temperature of. ii. 650.
hermaphroditism among, ii. 721.
INSECTA list of insects possessing the property of lumi-
nousness, iii. 197. See LUMINOUSNESS, ANIMAL.
dormant vitality of, iii.
effect of fear on some of the, iii. 7.
electricity of some insects, ii. 82.
instinct of congregation of insects, iii. 16.
imperfect societies, iii. 16.
for society alone, iii. 16.
of males in the pairing season, iii. 16.
for emigrating together, iii. 16.
for feeding together, iii. 16.
for some common work advantageous to the com-
munity, iii. 16.
occasional association, iii. 17.
instincts guiding insects in procuring food, iii. 7.
instincts guiding them in the construction of their
habitations, iii. 9.
habitations of " perfect societies of insects," iii. 11.
INSECTIVORA, a group of Mammiferous animals, ii. 994.
families, ii. 994.
Erinaceadae, or hedgehog*, ii. 994.
Soricidae, or shrews, ii.
Talpidae, or moles, ii. 994.
Tupaiadae, or Tupaia family, ii. 994.
i\ OR A continued.
digestive organs, ii. 1000 ; s. 302.
teeth, ii. 1000.
thymus gland of, iv. 1096.
muscles, ii. 998.
nervous system, ii. 1002.
osteology, ii. 995.
pelvis of, s. 164.
reproduction, organs of, ii. 1005.
Weberian organ in, iv. 1417.
tegumentary system, ii. 1004.
provisions afforded by the Creator for Insectlvora
during winter, ii. 764.
Insessores, or perching birds, characters of, i. 267.
Insomnia, iv. 686.
serious consequences resulting from, iv. 686.
Inspiration and expiration, comparative force of muscular
movements of, iv. 336. 1060. See RESPIRATION.
Instep, the, i. 147 ; ii. 339.
Insula of Rcil, iii. 696. 698.
INSTINCT, iii. 1.
characteristics of the phenomena of instinct, iii. 46.
influence of external conditions in producing new
instincts, iv. 1303
definition, iii. 1.
the reason of man compared with the instinct of the
lower animals, iii. 2, et seq.
I. Instincts designed for the preservation of the indi-
vidual, iii. 7.
1 . for defence and offence, iii. 7.
2. relating to the procuring of food, iii. 7.
3. in the construction of habitations, iii. 9.
4. connected with hibernation, iii. 11.
II. Instincts for the propagation and support of off-
spring, iii. 13.
1. migration, iii. 13.
2. choice of place for the deposit of ova, iii. 14.
3. nidification, iii. 14.
4. incubation, iii. 14.
5. procuring nourishment and protection for the
young, iii. 15.
III. Instincts relating to the welfare of the race or of
the animal ci cation generally, iii. 15.
common to man and brutes, iii. 15.
motives of action contrasted with intellect, iii 16.
congregation, iii. 16.
imperfect societies of insects, iii. 16.
for society alone, iii. 16.
of males in the pairing season, iii. 16*.
for emigration, iii. 16.
for feeding together, iii. 16.
for some common work advantageous to
the community, iii. 17.
of the higher animals for various purposes,
perfect societies of insects, as ants and bees,
deviations of the instincts of insects, and their
accommodation to circumstances, iii. 19.
reasons for considering the actions of ants and
bees as the result of instinct, not of reason-
ing, iii. 20.
instances of actions of the lower animals in
which short processes of reasoning seem
to have been concerned, iii. 21 23.
acquired instincts, iii. 23.
instinct viewed with respect to the part it
takes in the unceasing changes going on at
the earth's surface, iii. 23.
free will in man, iii. 24.
viewed with respect to final causes, iii. 25.
adaptation of the instincts and powers of
animals to their office in creation,
evidences of Design from its effects, iii.
Integuments. See TEGUMENTARY ORGANS.
of the back, i. 367.
Intellect, motives of action contrasted with, ii. 16.
Intellectual progress of man, capacity for, compared with
the instincts of the lower animals, iv. 1300.
Intemperance, long continued, a cause of wasting of the
brain, iii. 720. 9
delirium tremens, iii. 720.
Intensity of the human voice, iv. 1475.
Interarticular cartilages, or menisci, i. 249.
ligament, iv. 1032.
Intercolumnal bands, i. 5.
Intercostal arteries, i. 367. 189. 193 ; iii. 248.
anastomoses, i. 794.
dorsal branches, i. 367.
anterior, iv. 822. ;
superior, iv. 824.
muscles, external, iv. 334. 1043.
internal, iv. 334. 1043.
action of the intercostal muscles, iv. 1044. 1055.
nerves, iv. 760.
costo-huraeral branches of, i.360.
great, of the older anatomists, s. 423. See Sym-
second, i. 217.
third, i. 217-
3 F 4
veins, i. 3G5; iv. 1400.
left superior, iv. 1409.
Intcr-costo-humcral nerve, iv. 760.
Intercrural or iuterpeduncular space, iii. C73.
Intcr-l'iininur fibro-CArtilaginous tissue, &. 125.
Intcrlobular arteries, iii. 171.
ducts, iii. 169.
fissure of liver, iii. 166.
spaces of liver, iii. 166.
veins, iii. 16fi, 167. 171 ; iv. 1414.
Intermaxillary bone, ii. 210.
Intermittent fever, characters of the urine in, iv. 1292.
Intermuicular ligaments, i. 217.
external, i. 21 7.
internal, i. 217.
Interosseal artery, posteri r, ii. 364 ; iv. 225.
xeins, palmar, iv. 1407.
Intcrossci externi digitorum manus muscles, ii. 251.
relations and uses, ii .522.
interni digitorum manus muscles, ii. 521.
relations and uses, ii. 522.
pedis dorsales vel externi muscles, ii. 358.
pedis plantares muscles, ii. 358.
Intcrosseous costo-trans verse ligament, iv. 1032.
fibro-cartilages, ii. 508.
ligament, iii. 131 ; iv. 1, E 06.
astragalo-calcaneal, ii. 343.
of tarsus, ii. 343.
of carpal bones, ii. 508.
of tibio-fibular articulation, iv. 1119.
nerve, iv. 768.
anterior, iv. 757.
posterior, or muscular, of musculo-spiral nerve,
Inter-peduncular space, or Pons Tarini, iii. 676. 703.
Interspinales muscles, i. 37-J ; s. 137.
Inter -spinous ligament, s. 1 21.
Interstitial cellular tissue, ii. 489.
Inter-transver sales colli muscles, i. 374 ; iii. 561.
Inter-trochanteric line, anterior, ii. Ki5.
posterior ii. 165.
Jntervertebral cartilages, i. 250.
disks, iv. 1022.
Intestinalia of Cuvier. See ENTOZOA.
Intestine, etymology of the word, s 294.
small, s. 339.
large, s. 362.
arteries of the small intestines,
lymphatics of the lower part of the, iii. 227.
tnucus of, iii. 482.
chemical characters of I he, iii. 482.
functions of canal, in digestion, ii. 10.
existence of worms in the intestines of the foetus in
usero, ii. 336.
effects of the lesion of the vagi upon the secretion of
mucus upon the inner surface of the stomach and
intestines, iii. 900.
gastro-intestinal calculi, iv. 83.
intestinal canal in Crustacea, i. 773.
and in Fishes, iii. 981.
of Rodentia, iv. 389.
See STOMACH AND INTESTINE.
TWra-coccygeal articulations, s. 122.
-lobular veins, iv. 1414.
Inlransverse muscles, iv. 820.
Intumescentia gangliformis nervi facialis, ii. 554.
Intus-susceplion of one germ within another, cases of, ii.
of intestine, s. 406.
Inuns, a genus of Quadrumana, iv. 196, ct seq. See QUA-
Invertebrata, nerves of, iii. 600.
Iodine, alleged effects of, on the testicles, iv. 993.
method of determining the presence of, in organic
substances, iii. 803.
lolpfs of Senegal, characters of the, iv. 1352.
Iris, action of, in conjunction with the eye'ids, iii. 80, 95.
contraction of the pupil in sleep, iii. 80.
contraction of the iris occasioned by the stimulus of
light, iii. 589.
Iritis, arthritic, false diagnosis of, iii. 88.
Iron, method of determining the presence of, in organic
substances, iii. 804.
Irritability, i. 717; iii. 29.
definition and use of the term, iii. 29.
test of irritability, iii. 29. 35.
question whether irritability belongs to the muscular
fibre alone, or to the muscular and nervous com-
Lined, iii. ^9.
arguments drawn from phenomena observed in the
heart and other involuntary muscles, iii. 29.
Legallois's and Philip's experiments of removing the
spinal marrow, iii. 29.
experiment showing that the heart may be impressed
through the ganglionic system after the removal of
the brain and spinal marrow, iii. 29.
cilcct of narcotics on the heart and bowels, iii. 30.
vis insita in connection with vis nervosa, iii. 30.
new laws of action of the vis nervosa, iii. 30.
degree of irritability not the same in every orean of
the body, iii. 30.
different degrees of irritability in different animals,
relation of the degree of irritability to respiration,
I. of the pncumatometer, iii. 31.
11. of the measure of irritability, ii. 33.
difference in the duration of the beat of the heart
removed from the body in the foetal, early, and adult
states of the higher animals, iii. 34.
duration of the beat of the heart longest on the loft
side, iii. 34.
experiment showing the effect of artificial respiration
on the heart's beat, iii. 34.
deduction that arterial blood is the necessary stimulus
of the left side of the heart, but that venous blood is
a sufficient stimulus of the right, iii. 35.
the power of enduring suspended animation a measure
of irritability, iii. 35.
observations on the irritability of the heart in hiber-
nating animals, iii. 35.
properties of activity and tenacity of life, iii. 35.
source of irritability, iii. 3G.
observations of Prochaska, iii. 36.
of Nysten, iii. 36.
of Legallois, til. 87.
experiments of Miiller, iii. 37.
observations of M. Segalas on the effects of strych-
nine, iii. 38.
observations and experiments of the author, iii. 38.
explanation of the discrepancies of former authors,
deductions, iii. 40.
application of the principle deduced to pathology,
influence of emotion on paralytic limbs, iii. 40.
influence of certain respiratory acts, iii. 40.
effects of the tonic power, iii. 40.
effect of strychnine on paralytic limbs, iii. 40.
influence of the brain and spinal marrow respec-
tively on the anterior and posterior limbs re-
spectively, iii. 40.
cases substantiating the foregoing observations, iii. 41.
recapitulation, iii. 42.
experiments of Dr. J. Reid, iii. 42.
experiments testing the relation of the ganglionic
system to the irritability of the viscera, iii. 43.
See also CONTRACTILITY.
of the arteries, i. 225.
of the heart, ii. 607. 010,611.
upon what does the peculiar irritability of the
heart depend ? ii. 612.
extinction of, a cause of death, i. 793.
condition of, during hibernation, ii. 772.
Irrito-contractility, iii. 29. See IKKITABILITY.
Ischia, planes of the, s. 127.
tuberosities of the, s. 127.
Ischiatio artery, ii. 501. 833.
branches, ii. 834.
origin and distribution, ii. 834.
jTscfob-bulbosus muscle, iii. 915.
/scAfo-cavernosus muscle of the penis, ii. 446.
/sc/o-coccygaei muscles, i. 17!) ; s. 138.
/scAzb-perineal muscle, iii. 929.
Ischia- rectal fascia, i. 177.
spaces, anatomy of the, i. 177.
/scAio-sacral, or sitting, arch of pelvis, s. 139.
Jschium, the, i. 177. 179.
development of, s. 120.
descending ramus, or body of the, s. 116.
ascending ramus, s. 116.
origin of the name, s. 115.
spine of the, s. 115.
tuberosity of the, s. 115.
Ischuria renalis, suppression of excretion of urine, ii.
Isinglass, method of obtaining, ii. 404.
7m nippuri*. a species of polyp, iv. 32.
Island of Reil, iii. 672. 696. 698.
Islands, coral, mode in which they are formed and become
fitted for the abode of man, iv. 33.
Isthmus faucium, iii. 951 ; iv. 11 21.
of thyroid gland, iv. 1102.
urethrae, iv. 1247.
Ivory of elephants' teeth, iii. 870.
of the African elephant, iv. 924.
Indian elephant, iv. 924.
Jncobson, nerve of, ii. 554.
Japetic group of languages, iv. 1347.
races, complexion of, iv. 1333. See VARIETIFS OF
Jaundice, iv. 460. 46'2.
causes of, iv. 4f>6, 467.
characters of the urine in, iv. 1S93.
state of the blood in, i. 425.
appearance of the bile-ducts in fatal cases of, ii. 150.
cases of, in the foetus in utero, ii. 337.
Jnna, Albinoes of, i. 84.
Jai'unese, pelves of, s. 150.
Jaw, lower, ii. 207. 213. See Bone maxillary, inferior,
upper, ii. 207.
pillars of the lances, iii. 951.
roncenital deficiency of the under-] aw (monotia), iv.
See Face s TKMPORO-MAXILLAHY ARTICULATION.
Jejunum, i. 14; ii. 10 ; 8. 341, 342.
development of the, s. 402.
peritoneum of the, iii. 043.
Jelly-fish, non-existence ot muscular fibre in, iii. .'-33.
Jerboa, Cape (I)ipus hersipes), or jumping ban: (lle-
lamys), anatomy of the, iv. 369. 372, et seq.
its powers of leaping, iii. 477.
Jews, variety in the complexion of the, dependent upon
the locality into which they have migrated, jv. 1330.
JOINT. See ARTICULATION, and the articles under the
headings of the several joints.
Jugular fossa, i 732, 733.
ganglion, ii. 495.
process, i. 732.
vein, i. 732; iii. 579.
anterior, iii. 571.
origin and course, iii. 571.
external, ii. 227 ; iii. 571. 903.
origin and couise, iii. 571.
internal, iv. 815, 816. 1405, 1406.
collateral branches of, iv. 140G.
Julida, a family of Myriapoda, iii. 645.
characters of the family, iii. 545.
Julus, a genus of Aiyriapoda, iii. 545, et seq.
history of the process of development of the Julus
spermatozoa of, iv. 492.
Jungermannite frondosae, vegetative system of, s. 235.
first period germination of the spores, s. 235.
antheridia, s. 235.
archegonia, s. 235.
second period development of the embryo, s. 236.
changes preparatory to the development of the spores,
Kabyles, characters of the, iv. 1357.
Ktijffres, characters of the, iv, 1353.
portrait of a Kaffre iv. 1354.
Knkotrela, a section of Polygastric animals, iv. 5.
Kangaroo (Macropus), a genus of . Marsupial ia, iii. 257.
266, et seq.
characters of the genus, Hi. 266.
construction and proportion of the, iii. 257.
development of the, iii. 318, et seq.
digestive organs of the, s. 303.
teeth of, iv. 933, 934.
mammary glands of the, iii. 251.
its mode ol progression, iii. 453.
its powers of leaping, iii. 477.
organs of voice of the, iv. 1491.
pelvis of, s. 160, 161.
KIDNEY, iv. 231.
1. Renal organs in the lower animals, iv. 232.
in Insects, iv. 232.
in the Arachnida, iv. 232.
in the Lamellibranchiata, iv. 232.
in the Gasteropoda, iv. 232.
among the Cephalopoda, iv. 232.
in Fishes, iv. 232.
in Reptiles, iv. 233.
in Birds, iv. 233.
kidneys of Mammalia, iv. 233.
2. Human kidney, iv. 234.
form, iv. 234.
dimensions and weight, iv. 234.
position and relations, iv. 234.
anterior surface, iv. 231.J
posterior surface, iv. 235.
circumference, iv. 235.
extremities, iv. '235.
ureter or excretory duct, iv. 235.
its direction, iv. 235.
its relations, iv. 235.
excretion from the (urine), ii. 149.
quantity passed in twenty-four hours, ii.
blood-vessels of the kidney, iv. 235.
emulgent or renal arteries, iv. 235.
emulgent or renal vein, iv. 236.
lymphatics of the, iii. 227 ; iv. 236.
mucous membrane of the, iii. 487.
internal composition of the kidney, iii. 498.
nerves, iv. 236.
structure ol the kidney, iv. 23G.
cortical substance, iv. 236.
medullary substance, iv. 237.
capsule, iv. 238.
calices, infundibula, and pelvis, iv. 238.
minute structure, iv. 239.
tibro-cellular matrix, iv. 239.
tubuli uriniferi, iv. 241.
mode of injecting the tubes, iv. 241.
course and termination of the tubes, iv, 242.
structure of the tubes, iv. '.'42.
Malpighiau bodies, iv. 243.
two distinct systems of capillary vessels in kidneys,
portal system of the kidney, iv. 250.
comparison between the hepatic and renal portal
circulation, iv. 251.
epithelium of the kidney, iv. 252.
ciliary motion of the tubes, iv. 253.
epithelium of the pelvis and ureter, iv. 254.
function of the Malpighian bodies and uriniferous
tubes, iv. 254.
3. Pathology of the kidney, iv. 256.
disease of the kidney from retention of urine, iv.
from renal calculi, iv. 256.
from external violence, iv. 257.
extension of disease from other organs to the kid-
ney, iv. 257.
diseases resulting from a constitutional cause, iv.
acute suppurative nephritis, iv. 257.
acute desquamative nephritis, iv. 257.
chronic desquamative nephritis, iv. 258.
renal haemorrhage, iv. 261.
fatty degeneration of the kidney, iv. 262.
hydatids in the kidney, iv. 2i3.
cancer in the kidney, 'iv. 263.
fatty infiltrations in the kidney, iv. 95.
state of the blood in disease of the kidney, i.
renal calculi, iv. 81.
softening and induration of the, iv. 712.
kidneys in infancy, i. 68.
influence of the spinal cord on the functions of the
kidneys, iii. 721 S.
Kijang, or Muntjak (Cervus muntjac), s. 508.
cranium of, s. 512.
Koala, a species of Marsupialia, iii. 265.
Kongo, woman of, iv. 1354.
Kreatine and kreatinine, normal elements of blood iv.
KNEE-JOINT (normal anatomy), iii. 44.
arteries and veins, iii. 41.
bones, iii. 44.
bursae, adjacent, iii. 48.
cartil iges, iii. 45.
seinihmar cartilages, iii. 45.
ligaments, iii. 46.
mechanical functions, iii. 46.
synovial capsule, iii. 46.
comparative anatomy of knee-joint, iii. 48.
KNEE-JOINT (abnormal conditions of), iii. 48.
abnormal conditions resulting from disease, iii. 48.
simple acute inflammation of the knee-joint, or
arthritis genu, iii. 49.
anatomical characters, iii. 53.
causes of, iii. 49, 50.
cases of, iii. 49. 54.
symptoms of, iii. 49. 51.
prognosis, iii. 53.
simple chronic inflammation of the knee-joint,
cases of, iii. 56.
description of the disease, iii. 56.
chronic rheumatic arthritis genu, iii. 57.
anatomical characters, iii. 60.
cases, iii. 58.
description, iii. 57.
symptoms, iii. 57.
prognosis, iii. 5 W .
treatment, iii. 59.
chronic strumous arthritis genu, or white swelling,
anatomical characters, iii. 62.
first and second stages, iii. 60. 62.
prognosis, iii. 61.
symptoms, iii. 60, 61.
acute arthritis genu combined with acute osteitis,
with necrosis, iii. 64.
without necrosis, iii. 65.
displacements occurring in chronic necrosis in the
vicinity of the knee, iii. 65.
of the tibia backwards, iii. 65.
rotation of the tibia outwards on the femur,
and of the patella on the outer condyle
of the femur, iii. 65.
with the tibia displaced backwards also,
abnormal conditions resulting from accident, iii.
fractures, iii. 67.
transverse fracture of the femur immediately
above the condylcs, iii. 67.
oblique fracture of the lower end of the femur,
into the knee-joint, iii. 68.
by detachment of the outer coudyle,
by detachment of the inner condyle, iii. 68.
T fracture, iii. GS.
KNEE- JOINT, abnormal conditions continued.
fractures of the tibia near the knee, iii. GO.
oblique into the joint, iii. (J9.
transverse, iii. 69.
fracture of the patella, iii. 69.
dislocations, iii. 71.
of the femur from the tibia at the knee-
joint, iii. 71.
signs of the accident, iii. 71.
of the lemur backwards, iii. 71.
forwards, iii. 72.
lateral luxations of the knee, iii. 72.
of the femur inwards, incomplete,
of the femur outwards, iii. 72.
case of, iii. 72.
dislocations of the patella, iii. 73.
outwards, complete, iii. 73.
inwards, iii. 73.
incomplete luxation of the patella,
luxation of the patella on its edge,
internal derangement of the knee, iii. 75.
causes, iii. 75, 76.
a small fragment of the tibia (the insertion
of the crucial ligament) torn up, iii. 77.
rupture of the quadriceps extensor tendon
from its attachment to the superior
border of the patella, iii. 77.
rupture of the ligamentum patellae, iii. 78.
Knee-pan, ii. 168. See Patella.
Labia. See Lips.
Labia pudendi, or majora, s. 708.
minora, v, interna, s. 710.
abnormal anatomy of the labia, s. 714.
development of labia majora, iv. 1255.
Labial glands, iv. 426.
morbid condition of the, iv. 426.
nerves, inferior, external, ii. 294, 295.
internal, ii. 295.
or facial, artery, i, 486.
tentacles of Cephalopoda, i. 526. See Cephalopoda.
Labium leporinum duplex cum palato fisso, iv. 953.
sternal labium of Arachnida, i. 203.
Labour process. See Parturition.
Labrida:, a family of Fishes, iii. 957.
Labyrinth, membraneous, ii. 533. 536, 537.
liquid of the, ii. 536. 539.
blood-vessels of the, ii. 542.
arteries of the, ii. 542.
veins of the, ii. 543.
osseous, ii. 529- 557.
development and abnormal conditions of the, ii.
See HEARING, ORGAN OF.
Labyrinthic branches of olfactory nerve, iii. 732.
cavity, ii. 533.
liquid contained in the, ii. 536.
membrane lining the, ii. 533.
Labyrinthodon, teeth of, iv. 867, 868.
Lacerated foramen, anterior, i. 734.
posticum in basi cranii, i. 732, 733.
orbital fissure, inferior, i. 728.
superior, i. 728.
orbital foramen, anterior, i. 728.
superior, i. 728.
Lacerta viridis (Lizard), nervous system of the, iii. 620.
organs and mode of progression of the, iii. 449.
See also Lizards.
Lacertidte, a family of Reptilia, iv. 205, et seq.
Lace-winged flies (Hemerobidas), ii. 865.
Lachrymal artery, i. 491 ; iii. 93. 786.
bones, ii. 212.
borders, ii. 212.
1. superior, ii. 212.
2. inferior, ii. 212.
3. anterior, ii. 212.
4. posterior, ii. 212.
connexions, ii. 212.
development, ii. 212.
structure, ii. 212.
surfaces, ii. 212.
1. external, or orbitar, ii. 212.
2. internal, or ethmoidal, ii. 212.
gland, iii. 784.
influence of mental emotion on the secretion of
tears, iv. 466.
nerve, ii. 282 ; iii. 93. 784.
LACHRYMAL ORGANS (all the accessory or protecting parts
of the eye, except the orbit and muscles), iii. 78.
I. Eyelids, iii. 78.
general description, iii. 78.
rima palpebrarum, iii. 79.
movements of the eyelids, iii. 79.
winking, iii. 79.
LACHRYMAL ORGANS, eyelids continued.
Meiuomian follicles, iii. 79.
adaptation of the eyelids, iii. 79.
canthi, iii. 79.
secondary fissure of inner canthus, iii. 79.
lachrymal papilla and puncture, iii. 80.
lacus lachrymalis, iii. 80.
lachrymal caruncle, iii. 80.
plica seinilunaris, iii. 80.
eyelashes, iii. 80.
skin of the eyelids, iii. 80. 82.
eyebrows, iii. 80.
muscles of, iii. 80. See also FACE.
action of the eyelids in concert with the iris, iii. 80.
internal structure of the eyelids, iii. 81.
tarsal ligaments, iii. 81.
cartilages, iii. 81.
fibrous condition of the lower tarsal
cartilage in man, and of both in the
lower Mammalia, iii. 81.
Meibomian follicles in the substance of
the tarsal cartilage, iii. 81.
external palpebral ligament, iii. 81.
internal palpebral ligament, iii. 81.
orbicularis palpebrarum, iii. 81.
levator palpebrae superioris, iii. 82.
palpebral conjunctiva, iii. 82.
cellular tissue of the eyelids, iii. 82.
roots of the eyelashes, iii. 82
removal of the, for trichiasis, iii. 82.
sebaceous follicles, iii. 82.
Meibomian glands, iii. 82.
comparative anatomy of, iii. 83.
secretion of, iii. 83.
hordeoluin, iii. 83.
eyelids of the right side seen from within, iii. 83.
II. Conjunctiva in general, iii. 83.
palpebral and ocular conjunctiva, iii. 83.
oculo-palpebral space of the conjunctiva, iii. 83.
superior and interior palpebral sinuses of the con-
junctiva, iii. 84.
disposition of the conjunctiva at the inner canthus,
lachrymal caruncle, iii. 84.
plica semilunaris, iii. 84.
membrana nictitans, iii. 85.
palpebral conjunctiva, iii. 85.
ocular, iii. 85.
subconjunctival cellular tissue, morbid condi-
tion of, iii. 85.
nature of the conjunctiva, iii. 85.
continuity with other parts of the mucous
membrane, iii. 85.
lachrymal and conjunctive] secretion, iii. 8 r >.
intimate structure of the palpebral conjunctiva,
chorion, iii. 85.
papillary body, iii. 85.
epithelium of palpebral conjunctiva, iii. 86.
intimate structure of sclerotic conjunctiva, iii.
papillae (?), iii. 86.
epithelium of sclerotic conjunctiva, iii. 87.
conjunctival covering of the cornea, iii. 87.
III. Lachrymal organs properly so called, iii. 88.
1. secreting lachrymal organs, iii. 88.
lachrymal gland, iii. 88.
intimate structure, iii. 89.
excretory ducts, iii. 89.
discovery of the, iii. 89.
uses of the, iii. 89.
tears, iii. 90.
chemical composition of, iii. 90.
2. derivative lachrymal organs, iii. 90.
lachrymal groove, iii. 90.
osseous canal for the nasal duct, iii. 90.
lachrymal papillae, points, and canalicules, iii.
lachrymal sac, iii. 91.
nasal duct, iii. 92.
structure, iii. 92.
plicae and villi, iii. 92.
secretion, iii. 92.
lachryrml muscle (tensor tarsi), iii. 92.
origin, iii. 92.
relations, iii. 92.