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PRINCETON, N. J. ^*



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By the same Author



THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH. 8 illustra-
tions (1877-8). 2 vols. 12.9 each.

THE UNICORN: a Mythological Investigation.
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THE LAW OP KOSMIC ORDER (1882). 3^.

ERIDANUS: River and Constellation. 5 illus-
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THE 'HEAVENLY DISPLAY' OF ARATOS.

Map and 68 illustrations (1885). 10s 6ti



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otber Poems (1887). 2s Qd.

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DAVID NUTT, 270-271, Strand, London.



SEMITIC INFLUENCE IN HELLENIC
MYTHOLOGY



SEMITIC INFLUENCE IN HELLENIC
MYTHOLOGY



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE RECENT MYTHOLOGICAL

WORKS OF THE RT. HON. PROF. F. 31 AX MULLER AND

MR. ANDREW LANG



BY

ROBERT BROWN, Jun., f.s.a., m.r.a.s.



The truth can be discovered by careful research. We must not despair of truth.

Lang.




WILLIAMS AND NORGATR,

14, HENEIETTA STREET, COVENT GAEDEN, LONDON

20, SOUTH FREDEEICK STEEET, EDINBUEGH ; am.

7, BEGAD STEEET, OXFOED.

1898.



LONDON :

O. NORMAN AND SON, PKINTF.RS, FLORAL STREET,

COVENT GARDEN.



DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY

OF

SIR PETER LE PAGE RENOUF,

Late President of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.



PREFACE

The leaders in England of two schools of mythology,
based mainly in the one case on Aryan linguistics
and in the other on anthropology, have recently
published their revised, and probably final, con-
clusions. The time, therefore, seems opportune for
a statement of the principles of a third School,
which, for present purposes, I may style the Aryo-
Semitic. Its members, whilst paying every respect to
the s}'stem of Aryan philology, and fully recognizing
the vast results that have sprung from the scientific
application of Aryan linguistics, are nevertheless of
opinion that the Aryanists have been unable to
explain Hellenic mythology and Hellenic archaic
history as a whole, because they have almost wholly
ignored or denied the existence of that great mass
of Semitic influence, which the Aryo- Semitic School
hold is to be found throughout the length and
breadth of Hellas. This latter School, moreover,
is in entire sympathy with the researches of anthro-
pology in general, and of folklore in particular.
They welcome light from any quarter, but they



X HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY

more especially direct attention to that important
influence, becoming clearer to us almost every year,
which the Valleys of the Euphrates and of the Nile,
and the populations of Syria and of Asia Minor have
exercised upon the Greek mind. Long-established
theories, whatever great names they may claim in
their support, must, perforce, give way to facts.
Everything is a question of evidence, but in each
case the best evidence attainable should be procured.
It will never do, with Mr. Herbert Spencer, to first
cut and dry your theory, and then to send out
gleaners to gather facts in its support.

At present in England there is a kind of lazy
feeling in the air ; and, in the department of literature,
this makes itself felt by the wish to be acquainted
with the latest results of research without trouble.
The State has decided that education is necessary;
and the want of it is now felt, except in the case
of persons of high social position, to be somewhat
disgraceful. Knowledge, people admit, is delightful;
but then its acquisition is so painful. This wish to
be up to date with very little effort, naturally drives
men to sit at the feet of smart Gamaliels, who, in
a few piquant pages, pui-port to demolish the con-
clusions at which sages of European fame may have
arrived after half a century of toil; and to replace
their exploded teachings by another gospel of most
superior brand. Let us not be too sure about such



PREFACE XI

alleged rapid gains. Great results generally arise
from great efforts; just as good workmanship is
almost universally costly. Many men are liiglily
educated in a way. But that is not enough; to
impart real benefit, they must also be possessed of
refined common sense. Do not let us over-estimate
the advantages conferred by mere education as
ordinarily understood. Its results mainly depend
upon the inherent character of the soil into which
it falls. Thus, education can never make fools wise ;
but it can undoubtedly bestow upon them a larger
area for the exercise of their folly.

I leave with confidence the following pages to the
careful consideration of the reader, whether he chance
to be critic, professional reviewer, scholar Classical
or Oriental, anthropologist, folklorist, or honest man
in the street who wishes to know something about
these matters. I only ask him, whoever he may be,
to weigh the questions well; and, without fear or
favour, to give a true verdict according to the
evidence.

In the spelling of names, I generally adopt the
original forms, because they are the most correct.
Severe logical uniformity in this matter is not at
present attainable. A correct practice is, however,
steadily gaining ground, notwithstanding divers
violent protests on the part of some of those who



Xll HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY

think that Time can consecrate error and canonise
stupidity.

The illustration on the cover, representing Herakl^s
and the Stymphalian Birds, as shown on a Gem at
Florence, is taken from Smith's Smaller Classical
Dictionary^ by the kind permission of Mr. John
Murray.

BaETON-ON-HumBEK :

March, 1898.



CONTENTS



PART I.

PROFESSOR MAX MULLER'S LAST PRONOUNCEMENT
ON MYTHOLOGY.

PAGE
. 1



I. PROF. MULLER S ACHIEVEMENTS ....
II. GENERAL PLAN OF TRE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SCIENCE
OF MYTHOLOGY {1897) ....

III. STUDY OF SAVAGE TRIBES

IV. THE ORIGINAL ARYAN UNITY
V. VEDIC-SANSKRIT AND GREEK EQUATIONS

VI. INSTANCE OF A PHONETIC OBJECTION
VII. APPLICATION OP PHONETIC RULES TO PROPER
NAMES ......

VIII. PHONETIC LAWS, SO-CALLED
IX. UNEXPLAINED PHONETIC IRREGULARITIES .
X. SOLAR MYTHOLOGY .....

XI. LIGHT THROWN BY THE VEDA ON GREEK MYTHO-
LOGY ......

XII. NOVEL ETYMOLOGIES .....

XIII. 'the LESSON OF JUPITKR ^
XIV. WHERE I DISAGREE WITH PROF. MULLER



2

4
4

7

7

9
11
12

13

15
16
18
20



PART II.

MR. LANG'S LATEST ATTACK UPON PROFESSOR
MULLER.

I. MR. ANDREW LANG . . . . • •

II. MR. LANG AND PROF. MAX MULLER .

III. MR. Lang's peculiar view of philology . .

IV. ' NO GENTLEMAN EVER CONSCIOUSLY MISREPRE-
SENTS '.......



23
24

26

29



HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY



Y. THE ' GENTLEMAN ' NEVER UNFAIR

VJ. MR. LANG ON * COMPETING ETYMOLOGIES^ .

VII. ANOTHER ^COMPETING ETYMOLOGY ' FALLACY. .

VIII. REASONABLE EFFECT OF DIFFERENCES OF OPJNION

IX. DIFFERENCES OF OPINION APPARENT RATHER THAN

REAL .......

X. DIFFERENCES AMONGST ANTHROPOLOGISTS . .

XI. THE MYTH OF DEMETER-ERINNYS

XII. THE DfiMfiTfiR-ERINNYS MYTH NOT A DAWN-TALE

XIII. REAL CHARACTER OF THE d£MET£R-ERINNYS

MYTH .......

XTV. MANNHARDT ON THE DEMETER-ERINNYS MYTH

XV. A ' DISEASE OF LANGUAGE ' . . .

XVI. ALLEGED EGYPTIAN TOTEMISM

XVII. ANOTHER INSTANCE OF EXPLODED TOTEMISM

XVIII. APOLLON, MR. LANG, AND THE MOUSE

XIX. ROUT OF MR. LANG BY THE MOUSE .

XX. ARTEMIS, ARKAS, AND THE BEAR .

XXI. THE BRAURONIAN BEAR-CULT .

XXII. A KEY OP KNOWLEDGE FROM MR. LANG^S BUNCH

XXIII. APPLICATION OF THIS METHOD TO THE MYTH OF

THE BIRTH OF ATHSNA. . . . .

XXIV. THE SIN OF THE GOD ZU . . . .

XXV. WHAT HAS MR. LANG GAINED ? . . .



32
33
35
37

38
40
41
44

46
49
51
54
57
58
59
61
67
71

73

74
77



PART III.

THE ARYO-SEBIITIC SCHOOL OF HELLENIC
MYTHOLOGISTS

I. RETROSPECT ....... 81

II. CERTAIN DIFFICULTIES OF THE STUDENT IN

ENGLAND . . . . . . . 84

III. GENERAL STANDPOINT OF THE ARYO-SEMITIC

SCHOOL ....... 86

IV. SEMITIC INDICATIONS IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY , . 90



CONTENTS



XV



V. ' THE QUESTION OF ALLIES ' . . . .

VI. AN INSTANCE OP THE RESULTS OF THE HISTORICAL
METHOD

VII. THE CONTESTS OP THE GODS AND HEROES

VIII. HERAKLl^S ....

IX. ATHENA V. POSElD(m

X. A DIGRESSION

XI. PROF. MULLER AND M. BERARD

XII. PROF. MULLER ON THE KABEIROI

XIII. KRONOS .....

XIV. POSEIDON ....

XV. THE NAME ' POSEID(m '
XVI. APHRODITE
XVII. ' PRESENTING THEBES '
XVIII. A SEMITIC MOON-MYTH
XIX. ATHAMAS = TAMMUZ
XX. KIRKE ....

XXI. THE HOMERIC NEKYIA
XXII. HEKATE ....

XXIII. ATHfiNE ILIA ......

XXIV. THE GREEK CONSTELLATION-MYTHS

XXV. PALAMfiDES

XXVI. THE ANCIENT GREEK CONSTELLATION-FIGURKS
XXVII. THE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC
XXVIII. THE HOMERIC CONSTELLATIONS
XXIX. THE CONSTELLATION-FIGURES AS COIN-TYPES
XXX. HAREKHAL AND THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS
XXXI. ROMAN DIVINITY-NAMES ....

XXXII. CONCLUSION

APPENDIX A. PROFESSOR AGUCHEKIKOS ON TOTEMISM

APPENDIX B. LIST OP PAPERS BY THE AUTHOR ON

ASTRONOMICAL MYTHOLOGY
INDEX .....



PAGE

91



ABBREVIATIONS

C. = 'Rt. Hon. Prof. Max Miiller, Contributions to the Science
of Mythology (1897).

M. M.==llr. Andrew Lang, Modern Mythology (1897).

W. A. I. = Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, Vols. I.-V.
(Publish ed by the Trustees of the British Museum).

K. = Kouyunjih Collection of Cuneiform Tablets (British
Museum).

Ak. = Akkadian.

Ar. = Arabic.

As. = Assyrian.

Bab. = Babylonian.

Et. = Etruscan.

Ph. =Phoenician.

Sk. = Sanskrit.

Sum. = Sumerian.



SEMITIC INFLUENCE IN HELLENIC
MYTHOLOGY



PART I

PROFESSOR MAX MULLERS LAST PRONOUNCEMENT
ON MYTHOLOGY

I. Prof. Mliller's Achievements

Ripe in years and rich in honours Prof. Max Miiller
has now completed his self-imposed and formidable
task of giving to the world his facts and theories
respecting the four sciences of Language, Religion,
Thought and Mythology. And if the old soldier of
seventy -three finds, to our universal regret, that his
eye grows somewhat dim and his natural force abates
(Yide C. p. xxvi), he has not to grieve, with the
beautiful Kallikrates (Yide Herod, ix. 72), that he
must pass to the great silence without having lifted
his arm against the enemy or done deed worthy of
him. For, though ever gentle in the tourney, and
specially objecting to that keen personal controversy
which so easily degenerates into unmannerly
bickerings. Prof. Miiller, however we may differ
with him in detail, has done many a doughty deed,
illumined many a dark spot, vastly widened the
bounds of our knowledge, placed his views before
the world in due completeness, and, if the translation
of the Big-Veda be an achievement reserved for the

1

6r^



2 HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY [l

twentieth century, sung his song to the last stanza.
And it is upon his great contributions to human
knowledge and to human thought, and not merely
upon an elegant and luminous style, — as Mr.
Andrew Lang (J/. M. p. 200) suggests, in a
compliment which, however well meant, closely
borders upon an insult, — that Prof. Miiller's
permanent fame will securely rest.

II. General Plan of the ' Contributions to the Science
of Mythology'

These two goodly volumes, containing 900 pages,
are divided into a Preface and six chapters, the
first of which is a Retrospect, whilst the others
severally treat of the Problems and Methods of the
Science of ^lythology, of the Analogical and
Psychological Schools of Comparative Mythology, of
Phonetics, and, lastly, of Yedic Mythology. In the
Preface the Professor shows that, as a matter of
fact, his method and general principles are not obsolete
and bygone, as has of late been sometimes asserted
in England. He is no solitary Athanasius, but has
numerous very powerful fellow-workers, disciples,
and allies, alike in Europe and in America. This,
of course, is well known to scholars, but is frequently
forgotten by those who draw their inspiration from
the latest article in some English magazine. Thus,
Mr. Andrew Lang remarks : —

' Mr. Max Miiller's ideas, in various modifications,
are doubtless still the most prevalent of any. The
anthropological method has hardly touched, T think,
the learned contributors to Roscher's excellent
rajthological Lexicon.'



i] MAX muller's pronouncement 3

On this I may observe that, wliilst the scientific
mind of Germany, as of course, welcomes all sober
research, anthropological or otherwise, it is dead
against the methods of the ' untutored anthropologist,'
and for reasons which will clearly appear in these
pages.

Alluding to a recent phase of literary opinion in
England, Prof. Muller says : —

' If, as happens sometimes, the same critic is on
the staff of many [)apers, and has to supply copy
every day, every week, or every month, the broken
rays of one brilliant star may produce the dazzling
impression of many independent lights, and there
has been ot" late such a galaxy of sparkling articles
on Comparative Mythology and Folklore, that even
those who are themselves opposed to this new
science, have at last expressed their disapproval
of the "journalistic mist " that has been raised, and
that threatens to obscure the real problems of the
Science of Mythology ' {C. p. vii).

He concludes his Preface with the followino; clear
and large-hearted expression of his standpoint : —

' Whoever recognizes in mythology the last traces
of [what we now call] a poetical conception of
the solemn drama of nature, is on our side, and
whatever the grammar and literature may be which
he chooses for his own special study, whether those
of Babylon or Egypt, of Lets or Fins, of Maoris
or Mincoupies or Mincopies, if he can draw from
them any contributions towards the elucidation of
our ancient Aryan myths, he will be welcomed as
a useful ally and as a worthy fellow-labourer '
{Ih. p. xxviii).

-1 ■i^



4 HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY [l

III. Study of Savage Tribes

Whilst thus welcoming all sound research,
whether linguistic, mythological or anthropological,
Prof. Miiller urges that the study of the beliefs
and customs of savages should be made with great
care and caution ; and that it is most desirable that
the investigator should, at all events to some extent,
master the language of those about whom he is
ofoinof to write. He observes : —

' I can quite understand the strong prejudice
which scholars feel against the purely dilettante
work of certain ethnologists who write about the
customs and myths of people whose language they
do not understand' {Ih. p. 24).

This eminently reasonable opinion has been
received with a grimace in certain quarters. Nor
is the cause far to seek ; for it is vastly easier to
compare the statements of a dozen books than to
learn a single foreign language.

Innumerable mistakes have been made respecting
the beliefs of savages, partly through the carelessness
of investigators, but largely through misapprehen-
sions arising from linguistic ignorance. The same
expressions, the same words, the same sounds,
constantly mean very different things to diiFerent
people.

IV. The Original Aryan Unity

As the now scattered branches of the Indo-
European race were once a united family possessed
of a single language (Proto-Aryan), Prof. Miiller
holds that, prior to their separation, they had ' not
only common words {ixvOol), but likewise common
myths {^vOoi: Ih, p. 21). The contrary proposition



i] MAX mullek's pronouncement 5

is almost unthinkable. The dwellers in Yorkshire,
Greece, Mangaia, or anywhere else, have always had
both. If anything further is required in support
of so obvious a truth, let us quote the high authority
of Mr. Lang, who, speaking of the ' Saranyu-Erinnys
myth,' observes : —

' Why the story occurred both in Greece and
India, I protest that I cannot pretend to explain,
except on the hypothesis that the ancestors of
Greek and Vedic peoples once dwelt together, had
a common stock of savage fables, and a common or
kindred language. After their dispersion, the
fables admitted discrepancies, as stories in oral
circulation occasionally do' (J/. M. p. 69).

Just so. Prof. Miiller next holds : —
' That what we call the gods of mythology were
chiefly the agents supposed to exist behind the great
phenomena of nature' (C p. 21).

I confess I find little or no difference amongst
investigators upon this point. Some, indeed, may
give more prominence to the Dawn-spirit, 'other
some ' to the Corn -spirit, so beloved by Mannhardt
and Mr. J. G. Frazer. But that does not touch
the principle. If we take away from the mind of
the men of archaic times 'the great phenomena
of nature,' and all agents supposed to be connected
with them, there is not much left for the Archaics to
make gods out of. They would almost have been
compelled to fall back on Mr. Herbert Spencer's
ancestor-worship. But it is agreed on all sides
that this theory practically involves a ' hysteron
proteron ' and cannot be accepted (Vide C. 3, 154-5 ;
M. 21. p. 126, note).



6 HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY [l

Prof. Miiller next holds : —

^ That the names of some of these gods and heroes,
common to some or to all the branches of the Aryan
i'amily of speech, and therefore much older than
the Yedic or Homeric periods, constitute the most
ancient and the most important material on which
students of [Aryan] mythology have to work '
{C. p. 21).

That there should be some such god- and hero-
names is practically as certain as that existing
Aryan dialects possess numerous common ordinary
words in variant forms. But, considering the lapse
of time, and the special influences which affect
proper names, it is a fair question to ask. Can we
now identify and successfully compare any or many
of these? This is, of course, a matter of evidence;
and the evidence in support of identification is
two-fold (1) That based upon linguistics — phonetic
laws ; and (2) That based upon similarity of concept
and treatment in detail of any two mythic
personages. It is not asserted that linguistics alone
are to be relied upon. Lastly, as there is
admittedly a Hyponoia (=Undercurrent of meaning)
in mythology, Prof. Miiller holds : —

' That the best solvent of the old riddles of
mythology is to be found in an etymological analysis
of the names of gods and goddesses, heroes and
heroines' {Ih. p. 21).

The meaning of the name is obviousl}^ of very
great importance in any attempt to explain a mythic
personage. But although the meanings of vast
numbers of ordinary words and of proper names are
known, yet some of both kinds continue to defy



l] MAX MULLERS PRONOUNCEMENT 7

all nttempts at solution. The etymology of others,
again, is doubtful.

V. Vedic- Sanscrit and Greek Equations

The following instances give some of Prof. Milller's
identifications of Vedic and Greek mythic personages,
based upon the principles before mentioned, and
maintained by him after considering carefully various
objections urged by different critic-scholars : —

Sk. Ahana = Gk. Athena; Sk. Bhura??yu = Gk.
Phoroneus; Sk.Dyaushpitar=Gk. Zeus-'7raT77/3(==:Lat.
Ju-piter) ; Sk. Sara/iyu = Gk. Erinys ; Sk.
Sarvara =: Gk. Kerberos ; Sk. Ushas = Gk. Eos ; Sk.
Yaruna = Gk. Ouranos ; Sk. Yivasvan = Gk. lasion
(z'.c, TtYdo-Ycov).

To such comparisons two objections have been
made. The first is that of certain scholars ; nearly
all these equations, they say, violate some phonetic
law, and are therefore impossible. The second
objection is that urged by Mr. Lang as protagonist
and on behalf of a certain class of anthropological
mythologists. They say, in effect, A¥e know
nothing, and care very little, about linguistics.
But we observe that the philological experts often
differ in opinion. As, in the abstract, and, for aught
we know, the opinion of Prof. A. is just as good
as that of Dr. B., it will be wise to accept neither
view ; and, further, to conclude that both opinions
are alike worthless. This second objection I shall
deal with subsequently (Vide inf, p. 35).

VI. Instance of a Phonetic Objection

Another well-known equation, Sk. Sarameya-s =
Gk. Hermeias, was first made by Kuhn. ' This



8 HELLENIC MYTHOLOGY [l

discovery,' says Prof. Miiller, ' marked a new starting
point in our studies, and it was so brilliant and
so convincino; that for a time it took even classical
scholars by storm. Afterwards followed a reaction.
Every kind of phonetic difficulty was raised, but
every objection was met, and after Benfey's exhaustive
paper on Hermes, Minos, and Tartaros, the phonetic
objectors were finally silenced ' ( C. p. 676). Not
' finally.' The persecution of this much-tried
equation soon recommenced. Mr. L. R. Farnell,
on the strength of ^ information received ' from his
'friend Professor Macdonell,' thus confidently
expresses himself: —

' The theory that Sarameya-s is to be identified
with 'EpyLteta? founders on the first vowel : the Greek
equivalent should be 'Upefxet-o^' {Cults of the Greek
States^ i. 3, note).

Is this so? Kick, in his list of the words of the
Aryan ' Grundsprache ' ( Worterhuch,, 1. 227), gives
the root sar^ meaning primarily ' to go,' and equates
Sk. sar-ma, Gk. 'op-fiy ('impetus'). From the root
sar spring Sk. sar-ani (' a path '), Sar-a?zyu
(' Morning- wind '), Sarama, 'and her ofFsprmg
Sarameya' (C i. 370. Note Prof. Miiller's argument
in loc). And, as Prof. Midler notes from Pick
{Griech, Personennamen^ p. 467), 'the elision of the
middle vowel is justified by such an example as
Harpyiae-Arepyiae. The connexion between Hermes,
the Gk. 'opfidw^ and Sk. words compounded with the
root sar^ is also supported by Sclierer in ' Roscher's
excellent Lexicon' (Vide sup. p. 2). Have, then,
Kuhn, Benfey, Pick, Scherer, Roscher, and
Prof. Miiller all ' foundered ' ' on the first vowel ' ?
I beg leave to doubt. And, again, if we were



i] MAX muller's pronouncement 9

compelled to accept such a Gk. form as LIcre-meios
(or -meias. Cf. the form Hermeas^ II. v. 390),
why should it not be abraded into //(?r-meias,
just as //cVa-kles reappears as ZT^r-cules? Let it
not be supposed that I am inclined to undervalue
the opinion of Prof. Macdonell. I learn from
Mr. Lang (J/. M. p. 201) that the Professor is ' the
representative of the historic house of Lochgarry ' ;
and I should as soon think of speaking disrespectfully
of the equator. But when a point of law is decided by,
say nine to three of the Judges, reasonable people don't,
as a rule, continue to doubt about it. They regard
the question as settled. According to Prof. Macdonell,
only one of these philological equations ' between
names of Greek and Vedic gods,' ' can be said to be
beyond the range of doubt.' Well, well; people may
doubt about almost anything. ' What is history but
a fable agreed upon? ' It has recently been
strenuously and learnedly argued that the
Gunpowder Plot was ' a put-up job ' by the Earl
of Salisbury. Prof. Miiller, as of course, admits
an absence of mathematical certainty in linguistic
research. But, far from repining, let us be thankful
for small mercies from Prof. Macdonell. One of
these equations, it seems, is above suspicion. All
hail, Calpurnia ! This fact may imply more than the
Professor reckons on.

VII. Application of Phonetic Rules to Proper Names

But here a further question arises, i.e.^ Do general
phonetic rules ' apply with equal force to proper
names, more particularly to the names of mythological
gods and heroes?' {C. p. 297). Curtius said yes;
Benfey, Prof. Victor Henry, Prof. Miiller and others



lO HELLENIC .AIYTHOLOGY [l

say no. Prof. Miiller, with a courageous love of
truth, ingenuously confesses : — ' I formerly agreed
with Curtius ' {Ih. p. 387); Mn former 3'ears I was
myself one of the straitest sect of phonetic pharisees.
But facts are facts, and one must live and learn'
{lb. p. 425). 'As long as our facts cannot be
denied, our deductions will have to be accepted '
{lb, p. 298).

And what are these facts? Why, that, from a
multitude of causes, proper names, especially those
• which have lost their etymological clearness '
{lb. p. 363), are exposed to alteration and corruption,
and have consequently been altered and corrupted in
a far greater degree than mere ordinary words.
' Xo phonetic rules would suffice to help us to
discover the original form and meaning of such names
as London, York, or Birmhigham' {lb. p. 363).
Christian names 'have been tortured in different
languages to such a degree that no phonetic rules
would give us a key to their secret history '
{lb. p. 365). To take an instance, — one which I am
sure will please Mr. Gomme,— of the change in a
local name: —

'It was very natural to discover in Wormingford,
the ford of the Wormings, z'.c, the sons of Worm,
and we all remember how the believers in universal


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryRobert BrownSemitic influence in Hellenic mythology, with special reference to the recent mythological works of the Rt → online text (page 1 of 16)