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300K 350.2-68145 v.3 c. 1







Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries



{From a Sketch hy Mr. Herhert Ward an officer of the Expedition.)






VOL. Ill


Mith ©ton lunirrsii (©rtginal afUuatrations








In a Day of Small Things : Some Minor Joukneys ackoss Africa 1


From the Atlantic to the Albert Nyanza : A Beleaguered Province . . ... 25


From the Nile Lakes to the Indian Ocean : An Irresolute Ruler 53


The Sahara : its Exploration and its Exploitation . . , 77


The Missionaries : Tilling, Sowing, and Reaping 106

The Missionaries of Uganda and the Way Thither : A Half-Told Tale 139


The Hunter's Paradise : Early and Late : A Contrast 163

Beast and Man : Some Campaigns of a Long War 181



Max and Beast : thk EEaiNSiKG of the Ekd ■ ■ .200


The Ending of an Old Era and the Begin^^ing of a New One 221

The Scientific Explorers : Beys and Pashas : Nachtigal and Junker 244


The International Explorers : " One Traveller Returns " 266

International Explorers : Mant Men and ManiY Minds : The End of a Dream . . . 286


The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition : The Advance Column leaving Yambuya


Fort S5.0 Miguel, Sao Paolo de Loanda ....

Mount Mirumbi, Tanganyika

Lieut. -Colonel Serpa Pinto

Making Tethers for Oxen, Leshoma, Zambesi

Market, Leshoma, Zambesi

Map of Serpa Pinto's Route

Rapids of Ngambae, Upper Zambesi

Map showing the Density of Population in Africa
En route for Lialui : Preparing to Encamp .

Mr. Blockley's Tannery, Leshoma

Map of Wissmann's Journeys

F. S. Arnot

" A Kid for Sale ! "—Lialui - .

Traveller's Camp in the Wankonde Country, Nyassa-

land (North)

Ruga-Ruga (Bandits) employed by the Governor of

Ujiji, returned from raiding

Cattle-House of the Wankonde Tribe - - . .

Major H. von Wissmann

Le Stanley, one of the River Steamers used by the

Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

Makaraka Dwellings

Makaraka Warriors and Musicians

The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition Leaving Matadi,
on the Congo, with Tippoo Tib and his Wives

Major Casati

Sectional Steel Boat The Advance

Arrow-heads, Arrows, and Quiver, from the Aru-

whimi District

Map of the Route of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition
Relative Sizes of Skeletons of an Akka Woman and of

a Man of Ordinary Stature

Akka (Pigmy) Girl

Daylight at Last! The Advance Column of the Emin
Pasha Relief Expedition emerging from the Great

Forest to face page

Weapons of the Aruwhimi District

Wanyoro Warriors

Meeting of Emin Pasha and Mr. Stanley at Kavalli's,

April 29, 1888

Fort Bodo

Lango Chief with Characteristic Head-dress .

Lango Chief

Mr. Ward Despatched to the Coast for Instructions :

Call at Lukolela

Mutiny of Emin Pasha's Men at Laboreh : Beginning

of the Rebellion . .

Emin Pasha

Unyoro Village

Makaraka Native

Officers of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

(;.M.S. Station of Usambiro, where Stanley stayed

with Mackay

Objects from Zanzibar, Mombasa, etc. .

I )r. (Jarl Peters

Mombasa : 'I'he Road to Uganda

< Captain F. ]>. lAigard

Dr. F. Stuhlmann







Map Showing the Zones of Vegetation in Africa . • 69

Akka Girl 72

Grave of Captain Nelson at Kikiyu 73

Captain Trivier and Attendants 76

Oasis near Gabes, Tunisia 77

Berber Type 78

Arab Tribesman 80

Incident in the Desert : Marauder taken Prisoner by

a French Arab Outpost 81

Sir R. Lambert Playfair 83

Remains of Roman Amphitheatre at El Djem, Tunisia 81
Typical Saharan Landscape (Dakhel) ... .85

Arab Type 87

Young Jewess of Tunisia 88

Dr. Rohlfs' Expedition, 1873-4: Wells in the Oasis

Fara'freh, Libyan Desert 89

Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs 91

Dr. Rohlfs' Expedition, 1873-4 : The House of the Ex-
pedition at Gasr Dakhel, Libyan Desert . . .92
Dr. Rohlfs' Expedition, 1873-4 : The Approach to Bud-

chullu 93

Bedouin Women 96

St. Louis, Senegambia : Avenue de Cocotiers de Gnet-

Ndar 97

Caravan at a Well in the Desert . • to face page 99

Date-Palms on the Island of Djerba 100

Arabs Returning from a Raiding Expedition . . 101

Some Products of the Oases 104

Cardinal Lavigerie 105

Johann Ludwig Krapf 107

Remains of the Cisterns of Carthage, with the Byrsa
Hill, the Port (Cothon), and the Gulf of Tunis, etc.,

in the distance 108

Map showing the Distribution of Religions and Mis-
sionary Stations in Africa 109

Marabout (Mohammedan Devotee), Gambia . . .112

Fetish Customs for the Dead, Little Popo, West Africa 113

Mohammedan Joloffs, Gambia 116

Images at Chiefs House, Ogbomosho, Yoruba . . 116

Fetish Place, with Clay Idols, Porto Novo, West Africa 117

Rev. George Grenfell 119

B.M.S. Congo Steamer Peace 120

A.B.M.U. Congo Steamer Henry Reed . . . .120
First Missionary Encampment at Bolobo : Rev. G.

Grenfell's Head-quarters in 1888 121

Rev. J. Holm an Bentley 123

Bangala Boys 124

Evolution of a Mission-House at Lukolela, Congo . . 125

Rev. Thomas J. Comber 127

Street in Kuruman, showing Church built by Dr.

Moffat and others 128

Field-woi'k at Lovedale 129

Rev. Dr. James Stewart 131

Carpenters' Workshop at Lovedale 132

The Jlala at Matope l^^^

Dr. Charles F. Mackenzie, first Bishop of the Univer-
sities' Mission to Cenlral Africa 135

Dr. ('. A. SniyLliies, Bishop of Central Africa . . 135




Bandawe, Mission-Station of the Free Cliiircli of Scot-
land 136

Blantyre Chiirch 137

Captain E C. Hore 138

House at Mengo, Uganda, built by Natives for Bishop '

Tucker ." UO

Waganda Envoys despatched by King IM'tcsa to

England in 1879 141

Dr. R. W. Eclkin 143

Church at Karenia, Liike Tanganyika, in Course of
Construction by the " White Fathers ' : Length

150 feet 144

Church on the Hills of Namurembe, Uganda, and

Houses of English Missionaries 145

Alexander Mackay 148

Seizui-e of Bishop Hannington, previous to His Murder 149
Grave of the Mother of King M'tesa . . . .151
Mumias' Village, Kavirondo, the Scene of Bishop

Hannington's Murder 152

Bishop Hannington 153

Dr. A. R. Tucker, third Bishop of East Equatorial

Africa 153

" God's Acre," Usambiro, showing the Graves of

Bishop Parker, Alexander Mackay, and others . 156
Fort of Kampala, Uganda, with Summit of Mengo

and Houses of the King 157

Map of Equatorial East Africa 160

Nzoi 161

Game in Sight! 164

Shot Buffalo 165

Two-Horned Rhinoceros 168

William Charles Baldwin 168

A Critical Moment 169

In Search of Prey 172

Shot Hartebeest 173

Mr. H. A. Bi-yden and Friends on Trek at Morok-

weng 176

Young Cow Buffalo caught in a Python's Coils . . 177
Shot Grant's Gazelle (Gazella Granti) of East

Africa \ . . 180

A Good Bag . .181

The Rev. Dr. Moffat 182

Hunting the Springbuck 185

The Kaffir and the Lion 188

Wandering Hunters (Masarwa Bushmen), North

Kalahari Desert 189

Party of Giraffe Hunters 193

AttheFordofMalikoe.-Marico River . . . .193

Shooting Duiker 196

On the Maritsani River 197

Stalking Blesbuck behind Oxen 200

Gorge in the Bamangwato Mountains .... 201
Twelve thousand pounds' worth of Ivory at a Trader's

Store at Pandamatenka 204

On the Limpopo River 205

Roualeyn George Gordon Cummlng 208

Gordon Cumming's Adventure with the Hippopotamus 209

W. F. Webb 210

Francis Galton 212

Carl Johan Andersson 212

Cleaning Heads after an Eland Hunt .... 213
Frederick Courteney Selous . . . '. . .215
Encampment of Travellers in the Zambesi Country :

Lesliomas selling Native Produce .... 216
Characteristic Portion of Selous' Road .... 217
Native Hunters returning from the Chase . . . 220
Village of Kitetu in the Kikuyu Country . . .221

Dr. ]':mil Holub 223

ilap showing Distribution of Languages in Africa . 224


Group of Mashukulumbwe 225

Route Map of Holub's Journeys. . . . . .227

Traveller's Flotilla on the Zambesi (at Sesheke) . . 228

William D. James 229

Batoka Type 229

F. L. James 230

Group of ^\■ak\^■afi 232

Street in Lamu, East Africa 233

Count Samuel Tcleki (von Szek) 234

Niam-Niam Girl 236

Niam-Niam Wizard 237

Roiite Map of Schweinfurth's Journey .... 238

Georg August Scliweinf urth 239

Niam-Niam Musician and Warriors 240

Niam-Niam Farm : Visit of Traders 241

Niam-Niam Tribesmen 243

The German Consulate at Khartoum during the

Egyptian Occupation of the Soudan .... 244

Ernst Marno 245

Colonel Chaillti-Long 245

Slave-Boy of Darfur rescued by General Gordon . . 248
Map of the Actual Mean Temperature of the African

Year 249

Euphorbia candelabrum . . . • r • • • 2^-
Map of the Mean Annual Range of Tcm|«raturc in

Africa. ,253

Route Map of Dr. Nachtigal's Journey .... 254

Gustav Nacbtigal 256

Camp of Wandering Abyssinians 257

Dr. W^ilhelm Junker 259

El Khatmieh, a Suburb of Kassala 260

Mundoo Warriors 261

Map of Dr. Junker's Routes % 263

Shooli Musicians fo Me page 264

Shooli Village 264

Shooli Musical Instruments 264

Shooli Warrior 265

On the Island of Chisumulu, Lake Nyassa . . .268

Zanzibar Beach 269

Kilimanjaro from Moschi, showing Snow-clad Peak

ofKibo 272

Falls of Zoa on the River Ruo, a Tributary of the

Shire 273'

Keith Johnston 275

Mango Fruit 276

East African Water Vegetation, including the Magni-
ficent blue Water Lily 277

Map of Keith Johnston's and Joseph Thomson's Route 279

Grotesque Baobab 280

Uguha People, west of Tanganyika 281

Zanzibar 284

Joseph Thomson 285

Karema Fort, now a Roman Catholic Mission Station 288

Dwellings at Acrur, Abyssinia 289

Abyssinia : Call to Prayer 292

Bateke Chief and Son 293

Lower Congo Chief in "Royal Robes" . in j, tee vagi' 296
Lower Congo Chief in "Coronation Robes" . . .296
Cutting Timber in a Lower Congo Forest . • .297

Kilimanjaro : Another View of Kibo from Moschi . 300

Mount Meru, from Moschi 301

Lake Naivasha 302

Lake Jipe, near Kilimanjaro 304

The Crater Lake Chala, on Kilimanjaro . . . .304

Waterfall on Kilimanjaro 305

The Kilimanjaro Range ... ... 308

Hill of Ndara, between Kilimanjaro and the Coast . 309
El Morau (Old Men) of the Masai Tribe . . - .311

Masai War Party 312



(From a Photograph sujyplied hy H. M. Stanley.)



In a Day of Small Things: Some Minor Journeys across Africa.

An aimus miraillis in the History of African Exploration — What constitutes a Journey " across Africa " — Serpa
Pinto's Expedition — Separates from Capello and Ivens at Bihe — Destroying some Goods to obtain
Porters for the Remainder — Peculiarity of Rivers — New Sources Discovered — The Mucassequeres— The
Mussambas Tribe and their Wanderings— The Zambesi — The Makololo Empire — Its Ruin and Extinction
of the Race— The Victoria Falls— Pioneers of Civilisation met with — M. Collard— Dr. Bradshaw and
Senhor Anchieta — The Kalahari and Baines Deserts — Character of the Country — Matteucci and Massari's
Journey from Egypt to the Gulf of Guinea — Sultans Hospitable and Otherwise — Death of Matteucci—
Wissmann's First Journey across Africa — A Great Story and a Small Lake — An Artistic People —
lSS-1 a Brisk Year for Africa— Arnot's Journey— Katanga — Confusion of Nomenclature— Two Sides to a
Story — Capello and Ivens' Journey from Ocean to Ocean — Gleerup's Transit — Oskar Lenz's Travels from the
Congo to the Zambesi — Changes on the Upper Congo since Stanley's First Descent — Tippoo Tib — Arab
Settlements — Kasongo— Tanganyika Reached — The Stevenson Road — Nyassa— The Sea — Wissmann's Second
Journey across the Continent — Ravages of Arab Raiders — The Tanganyika and Nyassa Lakes — Waning
Interest in Transcontinental Journeys — Speed at which they were performed — Getting to be mere Geo-
graphical " Records."


HE year 1877 was a
notable one in the
annals of African ex-
ploration. Shortly be-
fore that date Lieu-
tenant Cameron had
returned from his ex-
pedition across Africa
(Vol. II., p. 266); still

more recently Stanley had descended the
Congo ; and, above all, the journey of Living-
stone — which had been finished in the Portu-
guese possessions — was still fresh in public
memory. However, though these British travel-
lers had reached the Atlantic within Lusitanian
territory — and in those days Portugal claimed
the Congo — the Portuguese themselves had
done little for the exploration of the country



under their flag. Their colonies extended
without any determined frontiers to the east and
to the west ; but their boundaries, the course of
the rivers and the trend of the mountains,
even within the Hmits of these colonies, were
but little known. Vague stories, we have seen,
circulated regarding early Portuguese travel-
lers (Vol. II., pp. 163-166) ; but few of them
had left any records of their journeys, and
none which could be taken without doubt.

In the meantime a difference of opinion

existed as to what really constituted a journey

across Africa. Livingstone, it is all

Z^l-^ ^ l^'-it admitted, was the first traveller

continental y^]^Q successfully attempted to cross

journey? -^ ^ ^ -,

the country and preserve a de-
scription of his journey. But Gerhard Rohlfs,
even before Livingstone, had penetrated from
the Mediterranean to the Atlantic ; and if a
journey of this kind is to be signalised as one
"across Africa," then Speke's famous journey
(Vol. II., pp. 65-116) from the east coast to
the Nile deserves that name. Colonel Grant,
indeed, actually published an account of it
under the title of "A Walk Across Africa."
However, long before that period Clapperton
(Vol. I., pp. 242-259), in the course of two
journeys, had covered very much the same
ground as Rohlfs. Even Caillie (Vol. I., pp.
227-238) had entered Africa at the Gulf of
Guinea and left it at Tangier in Morocco.

We must, therefore, not speak of an expedi-
tion as being across Africa except on more
substantial claims than these : -otherwise every
tourist who passed from Tangier to Tetuan
may be said to have " crossed Africa." How-
ever, with the completion of Stanley's A^oyage
down the Congo almost the last of the great
problems of Africa had been solved.

A few years before these mysteries were num-
erous. Now the Niger had been traced from its
. , . source to the sea. The o-reat lakes

A day of . f'

smau were no lono-er subiects of specula-

tion. The course of the Nile and
all its chief tributaries had been tracked, and
finally the Congo (or the Livingstone, as
Stanley, in defiance of the laws governing
geographical nomenclature, had called it) was

no longer one of the puzzles or geography.
Nevertheless, there was still much to be done.
Africa was known only in outline. Vast tracts
between the rivers had not been laid down on
the map and the regions on each side of the
routes of the travellers across the countr}'
were still blanks. Numerous minor rivers
were to be discovered and . endless sheets of
water, many not much less in size than the
huge ones which we have described in
previous chapters, remained to be traced
in all then- vastness. Still, no Old World
mystery attached to these. The rivers were
not historical streams and the lakes were
the sources of no such currents as the
Niger, the Congo, and the chief tributary
of the Zambesi. The Portuguese, moreover,
came rather late into the field. Between the
utmost limits of their own colonies on the
west coast and the most v/estern extension of
the British on the east coast there was a
comparativel}^ narrow strip of country re-
maining to be explored. Even that narrow
region was being penetrated here and there
by hunters and miners and traders. Hence
the explorer entering from the west coast and
going to the east — say to Natal — had only a
short distance to travel before he came upon
the trail of other civilised men. The Portu-
guese, nevertheless, determined not to be any
longer singular among the nations in alone
taking no part in the ransackmg of inner Africa.
The Legislature, therefore, voted a sum of over
£6,000 to fit out an expedition for
exploring and mapping the country Pinto's
immediately behind their colonies ^^^^
on the west coast. The officer selected for
the command of this expedition was Captain
(afterwards Colonel) Alexandre Alberto da
Rocha Serpa Pinto (p. 3) — who, as one of
the garrison of the African colonies, had
already had some experience of the region to
be explored — with whom were associated
two naval officers, Lieutenants Menigildo de
Brito Capello and Roberto Ivens. The ostens-
ible object of the journey was to survey the
great artery w^hich, as a tributary of the
Consfo, runs from south to north between


17° and 19° east of Greenwich, and is called
the Kwango ; and also to determine all the
geographical bearings between the river and
the west coast, and • make a comparative
survey of the hydrographic basins of the
Congo and the Zambesi. Leaving Sao
Paoio de Loanda(Vol. II., p. 216) in May, 1877,
the first portion of the journey was to the
settlement of Bihe, a native village on a sfreat
plateau, where several Portuguese traders had
their establishments. It is known to the
reader from the visit paid to it by Commander


(From a Photoipxiph by Camaclw, Lisbon.)

Cameron a few years earlier (Vol. 11, p. 278).
At this point the expedition broke up into
two divisions, the travellers finding it difficult
to obtain porters for the entire party. Capello
and Ivens' journey to the territory of Yacca
forms an mteresting episode in African dis-
covery, but from a geographical point of view
it does not bulk largely in the history of the
Dark Continent.'^ We shall, however, for the
present follow Captain Pinto in his walk to
the east.

Indeed, to cross the continent was not his
intention when he first started out upon the
journey of which these pages form a brief
record. His march through the continent

* Capello and Ivens, " From Benguela to the Terri-
tory of Yacca," 2 vols. (1882); also Proceed! >i(/s a/ the
Jl.mj(d (leiujvaphieal Soriety, 1880, p. Ml.

was almost forced upon him. • Short of pro-
visions and of men to carry them, he could not
well go back ; he was therefore forced to go
forward, the country over which he travelled
from the eastern bounds hi the
Portuguese colonies to the western fastwSd^
bounds of Natal being about 500
miles in breadth, and most of it still unknown
to the chartographer. Leaving Bihe in the
month of May, 1878, he was for the most part
alone, with a few native attendants and no
white companions, as he passed across the
southern limits of the Benguelan highlands.
This country stands 5,000 feet above the
level of the sea, and possesses great advantages
in its salubrity and commercial and agricul-
tural capabilities, which highly recommend it
to European attention. Indeed, in all tropical
Africa this is the territory Captain Serpa Pinto
considers most suitable for European colonisa-
tion, though since that day we have learnt
so much more of Central Africa that this
enthusiastic dictum is too sweeping, even
despite the attempts that have been made
to colonise these uplands.

One journey in the Zambesi country is
very much like another, so that those who
have followed Livingstone's and Cameron's
travels will scarcely require a minute ac-
count of the campings and hardships of the
explorer now under consideration. He and
his party had to live solely on the product
of the chase from day to day, and thus, with
occasional help from friendly natives, he suc-
ceeded in accomplishing his difficult task. As
a rule, all of the tribes with whom the ex-
pedition came into contact had more or less
acquaintance with white men and generally,
from long experience, lived in wholesome
dread of their powers : so that, leaving out
of account the grasping peculiarities of the
little native kings, or " Sovas," the difficulty
of obtaining porters to carry their baggage,
and the inevitable hardships of travel. Captain
Serpa Pinto encountered no great obstacles in
the course of his journey. Indeed, with the
exception of being so frequently compelled to
destroy his baggage from the difficulty of


obtaining people to carry it, we cannot learn
that he met with any very serious peril. The
hindrances in the way of hiring porters were
largely due to the greed of the native chiefs
to obtain the goods which the traveller was
unable to carry. Hence his precaution in
destroying them. Otherwise, the porters Avould
never have been forthcoming. Before reaching
Bihe he Avas surprised to find the Kubango
river takiner its rise to the west and not to the
east- of that place, as all existing maps had
led him to expect. This large river receives
on the east a great tributary, the Kwito, which
unites its. waters with those of the Kubango


(From a Photograph taken for the Paris Society for Evangelical Missions.)

at a place called Darico. Within the wide
fork which is formed by the two rivers the
Kwanza,'^ as well as some of its smaller
affluents, takes its source.

It was here that Pinto had occasion to
* Also spelt Cuanza and Quan^ia.

remark a peculiar feature in the physical
geography of this part of Africa, River pecu-
namely, the dovetailing of the liarities.
sources of rivers which, in the rest of their
courses, run in opposite directions. Thus,
close to the source of the Kwito rise three
other rivers, two of which flow into the
Atlantic by the Kwanza, of which they are
tributaries, and one into the Indian Ocean
through the Zambesi. The same feature is
noticeable even beyond Lake Bemba (or
Bangweolo), the Congo and Zambesi as well
as their affluents having their sources
and mingling their streams near to the
twelfth parallel of south
latitude. East of the river
Kwito, the Kwando, which
Livingstone calls the Chobe
(Vol. IL, pp. 195, 199, etc.),
takes its rise. It forms a
fine, large, navigable river,
waterino- a great extent
of inhabitable and fer-
tile country, and receives
several affluents as navig-
able as itself and all
destined in future years
to be enlivened by barges,
boats, and steamers. In
this forest-covered resrion,
Avhere the elephant still
abounds, we meet with the
Mucassequeres, a tribe of
a yellowish-white colour.
They are nomads and
perfectly savage, spending
their time continually
roaming through the region
between the Kwando and
the Kubango. In the same
country exists another
nomad tribe — the Mus-
sambas — who are black, and wander about
towards the south, raiding the country as
far as the land of the Sulatebele. These
people, however, are quite distinct from the
Bushmen of the Kalahari, from the pigmies
of the country farther north described by


M. du Chaillu, and from those near the
head-waters of the Congo and the resfion
between it and Albert Nyanza, described by
Mr. Stanley and others some years later (p. 34).
The country between Bihe and the Zambesi
is inhabited by three distinct races of people,
the Kimbandes, the Luchares, and the Am-
buellas. Another race — the Kibokwes — is now
beginning to settle there, and there is a

inhabited by people of docile character and
susceptible of development. What struck
him very much as regards their capacity for
trade was that these tribes were extremely
fond of dress, a disposition which should
certainly not be overlooked by the " white "

Online LibraryRobert BrownThe story of Africa and its explorers (Volume v.3) → online text (page 1 of 38)