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THE STORY OF AFRICA



AI^D ITS EXPLORERS.



THE



STORY OF AFRICA



AND ITS EXPLORERS



ROBERT BROWN, M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., P.R.G.S.

AUTHOK OF ''THE COUNTRIES OF THE WOELD," "THE PEOPLES OP THE WORLD," " OUR EARTH AND ITS STORY''



VOL. lY

EUROPE IN AFRICA— COLONIES AND COLONISTS— THE SCRAMBLE
FOR AN EMPIRE— A CONTINENT UNDER COMPANIES



Mitlf ©too BunirreiJ ©rigxnal aUuatrationa



CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED

LONDON, PARIS & MELBOURNE



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



n^.-




CONTENTS.



PAGE-

CHAPTER I.
The Colonisation of Africa : A Medi^vai, Exodus : Portugal . 1



CHAPTER II.

COLONISATIO-NT : PORTUGAL IN AFRICA : MOROCCO ; GUINEA ; ANGOLA ; M09AMBIQUE . . . .15

CHAPTER III.
Colonisation : The French in West Africa 39

CHAPTER IV.

Colonisation : The French in North Africa 55



CHAPTER V.
Colonisation : The Spaniards in Africa 70



CHAPTER VI.

Colonisation : Great Britain in West Africa ........... 83>

CHAPTER VII.
Colonisation : The Planting of South Africa ; The Dutch 109

CHAPTER VIII.
Colonisation : The Expansion of South Africa : The British . . . • .122



^l THE 8 TOBY OF AFRIGA.

PAGE

CHAPTER IX.

Colonisation : The British in South Africa : Diamonds and G-old ...... 13ii

CHAPTER X.

A Scramble for Africa : The Berlin Conference .......... 159

CHAPTER XI.
The Congo State and the Niger Territories : Africa under Companies ..... 176

CHAPTER XII.

Zanzibar : The Imperial British East Africa Company : Its Great Experiment . . . 195

CHAPTER XIII.

An Empirk under a Company : The Failure op an Experiment ....,..■ 213

CHAPTER XIV.

Beyond the Limpopo : The Tale of Two Companies and a Kingdom ...... 235



CHAPTER XV.
■Germany' and Italy in Africa : The Teuton and the Latin ........ 259



CHAPTER XVI.

A Ransacked Continent ; The Hinterlands : Conclusion - ..... . 274



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Matotela offering Tribute to the Barotse King.

PA.GE

Arab " Dliows " at Lamu, similar to those used in the

Slave Traffic 1

Marriage Dresses of Lainu and Musicians with

Siwas i

Seyyid Bin Hanied, Governor of Melinde, and Suite . 5
Pillar erected at Melinde by Vasco da Gama upon his

return from India in 1499 6

Mosque of Wangwana Wa Shah, in the Lamu Dis-
trict, marking the site of the Town where Liongo,

the Native Poet, lived 8

Old Fort at Mombasa, built during the Portuguese

occupation . 9

Mombasa, fioia the North Shore, showing the Custom-
House and Fort (Hyphsene or Doom Palm, the

only species that brandies, in the foreground) . 12

Round Tower, Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa . . 13
Lamu Interior, showing Walls hung with China

many Centuries old , . 14

Howe Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone .... 16

At Inframanji, Ancobra Kiver, Gold Coast ... 17

Monte del Diablo (Devil's Mount), Gold Coast . . 20

Essamen Gold Mine, on River Ancobra, Gold Coast . 21

Kabinda Family . 24

Kabinda, showing the Baobab [Adansonia digitata)

out of Leaf 24

Quelimane Church 25

Embarking at Inhambane ....... 25

Residence of Portuguese Governor at M'Patsa's, Shir6

River 28

Boat on the Kwakwa . 29

Wa-yao Hunters 32

Falls of Ketane, Basutoland 33

At M'Patsa's, Shire River : Portuguese Gun-Boat in

Mid-Stream 36

Mouth of the Ruvuma . 3'7

On the Banks of the Ruvuma 37

Baboons in a Zambezi Sugar-Field . . . . . 38

Dakar, the Port of St. Louis, Senegal ... 40

St. Louis, showina: the Faidherbe Bridge crossing the

Senegal River • .41

Arab Trader . 41

General Faidherbe 43

Gaboon Native , , 44

Government House, Libreville, Gaboon . . . . 45

Col. Bonnier .46

King Denis 48

Pahouin Fetish Dresses . 49

Paul Belloni du Chaillu 50

Map of Du Chaillus Journeys 51

Near Station N'Djo'e, River Ogowe . .... 52

Near Lambar^ne, River Ogowe 53

Village of N'Gakin, Sauwi, French Ivory Coast . . 54

Street in Algiers 56

Kabyle (Berber) Village, Algeria 57

Saffron Crocus (Crocus sativus) of Tripoli ... 58

Punishment by Bastinado 60

Oasis of Biskra 61

Tunis, from the Artillery Barracks ..... 64

Bazaar, Tunis 65

Susa (the Ancient Hadrumetum). Timisia ... 67

Vif>ws in an Arab Cemetery. Tunisia .... 68

Sidi All Pasha, Bey of Tunis 69

Laraehe (El-.\raish), from the South .... 72

Ceuta, Morocco 73



Frontispiece.



>'A(;e

.'^caGate of C^eula . 74

Melilla, Morocco ......... 76

Snake-Charmers, Morocco ... . , . .77

Ne^ro Minstrels, Tangier ....... 77

Woman of the Country around Tangier . ... 78

Riffian Berber .79

Tower of Kuioubia (Great Mosque), City of Morocco,

showing the famous "Golden " Balls . ... 80
Tangier, from the Beach ....... 81

The Soko (Market-Place), Tangier 84

Al K'sar El Kebir, Morocco 85

Tangier in 1669 {After Holla?-) .... . . 87

Fete of Mohammed's Birthday in Tangier Soko . . 88
Court House and Prison in the Kasbah, Tangier .
Jewess of Tangier in Feast-day Dress ....

Cornfield at Ijebu, near Lagos

Ovens for Curing Fish, Anamabu, Gold Coast
Senate Hall ana Preaident's Residence, Monrovia,

Liberia . ■

Mangrove Thicket, Lagos Lagoon

Dance of a " Griot, " or Holy Woman, before Sissekai,

Chief of the Sofas . .... to face page

Cape Coast Castle

Courtyard of Cape Coast Castle

Owuolakon, Egba Territory, N.W. end of Lago,

Lagoon

The Olumo or Sacred Rock of Abbeokuta

Accra

Palace of the Alafin, or King of Oyo, Yoruba

The Chief of Iseyin, his Wives, and Suite

Visit of Kroomen to a Trading-Vessel ....

Granaiies at Eruwa, Yoruba

Cape I'own in 1780 (After Le X'aillant) .

Map of the Pari ition of South Africa ....

The Devil's Peak, or Windberg (3,315 ft.>, from Ronde-

bosch. Cape Colony

Hottentot Woman (After Le Vaillant, 1780) .

Cape Town, Table Mountain, The Lion's Head, and

Table Bay at present day

Cape Town Residence of the present day
Isaak Tirion's Map of South Africa, in 17l3 .
Hottentot Man (After Le Vaillant, 1780) ....

Lower Umgenie Falls, Natal

Kaffirs eating iheir " SkofF"

Zulu Kraal

Natal Native in War Dress

The Park, Durban, Natal

Durban, from Berea

Bloemfontein, Capital of the Orange Free Stale .

Parliament House, Cape Town

Fruit of the Stangeria Cycad of Natal ....

The Square, Johannesburg

De Beers Mine, Kimberley : Mechanical Haulage of

the " Blue " Clay to the Drying-Ground .
Map of the Geology of Africa ......

Cecil Rhodes

De Beers Mine, Kimberley ......

De Bpers Mine, Kimberley : Open Workings in 1873 .
De Beers Mine, Kimberley : Open Workings at the

present time ....-.-..



President Kriiger
King Cety wayo
Lonl Chelmsford
Amaj uba Hill



90
92
93

95
96

97
97

S8

100
101
103
104
101
105
108
109
112

113

115

116
117
120
121
124
125
128
129
131
132
133
134
135
136

137
139
140
141
144

145
147
148
148
149



Vlll



THE STORY OF AFRICA.



PAGE

Lord Wolseley ......... 150

Sir Charles Warren 151

The Mil! of Isandula and Cairn raised on the spot

■where the Royal Carbineers fell 152

Rorke's Drift : as \i is to-day 152

Defence of Rorke's Drift : Morning After the Attack . 153

The Last Stand at Isandula 153

Alluvial Washing at the South African Goldrields

to face page 155
De Kaap Gold-Fields : Sheba Hill, showiDg Bray's

Golden Quarry 156

"Prospecting" at the Gold-Fields 157

Cross erected hy H.M. the Queen in Memory of the

Prince Imperial 158

Bopoto (Congo) Man, an Avowed Cannibal . . . 160

Boma, Congo River 161

Trading Establishment at Banana, Congo River . . 161

Noki, on the Congo River ....... 165

Map showing the Partition of Africa .... 167

Arrival at the Cameroons of Canoes with Palm-Oil

from the Mungo River . . . ... . . 168

Traders' Hulks and Factories on the Cameroons

Coast 169

King Bell of the Cameroons 172

" King's " Canoe on the Brass River .... 173

Chief Samson Dido of Didotown, Cameroons . . 175
Government Stern-Wheel Steamer Ville de Bru.icelles,

Congo River 176

Congo Workmen imported from the Gold ("oast . . 177

Trading-Canoes at Lukolela Beach, Congo . . . 180

Ikengo Village, Congo 181

Bobangi Family 184

Riverside Scene, Lower Niger 185

Lieut. Mizon 187

Kini< of Zhibu and Suite, Benue River .... 188

Arrival at Egga of Messengers from Sultan of Xup6 . 189

Sir George Taubman Goldie 191

Detachment of the Royal Niger Company's Cons:abu-

lary at Asaba ......... 192

Political Map of Africa and Adjacent Regions . 1^5
Market Canoe at Egga, Upper Niger . . . .194

Coral Rocks, Wazin, British East Africa Coast . . 196
Wanga Town, British East Africa Coast . . .196
Wanyika on Magarini Plantation, British East

Africa Coast 197

Sir John Kirk jgg

Mosque of Friday, Kilwa Island, German East Africa 200

Zanzibar : A General "View ...... 201

Christ Church Cathedral, Zanzihar 201

Sir William Mackinnon . . . . . .202

Wateita Warriors •.-.,... 203

Wasuk, Natives of Suk, N.E. of Victoria Nyanza . 201

Views in Ibea . 205

A Caravan Camp Scene in East Africa . . . ,206

George Sutherland Mackenzie •.-... 207
Presenting Papers of Freedom to 1,422 Runaway

Slaves at Rabai ... 208

Group of Rescued Slave-Girls at Mbweni, Zanzibar . 209

Group of Rescued Slaves 209

Officials of the Imperial British East Africa Company

making Treaties with Chiefs in Kikuyu . . .212
Captain Lngard's Expedition : Officers, Caravan

Headmen, and Soudanese 213

M'Wanga and Chiefs . ■••... 214
The I.B.E.A. Company's Camp outside Kikuyu

Forest •••....... 216

Mengo, Uganda ••....... 217



Wakoli, Chief of Usoga. .... .219

Kampala, Uganda, showing the Fort Built by Captain

Lugard 220

Return of Captain Lugard's Caravan to the East
Coast on September 1st, 1892 : Halt at Makupa

Ferry 221

East African Caravan Porters buying Food . . .222
Despatch from the Coast of Special Mail Carriers,
with instructions to hold Uganda for a further

Period of Three Mouths ...... 224

Local Police, Mombasa ....... 225

Ivory Traders in Masai Dress ...... 228

Masai Women in Gala Dress 229

Elmetaita Lake, Masailand. ...... 229

Sir Gerald Portal 230

Edgeof Crater, Mount Elgon 232

Bumanie Slave Village 233

ill the Mau Forest 234

Carl Mauch 236

Thomas Baines 236

Mashona Village 237

The Building of Fort Sali-bury : The First Brick

House 239

Raising the British Flag at Hampden, September 12,

1890 240

The Outer Wall, Zimbabwe Ruins 241

The Round Tower, Zimbabwe Ruins .... 244
View from Mandala Gate, Nyassaland : Dirandi and

Blantyre in Mid-distance 245

Barotse Chief and Followers 248

N.W. Bastion, Karonga, Lake Nyassa .... 249

H. H. Johnston 250

Chief Gambo, King Lobengula's Son-in-Law. . . 252

Commercia; Map of Africa . 253

The " Last Stand" by Major Wilson's Party . . . 256
Attack by Matabele on Chartered Company's Laager

to Jace page 257

GermanEast Africa: Old Arab Fort, Kilwa . . . 260

German Kast Africa : Old Shirazi Mosque, Kilwa . 261

Banana {Musa Cavendishii) 264

Abyssinian Goatherd and Flock . . . . ' . 265

Colonial Palaces : Massowah 268

Ghinda, Abyssinia . 269

Convent on the Bizen Rock, Abyssinia .... 269

Abyssinian Woman of Tigr6 Country .... 272

Residence, Massowah 273

South Africa: Town Hall, Durban 276

South Africa : Zulu preparing a Skin for wear . . 277

South Africa : The Fucca ciloHosa in Flower . . 279
South Africa : View of Durban from the Bluff, with

Berea in the distance . 280

South-East Afi'ica : Villag"^ of Newala. Yao Country . 281
South Africa: Village of Matsieng, Basutoland . . 284
South Africa : Arrival at Sesheke of Makoatza, Am-
bassador from Khama to the King of the Barotse . 285
East Africa : Mosqiie. Moiibasa . . . . .288
South Africa: Natives Smoking "Isangu" or

"Dakka" to fwe page 289

East Africa : A Monster Python 289

West Africa : Weaving and Dyeing Establishment,

Ogbomosho, Yoruba 292

Map of Africa, showing Progress of Exploration . . 293

Commandant Monteil 294

Paul Crampel . . . . . . . . . .295

West Africa : Market at Hlah, Middle Niger . , 296

West Africa : Views on Ivory Coast .... 297

West Africa: Ivory Coast Village 300



^' l,l^t.«






ARAB "dhows" at LAMU, SIJIILAK TU THOSE USED IJf THE SLAVE TRAFFIC.
(From a Photograph hy Sir John Kirk.)



THE STOET OF AFRICA.



CHAPTER I.
The Colonisation of Africa : A Medieval Exodus : Portugal,

Africa a Continent of Colonists— The Native Tribes so-called nearly all Immigrants— The Romans— The Arabs
new Colonists in the North, but very old Arrivals on the East Side— The Portuguese the Earliest of Modern
Colonists— Gilianez—Nuno Tristao— Antao Gonsalves— Tristao's Discovery of Arguin and the Rio Grande—
Ca da Mosto Reaches the Gambia— Pedro de Cintra Sails beyond Sierra Leone— Joao de Santarem and Pedro
Escobar go past Cape Palm as and discover Sao Thome and the Mines of the Gold Coast— The Ogowe Mouth
Reached and Diego Cam Sights the Congo— Bartholomew Diaz Doubles the Cape of Good Hope— The Arab
Settlements— Vasco da Gama— Seizure of the Arab Towns— The Portuguese Way of Colonising Exemplified by
the History of Mombasa— Prosperity and Decay— Piracy— Slave-Trading— Convicts and Colonists— •' Prazos
da Coroa "—Indian Monopolists— Officialdom— Competence and Incompetence— Convict Knights— Detached
Colonies — Delagoa Bay and its many Masters.




FRICA, as the quarter of the world
nearest to it, naturally received
the first overfloAV of the nation-
alities of Europe. There can be
little question but that from
primeval times the Black Continent has
gained in population from other parts of
the world. It is doubtful, indeed, if there
are any " aborigines " even in the very
61



loose way that term is employed, unless
we assume these " natives " to be the
dwarfs whom we have met with in former
volumes. The Fulahs are most likely of
Asiatic orisrin, and the great Kaffir nation
— probably the whole Bantu stock — have,
there is a strong suspicion, come from a
different land from that which they now
occupy. The same may be said of the people



IHE 8T0BY OF AFRICA.



of north-eastern Africa, and even of the
nesrroes ; while the Berber race, which forms
the ethnic substratum of all northern Africa
— the eastern horn, perhaps, excepted — are
believed to have been prehistoric migrants
from Europe, those much-discussed Iberians
who are supposed to have preceded the Celts
in the British Islands, France, and Spain. As
for the Arabs who are now spread over so
large an area of Africa, though it would be
rash to affirm that none of them are of a
very ancient advent, the circumstances that
led to the arrival of the principal hordes are
quite historical. The " Ethiopians " of Abys-
sinia, as shown by the numerous inscriptions
and buildings found in the early strongholds
of the race, came, there can be no doubt, from
Arabia Felix; and to that mother-land of
so much quasi-civilisation we must also trace
the written script of the Abyssinians."^ Arabs,
we shall see, were also among the earliest
colonists of East Africa, many having arrived
in prehistoric times. But those with whom
we are best acquainted were the conquerors
of what we now know as the Barbary States,
lying on the European side of the Atlas
and the Saharan Desert. This part of
Africa has always been more in the continent
than of it. Its flora and fauna are essen-
tially European, and its geology shows that
it was formerly continuous with the opposite
coast of Spain, and, by land-bridges across
the Mediterranean, with Italy and Malta
also.

It was in this region that some of the
earliest-known colonies were founded by the

Tyreans, Greeks, and Romans. For
^^Jflfric? Carthage was in Tunis, and all

over " Africa " were scattered towns
and villages, villas and farms, of people who
did not, hke so many of the modern sojourners
in this region, come to make money and then
go " home " to spend it. Africa was the home
of those early colonists whose settlements
extended from near the southern boundaries
of Morocco to the Nile and farther in the

* Bent : " The Sacred City of the Ethiopians " (1893),
pp. 14, 15, 167, 175, etc.



interior than any European now cares to, or
can, live (Vol. III., pp. 82, 105). Until the
British became colonists of the southern ex-
tremity of Africa, these " Roumi" — of whom
the legends still linger among the ruder races
whose squalid towns have been built out of
the ruins of theirs, or whose clay "dshar"
or tented " douar " is pitched beside their
broken arches (Vol. Ill, pp. 77, 84, 108, etc.)
— were the truest and best of colonists.
Thus, the Italians, who were the latest of
peoples to form modern settlements in Africa,
were the first to found them. But with
the inrush of the Arabs (Vol. III., p. 110)
that experiment came to an end; and for
eight or nine hundred years Europe was too
busy at home, or too apathetic, or its rulers
were too jealous of losing any tax-payers
or men-at-arms, to think of "plantations
beyond the seas." Efforts, more or less success-
ful, to establish a foothold on the Barbary coast
were the utmost that was attempted in that
direction, though they were amply recipro-
cated by the African's long centuries of con-
quest and sojourn on the opposite shore.
Spain and Portugal were, however, never even
then colonists in Morocco, or Algeria, or Tunis.
They merely occupied a port for trade, and
a castle to protect it. The Turks, who made
conquests on a more extensive scale, Avere
scarcely more at home. For Algiers. Tripoli,
and the other towns which they held (nom-
inally or actually) under the Grand Seigneur
were either mere trading-posts or piratical
settlements, of which the governing class
were Ottomans or renegades posturing under
Turkish names. But outside these walls the.
natives still held their own and, in most cases,
took particularly good care that the invaders
should hold nothing beyond the range of their
guns or their cross-bows.

It was only when Europe was seized with
that stranofe uneasiness which culminated in
the discovery of America that the settlement
of Africa began ; though, as the first places
selected were within or close to the tropics
— where European women could not live
in health or European children be reared —



PORTUGUESE DISCOVERERS.



3



the colonies were simply armed posts for
dealing in slaves or other commodities fur-
nished by the natives. Little, if anything,
was grown by the colonists, and that little
by their slaves. It is much the same still,
minus the slave-trafficking and slave-holding
— in name, at least.

A variety of motives was at work in stimu-
lating the pioneers in this hiving-off of the
European nations. Love of adventure and of
gain, and of heathen with souls to be saved,
had all a greater or less share in the fitting-
out of those notable voyages of discovery and
colonisation in which soldier and priest played
almost equal parts.

Portugal has the credit of taking the first

steps in this great work ; and though Lusi-

tania has not — in modern times, at
The Portu- i i V

guese dis- least — occupied a very notable place
conqiTerors of ^i^ong the colonisers of Africa, she
the African established on its west and east

coast.

coasts what were for long the

most successful of these adventures. The
lethargy that for so many ages had reduced
Europe to a condition of intellectual torpidity
was disappearing. This renaissance took the
form, so far as bold spirits were concerned, of
maritime enterprise, though it would, per-
haps, be an exaggeration to imagine that the
men before the mast were fired with anything
like the enthusiasm of those on the quarter-
deck. Columbus had, indeed, to man the
ships that sailed on his second expedition
with convicts; and, from the mutinies and
other misdemeanours of the crews who had
the glory of discovering half the world during
the epoch then begun, we have no ground
for believing that they were inspired by any
very lofty sentiments. Even the commanders
were long awed by vague legends, inherited
from Aristotle and the schoolmen, that beyond
the tropic of Cancer no man could live, the
soil (burnt up by the scorching sun) being
unfit for the growth of plant or animal.
Hence the early mariners — leaving out of
account the half-mythical voyage of Hanno
the Carthaginian, who sailed on his colon-
ising expedition as far south as Sierra



Leone* — crept cautiously along the African
coast, a little way at a time, taking courage
by the impunity their impious attempts ob-
tained, to go a few leagues farther next time,
until at length they reached the termination
of the continent, and — as did Albuquerque
very early in the sixteenth century — crawling
up the east coast, saw Cape Guardafui on the
north-eastern horn of the continent. Such
were the fears and hopes moving Gilianez (Gil
Eannes, in less phonetic Portuguese), the
Portuguese mariner who, in 1433, got as far
as Cape Bojador, then regarded as the world's
end in that direction ; and Nuno Tristao,
who, less than eight years afterwards,
doubled Cape Blanco and did not shorten
sail until he was three degrees within the
tropic,* proving that Aristotle and the ancients
were by no means infallible.

And that was a great point gained ; for
the authority of the classics — there being no
others to run in rivalry with them — was
amongst the most grievous obstacles that
blocked the progress of knowledge for the
next three centuries. Then Tristao discovered
Arguin, and the Portuguese, who had settled
at Lagos, despatched six caravels up the
Senegal (Vol. I., p. 135). The black slaves and
the gold-dust which Antao Gonsalves brought
back from the Rio de Ouro as the ransom of
the twelve " Moors " (Berbers, more likely)
whom Tristao had kidnapped the year before,
stimulated adventure. In 1447 Tristao dis-
covered the Rio Grande. By 1454 Cape Verd
was reached by Diniz Dias, and two years
later Ca da Mosto heard at the Gambia
circumstantial tales of Timbuctoo and the
Upper Niger countries, which hitherto had
only been spoken of by Edrisi, the Arab

* The late Colonel Ellis, on what authority is not
mentioned, considered the cisterns on the island of Arguin
(which he identified with Hanno's Cerne) the work of
early Carthaginian colonists. The remains of old gold-
workings in the Wassaw district are also suggested as
material proofs of their enterprise, while the " aggry "
beads of the Gold Coast — the origin of which has puzzled
antiquaries — are likewise assigned to the Phoenicians,
who, when the Romans cannot be invoked, are regarded
as a safe card for the African archeeologist to play. —
Tlidvnj of the Gold Coast of West Africa (1893), pp. 4, •)•



THE 8T0BY OF AFRICA.



geographer, and the Morocco Moors, whose Sao Thome Island (St. Thomas), returning
caravans Avent in those da_ys across the desert with gold from Elmina, Shamal, and Ap-
just as they do at this hour. By 1462 probi. By 1471 the delta of the Ogowe was
Pedro de Cintra got three degrees below reached, and thirteen years later Diego Cam
Sierra Leone ; and before Prince Henry the sighted the Congo, erected a pillar to com-
memorate his dis-
covery, and sailed up
the river a little way.
The year after Cam's
return, Bartholomew
Diaz doubled the
Cape of Good Hope,,
and showed Portugal
the road to the Indian.
Ocean, through which
her semi - piratical
sailors rushed, as Sir
George Birclwoocl has
described them, like
a pack of hungry
wolves upon a weH-
stocked sheep-walk.

At Algoa Bay, Diaz
halted. By this time
the Portuguese had
approached within so
close a distance of
Sofala, Melinde, Mom-
basa, and the other
settlements farther up
the coast, which the
Arabs from Egypt
and Arabia had beo'un
to form as early as
the year 740, and,
it is possible, still
earlier, if the Ma-
shonaland ruins are
the remains of pre-
Mohammedan Arab
gold-diggings. Accordingly, when, in 1497
— five years after the discovery of the
West Indies by Columbus — Yasco da Gama
rounded the Cape, he was not going blindly
when he touched at Natal and by-and-by

* The Siwa is a horn beautifully worked in ivory, or copper, or wood. Those represented in the picture were
imported from Persia about the year 1200. It was an instrument of this class that Vasco da Gama took to PortugaL
as a sign of the vassalage of the chief of Melinde, where he obtained the pilot who guided him to the Malabar coast.



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