(Co.vtinued). — Lower St. Clair (Beltzhoover
—West Liberly—Knoxville)— Baldwin.. 49- 55

CHAPTER VI.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued). — Chartiers — Union (Green
Tree)— Seutt (Mansfield) 55-71

CHAITER VII.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued). — Mifllin(Homestead) — Jeffer-
son (West Elizabeth) 71-84

CHAPTER VIII.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued).— Elizabeth (Elizabeth) — For-
ward — Lincoln (Reynoldton) 84^110

CHAPTER IX.— Townships and Boroughs

(Continued). — Versailles — North Versailles
—South Versailles 110-115

CHA1>TER X.— Townships and Boroughs

(Continued). — Willvin.s- Stcrrctt (Willvius-
burs)— Braddock (Braddoclc) 115-137

CHAPTER XL— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued).— Plum— Patton—Peun (Vero-
ua) 138-137



CHAPTER XIL— Townships and Boroioiis
(Continued). — West Deer — Richland —
Hampton 137-144

CHAPTER XIII.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued). —East Deer (Tarentuni)—
Fawn — Harrison 144-153

CHAPTER XIV.— Townships and Boroughs
Continued).— Indiana — O'Hara (Sharps-
burg) 154-163

CHAPTER XV.— Townships and Boroughs
(Continued).— Harmar—Spriugdale.. . . 163-168

CHAPTER XVI. — Townships and Bor-
oughs (Continued). — Pine — McCandless
169-173

CHAPTER XVIL — Townships and Bor-
ouGHS (Continued). — Ross (Bellcvue) — Re-
serve (Spring Garden) — Shaler (Etna — Mill-
vale) 17:J-1S5

CHAPTER XVIIL— Townships and Bor-
oughs (Continued). — Ohio — Kilbuek —
Aleppo (Gleulield— Oslwrn) 185-193

CHAPTER XIX. —Townships and Bor-
oughs (Continued). — Franklin — Marshall
193-195

CHAPTER XX.— Townships and Boroughs
(Concluded). — Sewickley — Leet (Sewiek-
ley) 196-308

GENEALOGY AND BIOGRAPHY 309-776

INDICES 777-790



ILLUSTRATIONS.



Anderson, W. B 13

Brown, Col. Joseph 305

Burns, Andrew 195)

Calhoon, D. K 79

Calhoon, John K 35

Cochran, H. B 45

Courthouse, Pittsburgli (View of), opposite 1

Graham, R. T 177

Heinz, H. J 161

Hezlep, Joseph B 189

Hickey, Very Rev. John 117

Jamison, John C 311

Kennedy, John, Jr 145

Kenny, Thomas J 73

McClure, Abdiel 67

McKown, John 33



McRoberts, John 183

Meek, Jeremiah 7

O'Neil, J. N 101

Orr, William 321

Pollock, D. H 95

Porter, A. A opposite 230

Prager, Peter 167

Reynolds, Thomas Ill

Risher,J.C 51

Risher, Rev. Levi 139

Roberts, George W 89

Sample, William, Sr 155

Sharp, T. W 123

Spahr, Jesse 29

Tomlinson, W. A 133

West, Lowry H 57



History of Allegheny County,



CHAPTER I.

EARLIEST TIMES TO THE FRENCH WAR.

Aborigines and Pioneers— Indian Villages and Trails— Royal Land Pat-
ents— Adventurers— Land Companies— Indian Treaties — Forts— Set-
tlements.

THE growth and development of our country, especially west of the Alle-
gheny mountains, has been something phenomenal. Where, a century
ago or less, nothing was to be seen but vast primeval forests or boundless
prairies, inhabited by wild animals and savages only a little less ferocious, all
has been changed by the rapid march of civilization. The few villages that
dared to spring up at that early day have become populous cities, the solitary
cabins of the hardy adventurers have given place to thriving towns and
villages, the forests and prairies have been transformed into rich agricultural
districts, and in every direction lines of railroad are seen threading their
coui'ses to carry the fi-uits of industry to a ready market. Telegraphic lines
facilitate communication, and over all religion spreads her peaceful influence,
education sheds her cheering light, and a popular government secures for all
equal rights. The peoples of the Old World, confined to traditional grooves,
contemplate with wonder the gigantic strides of the Great Republic of the
West, and speculate on what is to be the end of this onward march of national
prosperity and domestic happiness.

Nowhere, perhaps, is this extraordinary growth more marked than in
Southwestern Pennsylvania, nearly all of which was once included in Allegheny
county, where nature has been unusually lavish of her choicest gifts. Mineral
wealth in coal, oil and natural gas has given to this section of country a
prominence that leaves it without a rival; while water and railroad communi-
cation unites it with every part of the world. But while the present arrests
the attention of all, the past, to those who wish to inquire into its historic
wealth, affords a field for investigation very pleasing to the student of history.



12 HISTORY OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY.

coi;ntry around the beatlwaters of the river, named it the 0-he yii, which in
their dialect signifies the Beautiful river, and which the French simply
translated into La Bello Kivif-re. The English took the sound rather than
the sense of this Indian term, and named the river Ohio, a designation which
was at first applied to the entire stream, but which came, in process of time,
to be applied to that part of it only which lay below its confluence with the
Monongahela.

It would be impossible to form anything like an accurate estimate of the
number of Indians of the several tribes living in "Western Pennsylvania at the
time of the first appearance of the whites, both because no reliable record was
ever kept, and because their residence was not permanent; suffice it to say
that, considering the extensive territory, the population was very sparse.

The character of the Indians naturally gave rise to numerous towns and
villages, or what were popularly designated as such, composed sometimes of
the members of one tribe, and at other times of the members of several tribes
living together in harmony. These villages, usually quite small, consisting at
times of only a few cabins, were situated for the most part along streams, and
were frequently removed from one place to another as necessity or caprice
dictated. Only a few of them will be mentioned in this place, on account of
the part they played in the country's history. One of the principal of these
was Kittanning, which was known to the French as Attiqu6, situated where
the town of the same name now stands, and which figured conspicuously in
the French war prior to its destruction by Col. Armstrong, in September, 1756.
Another was Shannopinstown, located on the eastern bank of the Allegheny
about two miles above its confluence with the Monongahela; and C^loron, in
the journal of his expedition, to be referred to later, declares it to have been
the most beautiful place he saw on his journey. But it was of little or no
historic importance. Eighteen miles further down on the north bank of the
Ohio stood Logstown, the most important of all the Indian towns, as will be
seen in the sequel. It was the principal point in the western part of the
colony for trading and conferring with the whites. A mile below the
mouth of the Beaver river stood Sakunk, seldom mentioned in pioneer his-
tory; and about four miles below the present New Castle was situated Kiska-
kunk, a name variously spelled, which, though of considerable size, was rather
a place of meeting for the Indians themselves than of importance to the whites.
Besides these there were other villages, but so insignificant as not to be
deserving of mention.

The nomadic life of the Indians and the fact that they had certain points
where they were accustomed to assemble from time to time naturally led to
the formation of paths or trails, which traversed the countiy in various direc-
tions. While afi'ording means of easy communication for the natives, they
were scarcely less advantageous to the early traders and explorers, and were
particularly useful in showing the best routes for military and national roads,



HISTORY OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY. 13

especially in the iiiouutainous parts of the country. The most noted, and per-
haps the most ancient, of these pathways was the old Catawba or Cherokee trail,



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