said to be palmate, and the leaves in which it occurs
are called palmate veined.
You will see quite a different pattern of venation in
a leaf of the beech or elm ( Fig. 5 7, A). Let us pick one.
Here you see one main vein passing all the way up
the middle of the leaf, and from which branch veins
are given off on both sides. This is supposed to
remind one of the shape and arrangement in a
feather, with its mid rib and many feathery branches,
so this kind of venation is called pinnate*
Now we will pick a single leaf of the lesser
* From the Latin "pinna" a feather.
celandine if you can find one violet,
sycamore, or ivy will do and I will
tell you about its different parts.
This broader part is called the
lamina* or blade, whilst the leaf stalk y
is called the petiole^ Take off a leaf
carefully from the celandine, so as not
to tear it, and you see that the stalk
is widened at the lower end (Fig. 58).
But now pick a tall leafy stem of one
(Ranunculus ficaria} begins at once from the stem.
sheath. is no petiole, as in the
have been looking at. But if you look
closely, and pull the blade of grass
downwards from the stem, you will
find that from the blade down to the
node from which the leaf arises there
is a portion which surrounds the stem
(Fig. 59). Take a tall leafy stem of
grass or corn, and pull the top part Fig. 59. Part of
a stem, with leaf
away from the bottom part. The top of a Grass ; a the
... - _ , stem, /the blade,
part will come off at one of the nodes, v the sheath, /the
and you will pull it out from the leaf
sheath of that node as you would draw a sword out of
* From the Latin "/amuia," a plate or thin piece (of metal), a sword
t From the Latin " petiolus " (from pes, a foot), a little foot or stalk.
J A ligule (from the Latin ligula) is a small tongue-like growth from
the leaf, as in the picture, and common in grasses and petals of some
flowers (Fig. 89).
90 FL IV ER- LAND.
its sheath, or an umbrella from its case. So that
there are three chief parts of a leaf for you to remem-
ber the lamina, or blade ; the petiole, or stalk ; and
the sheath. Sometimes a leaf is not only without any
petioles as in the grass, or without any sheath as in the
ivy or violet, but it has neither petiole nor sheath
The blade arises immediately from the node, and so
because it sits as it were upon the stem, such a leaf
is described as sessile * (Fig. 56).
* From the Latin " sessilis" sitting (sedco, I sit).
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LEA VES.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LEAVES.
You have already
learnt the difference
between [simple and
(p. 22), and we will
take the simple leaves
first. If the leaf is
long and narrow, like
a pin or needle, it is
called acicular, from
the Latin word
acicula, a needle. If it is
round like a penny, it
is called orbicular or
circular. There arc
manv leaves which arc
Fig. 60. A Thistle (Cardinis) with
spiny leaves. between these two
forms varying from the shape of the needle to that
of the penny, and these are called linear (Figs.
13, p. 16; 174), oblong, oval, elliptical, and
9 2 FLOWER-LAND.
rotundate, or nearly round, as the case may be
(Figs. 9, p. 12] 25, p. 28;.
Then another set of simple leaf-forms is made up
of those leaves which are broader at their base, with
a more or less pointed end. These are called from
various things to which they are like in shape; and
are subulate or aivl-shaped, lanceolate or lance-shaped,
ovate or egg-shaped, cordate or Jieart-shaped, hastate or
Jialbert-sJiaped, * sagittate or arrow-shaped^ as the case
may be. (Figs. 61 to 65).
* These words are derived from the Latin, " subula" an awl;
'OVUM" an egg; "cor, cordis" the heart; " hasta" a halbert ;
' ' sagitta, " an arrow.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LEAVES. 93
Sometimes they are just the opposite, the
narrow part being at the base and the broad
part at the tip. Then they are called
obovate, obcordate, oblanceolate, or spathulate?
which last you can see in Fig. 66.
Some simple leaves are called reniform*
Fig/"66. from their likeness in outline to a kidney.
Spathulate. ,p. f x- ,
When the stalk does not join the
blade or lamina (p. 89) at its margin,
but at some part of its under surface
within the margin, the leaf is called
peltate, * and these leaves are generally
circular. You have an example of them Reniform.
in the pennywort,! so called because of its rounded
leaves like pennies. These simple leaf forms are very
various, and in describing them two words are often
used together, as ovate lanceolate or linear oblong.
We will now notice the margins or edges of leaves.
A leaf is
Entire When its margin is neither fringed with hairs,
nor interrupted by notches or indentations
(Fig- 55, P- 83).
Emarginate When its margin has a notch in it at the
top or end of the blade,
* From the Latin "spat /////</," a broad flat spoon or slice;
ren, rents," a kidney ; " pelta," a shield 'or buckler.
f Hydrocotyle vulgaris.
Acute or obtuse According as the end is pointed or
the contrary (cf. Figs. 1,9, p. 12; 38, p. 50).
Mucronate* When, being more or less obtuse, it ends
in a short, stiff, sharp projecting point (Fig.3Ojp.37X
Ciliate* When it is fringed with hairs (Fig. 5 /A, p.87).
Then sometimes the margin is wavy or sinuous (Fig.
68, and Fig. 60, p. 91) ; but it is called
Crenate* When it is notched in a rounded manner
Serrate* When notched with sharp teeth sloping
forwards, as in a saw (Fig. 70).
Dentate* When the notches are upright (Fig. 71).
Sometimes the indentations of leaves are deeper, so
that they not only affect the margin, but also the
general shape of the leaf. When the portions between
the indentations are rounded, they are called "lobes?
and the leaf is " lobed" ; but if they are more pointed
* From the Latin " mucro" v, short point, a sword or dagger;
"ff/JfMf," the edge of the eyelids, the hairs of the eyelids ; " crena" a
notch ; " serra,'* a saw ; " Jens, dentis" a tooth.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LEAVES.
and tooth-like, then the leaf is described by the use of
the termination "fid?* which means divided or cleft :
for these leaves are described not only by the way in
which they are indented or divided, but also by the
character of their venation (p. 86). So if their vena-
tion is of the palmate kind they are palmately lobed
or palmatifid (by some called simply palmate t),
but if it is of the pinnate kind they are pinnately
lobed or pinnatifid, as the case may be. (%cf. Figs. 57,
p. 87 ; 4, p. 7 ; 28, p. 33 ; 72, and Figs. 73, 74.)
Fig. 72. ralmatifid.
Fig. 74. A deeply
There are two special forms which I must tell you
of before we leave these divided simple leaves. In
one form, the end or terminal lobe is the largest, and
* From the Latin " findo" I cut or cleave.
fFrom the Latin " pal mains " (fr. " palnio "), marked with the palm
of the hand, resembling a hand with the fingers spread (cf. note p. 87).
I The terminations "partite" (from the Latin "/#r//0 ", I divide),
and "sscted" (from the Lntin " ssco" I cut, cut asunder), are used to
distinguish leaves with deeper and very deep indentations. Palmati or
pinnati partite : palmati or pinnati sected (fig. 74). The term
"fid" being used for those which are less deeply indented.
the side divisions are smaller as they are nearer the
base. This form of leaf is called lyrate*
(Fig. 75.) In the other, the end division
is triangular, and the side teeth become
smaller and have their points inclined
towards the base : and this form of leaf is *s^^
/ ! r*
known as runcinate* (Fig. 76.) ^"mfes
Now let us turn to compound Fig. 75.
leaves. These are either pal- L >' rate -
mately or pinnately compound, accord-
ing to the arrangement of their leaflets
upon the palmate or the pinnate plan
(p. 87). When the leaflets branch off
from one point at the end of the petiole
they are palmately compound (cf. Fig.
77) ; but when the leaflets branch off
upon either side of the lengthened petiole,
they are pinnately compound (Fig. 78).
A. Palmately compound leaves are
called ternate\ (Fig. 30, p. 37) when
the leaflets are three in number ; and bi
or tri-ternate\ when each leaflet is
further divided into two or three
leaflets, as the case may be. They
are called quadrinate\ if they have Fig.;;. -Digitate
four leaflets, quinate \ if they have five. pound).
* From the Latin " lyra? a harp ; " runcina? a large saw.
t From the Latin " terni," three, leaflets by threes ; in like manner
" quadrinatc " from " quadrini? four each ; " quinafe" from " quini?
From the Latin " bis? twice ; " tres? three.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF LEAVES.
But when they have five or more leaflets they
are commonly called digitate* or fingered (Fig. 77),
B. Pinnately compound leaves.
These are called pinnate, and their
leaflets pinnae (Fig. 78). They are
impari pinnate, or pari-pinnate (un-
equally or equally pinnate) accord-
ing as there is, or is not, an odd
terminal leaflet (cf. Figs. 51, p.
74 ; 173). Sometimes the pinnate
division is repeated, and the pinnae
are themselves pinnate. The
bi-pinnate, or tri-pinnate, according
Fig. 78. Pin-
leaves are then
Fig. 79. A amplexicaul, B perfoliate, C connate.
*From the Latin " digitus," a finger.
fWhen some of the pinnae are largei than others, and the pinnae
are not arranged in order of size the leaf is interruptedly pinnate.
Sometimes the terms bijugate, trijugate, etc., are used to denote the
number of the pairs of pinnoe. From the Latin " bis," twice ; " tres"
three ; and " jugum" a yoke, a pair.
98 FL O WER-LAND.
as the pinnate division is repeated twice or thrice,
and the leaflets of the pinnae are pinnules^
Now lastly, I must tell you that sessile (p. 90) leaves
vary a good deal in the way in which they grow at
their junction with the stem. They are connate* when
two opposite leaves are united at their bases (Fig 79, C}\
perfoliate\ when the base grows out so as to extend
upon the other side of the stem and surround it
(Fig. 79, B) ; amplexicaul% when the extended base
does not make the leaf perfoliate, but still more or
less surrounds or embraces the stem (Fig. 79, A}\
decurrent^ when the leaf extends down the sides
of the stem on which it grows, as in Scotch and other
thistles. And a stem which is thus leafy, or has a
thin membrane projecting from it, is spoken of as
Care and perseverance in learning well these differ-
ent forms of leaves will save you much trouble and
delay in time to come.||
* From the Latin " con" together, and " nattis^ grow, "nascer," I
t From the Latin "per" through, "folium"*, leaf; the stem
passing through the leaf.
J From the Latin " amplexor" I embrace, and " caulis" a stem.
From the Lutin "</<?," down, and " eurro," I run.
|| For some other words used in describing leaves see Appendix B.
STIPULES, BRACTS, AND SCALES.
STIPULES, BRACTS, AND SCALES.
BUT now I want to tell
you about certain expan-
sions which sometimes
grow on each side at the
bottom of the petiole, or
stalk of a leaf. They are
like small leaves or leaflets,
but they are not always
green in colour. Some-
times they are whitish or
brown, and perhaps this
is why they are called
" stipules"* They vary a
good deal in shape, but
are generally small, and
from some plants they
very soon fall off. Let us
The green stipules are easily seen upon willow, pea,
bean, and the wild pansy. (Fig. 81.)
* From the Latin "stipula," straw, husk.
When two stipules grow up
and round the stem so as to form
a sheath above the junction of
the leaves with the stem, you
have what is called an " ochrea?*
You can see an example of it in
the rhubarb, and in the polygo-
nums. (Fig. 82.) Do not confuse
this with amplexicaul leaves and
These Fig. 81. Leaf of a Wil-
, low (Salix). k, an axil
leaves which bud ; s, the stipules.
Now we pass on from stipules
are connected with the flower or with
its stalk. They grow upon the flower-
stalk or close under it, just at the
point where it branches from the
plant stem. If you can remember
the leaf stalk and its stipules, so also
remember the flower stalk and its
bracts. You can see these leaf bracts
upon the peduncles of the lime ; as
also upon the flower-stalk of the
common colt's foot, one of our
Fig. 82. Portion earliest spring flowers, and so called
gLl7^), fr m a SU PP Sed resemblance of these
*, the leaf; v, its bracts to the colt's foot. (Fig. 175.)
sheath ; o, the
ochrea. Like the stipules, bracts are of other
From the Latin "ochrea" a boot, a greave.
STIPULES, BRACTS, AND SCALES. IOI
colours as well as green, and they vary a good deal
in form. I dare say you know the plant with
strange looking purple or white things like long
clubs each more or less enclosed in a large loose
whitish kind of leaf. We used to call these plants
" lords and ladies." Let us see if we can find some
of them by the hedge side. If they are still young
and not opened out we will unwrap one or two, and
try to find the purple " lords " and the white " ladies."
They are the flowers and I will tell you more about
them presently. I want you to notice now the loose
sheath in which they stand ; it is a form of bract
and is called a spathe? You can see one of them
very well in the picture of these lords and ladies in
Sometimes these flower bracts are stiff and hard
like scales. Here is a picture of one of the flowers
out of the pussy cat or catkin of the common hazel.
(Fig. IO4A.) It has only stamens and they are
with a scaly bract. In the same picture at B you can
see some more scaly bracts which belong to those
flowers of the hazel which have only a pistil and no
stamens. About these flowers also I will tell you
presently. Now notice only their scaly bracts.
But sometimes these scaly flower bracts have special
names. For instance, look at the " flower of grass."
If we can find one in flower a spike of wheat or barley
* From the Latin " spatha" a broad flat thin blade, the branch of a
ig. 83. A spike of Barley.
you to understand this
better (Fig. 84) ; and
there is a picture of a
flower of a common grass
in Fig. 150, which you
should turn to look at.
But let us pick an um-
brella or umbelliferous
will do very well. Here
you see the stamens and
pistil of the flowers are en-
closed by scaly bracts,
which are called il palece?*
At the bottom of the spike
there are two bracts, in the
axils of which no flowers
are being developed ; and
such bracts in grasses arc
called "glumes"* Here is
a larger picture of a spike-
let of wheat which will help
Fig. 84. Spikelet of Wheat, dis-
sected and magnified : x the axis
of the spikelet, g the glumes, b r b 2
lower palea; with awn (gr), B i
B 2 flowers raised from the axis
with the upper palese (ps.), a an-
thers, y pistil, with large seed bag.
* Some botanists call bracts nearest to, and enclosing the flower,
" palese ; " and the other bracts they call " glumes," the one growing
opposite to the palese being a " flowering glume." The " aivn " is the
sharp needle-like point.
STIPULES, BRACTS, AND SCALES. IO3
plant ; anthriscus or cow-parsley, or any other we
can see. Now look upon the flower stalk for a set
of bracts, all growing at the same level of the stalk,
just below the umbel. Such a ring of bracts is called
an "involucre"* (Figs. 35, 36, 80, 86, 137).
Sometimes the involucre is composed of several rings
of bracts close together, and arranged so that the
bracts overlap one another, something like the slates
upon the roof of a house. Let us look at such an invo-
lucre, for we can easily find it in some common
composite (p. 48) plant. Yes ! here you can see it
very well in the dandelion, or in the thistle, or again
in a common daisy (Figs. 138, 37, p. 46).
Is it too early in the season to find an acorn ? In
any case you know what an acorn is like very well.
The acorn cup is an involucre made up of scaly bracts
all joined together, and it is called a " cupide? In the
autumn you should look for the fruit of the hazel-nut
(Fig. IO3//), the oak (Fig. 114), the beech, the sweet
chestnut, and the hornbeam, and compare their cu-
pules. Commonly we call them "husks," but they arc
different forms of bracts which gradually develop,
forming receptacles for the fruit, and botanically are
Let us now turn homeward, and, as we go, I
* From the Latin " in" in, and " volvo" I wrap. Involucre, a
barber's towel which he cases about one's shoulders when he trims one.
" Involucrum," that which wraps or covers.
f Cupule, from the Latin " cttpa " (cupula), a cup.
will tell you about some leaves which are still more
different from the common green leaves than the
stipules and bracts we have been speaking of. In
colour they vary from shades of yellow and brown to
grey and almost white ; and being something like
scales they are called leaf-scales, or simply scales.
They grow upon underground
stems, and are often very small
(Figs. 44, 45, p. 66, 67). You can
easily see them, however, in bulbs,
both scaly bulbs like those of the
lily and tunicated ones like
those of the onion. If we pass
any hyacinths, we will get one of
the bulbs up, if we can, and look at
Fig. 85. Hyacinth bulb. ,. , r , . ,
k Stem base, w roots, z it. The scales or coats of which
scales, kn bud in axil of these bulbs are com posed, are
leaf scales which becomes
next year's bulb, s flower modified leaves, or leaf-scales,
stalk with buds b, /foliage
leaves. and new bulbs often grow in the
axils, just as branch buds are formed in the axils of
the common foliage leaves (Fig. 85).
Sometimes leaf scales grow upon aerial stems, where
they are most easily found upon the buds of trees.
Do you remember them upon the chestnut, or the
sycamore? (p. 77). The outer ones are smaller, but
they gradually increase in size until the scale covers
the whole length of the bud, then again they get
smaller and softer, until at last you come to the tiny
little cluster of delicate leaves, which I hope you have
STIPULES, BRACTS, AND SCALES. 1 05
You will find some buds without any scales at all,
especially upon herbaceous plants, as you would
do also in many trees in warmer countries, and
such buds are called " naked " buds. But in most of
our trees and shrubs the buds are covered with these
leaf-scales, to protect them from the winter cold.
What a snug little nest those delicate leaves of the
sycamore bud were stowed away in, so that they were
able to live on through the frost and cold of winter.
And sometimes the scales have soft hairs upon them, as
in many willow trees, and sometimes they, are covered
with a sticky substance, as we have seen in the horse-
chestnut. These help to keep all that is inside so
much the warmer. It is interesting to watch the bud
as it develops in the spring-time, and then notice that
the bud-scales generally fall off. Look at a horse-
chestnut, lime, or sycamore bud during the month of
May : you will see that the inner scales have grown
larger as the bud has developed, some perhaps still
upon the bases of the young shoots, but all soon to
fall off, making quite a litter on the ground beneath.
Those of the sycamore are beautifully tinged with
For the rest of the way we will look again at a few
of the common plants, and you shall tell me about the
stipules and bracts, involucres and cupules, and show
them to me as we go.
ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION.
FLOWERS CALYX, CORROLLA, AND STAMENS.
NOW can you tell
me what parts of
a plant are called
the organs of nu-
trition ? Quite
right. The stem,
the root, and the
leaves. They are
the parts by
which a plant is
and grows. We
will pass on then
to the organs of
flower and fruit ;
those parts which
have to do with
the formation and
protection of the
Fig. 86. Flowering Rush (Butoums vm-
bellatus}. Showing scape, involucral bracts,
and linear leaves.
FLOWER CALYX, COROLLA, AND STAMENS. 1 07
seed, by which the pi ant is reproduced (p. 63). Can
you tell me what the stem of a leaf is called ?
(p. 89). Just as the stem of a leaf has a special
name to distinguish it from the stem of the plant, so
also the stalk of a flower has a special name. It is
called the peduncle.* The stem (caulis) of a plant,
the petiole of a leaf, the peduncle of a flower. But
when the flower stalk is radical, that is, grows up
from the stem base, with no leaves or only a few small
bracts and bearing the flower or flowers at its upper
end, it is called a scape.\ (Fig. 86,)
Now look for a buttercup flower, and show me its
different parts, telling me their names (Ch. II. and III.).
Yes : and the top of the flower-stalk, from which these
parts of the flower grow. It is often a good deal ex-
panded or raised, and is called the receptacle or torus.\
Gather a few flowers, and pull off their parts to see
some different forms of the receptacle. There is a
picture of the buttercup flower, with calyx, corolla, and
stamens pulled off, in Fig. 176. (cf. Figs. 98 t, ioo)
But I will now tell you something more about
these parts of a flower the calyx, corolla, stamens,
and pistil : and first about the corolla and the
calyx. || In the buttercup, you see, the corolla is made
* From the Latin "/," a foot. If smaller flower stalks branch oft"
from the peduncle or main flower stalk they are called "pedicels"
from the Latin " flediculus," a little foot, stalk, or stem.
t From the Latin " scapiis" the upright stalk, the shank of a candle-
stick, or shaft of a pillar.
J From the Latin "torus " a couch, cf. thalamus in the Appendix.
From the Latin " corolla" a little crown or garland.
ii From the Latin "calyx" , from the Greek . " kalux, kalupto"
up of several separate parts : you can pull them off
one by one, without tearing them. You will remem-
ber that these separate parts or leaflets of a corolla
are called petals* So that a corolla which is made up
of separate petals is called polypetalous.\ You have
already learnt about two particular kinds of poly-
petalous corollas : the " butter-
fly" flowers, which are called
papilionaceous J (Fig. 87 and
c f- P- 39)> arj d the cross bearers
which are called " cruciferous."^
Fig. 87. Papilionaceous.
In describing the shape of a petal
you would use any of the terms which
would be useful, which you would use
in describing the shape of a leaf
(Ch.vi.). But I must also tell you that
the broad expanded part of a petal
is called the " limb" as distinguished
from the narrower and more stalk-like
portion which some petals have, and which is called
the " claw." A petal of the common pink gives you
a good example both of limb and claw (cf. Fig. 89.)
Fig. 8b. Cruci-
* From the Greek " petalon " ; from " petao" I expand.
f From the Greek " polus" many, several ; and " petals."
JFrom the Latin " papilio" a butterfly. There is another name for
these plants. Their natural order is called " Leguminoste," because
their fruit is a legume (Ch. xxv.). This is the name for the whole natural
order of which the British plants are " papilionaceoits. "
From the Latin " crux " (crucis), a cross ; and "fero" I bear.
FLOWER CALYX, COROLLA, AND STAMENS. 1 09
Fig 89. Petal of
Lychnis, n, the
claw ; p, the limb ;
Some of these
and tube, sal-
But can you find a primrose, or a
red or white dead nettle ? When
you pull off the corolla from either of
these you find that it is all joined
together in one piece. And so this kind
of corolla is called " gamopetalous" '
The upper expanded
part is still called the
"limb" but the lower
narrowed part is called
the " tube " (Fig. 90).