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SG S6H(i>.H-S6..^V



EX L I B R I S



SILAS W. HOWIAND



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

FROM THE COLLECTION OF

SILAS W. ROWLAND

RECEIVED BY BEQUEST NOVEMBER i, 1938




y^-^ ... I



CHESS.



K. F. GREEN.



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€\)t Club Series

OF CARD AND TABLE GAMES.



SmaU Svo, clothe price is, each. Illustrated,

WHIST. By Dr. William Pole, F.R.S., author of
"The Philosophy of Whist," etc.

SOLO WHIST, By Robert F. Green, Editor of
"Chess."

BILLIARDS, The Art of Practical BUliards for
Amateurs ; with chapters on Pool, Pyramids,
and Snooker. By Major-General A. W. Dray-
son, F.R.A.S., author of "Practical Whist."
With a Preface by W. J. Peall.

CHESS, By Robert F. Green, editor of the
"British Chess Magazine."

THE TWO- MOVE CHESS PROBLEMS, By
B. G. Laws. With numerous specimens.

DRAUGHTS and BACKGAMMON, By
"Berkeley."

REVERSI and GO BANG, By " Berkeley."

DOMINOES and SOLITAIRE, By " Berkeley."

BEZIQUE and CRIBBAGE, By "Berkeley."

ECARTE and EUCHRE, By " Berkeley."

PIQUET and RUBICON PIQUET, By
"Berkeley."

SKA T, By Louis V. Diehl.

ROUND GAMES, including Poker, Napoleon,
Loo, Vingt-un, Newmarket, Commerce, Pope
Joan, Speculation, Spin, Snip-Snap-Snorum,
Jig, Cassino, My Bird Sings, Spoil- Five, and
Loto. By Baxter- Wray.

CARD TRICKS and PUZZLES, By T. B. Row-
land and " Berkeley. "



LONDON : G. BELL & SONS.



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CHESS.



BY

ROBERT FREDERICK GREEN,

Editor of the ''British Chess Magazine,*^



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS,



LONDON: GEORGE BELL & SONS,

4, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C.

i893-



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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

BEQUEST OF

SILAS W. HUWLANO

NOVEMBER 8, 1938



Butler & Tanner,

The Selwood Printing Works,

FrOme, akd London.



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PREFACE.



The Author's aim, in these pages, has been to provide a
thoroughly complete and practical series of lessons in Chess.
The reader is assumed at the outset to be without any
knowledge whatever of the game, and the attempt is made
to teach him how to play, and to leave him in a position to
profit by the most advanced treatise. The Rules, the Index
to the Openings, and the section on Current Chess Litera-
ture, while of special service to young players, will, it is
hoped, render the volume useful as a work of reference to
more advanced students. Free use has, necessarily, been
made of standard works on the game* For the Rules, the
" Praxis " and the book of the London Tourney ; for the
Openings, " Chess Openings " ; and for end games, Salvioli
and the " Handbook " have mainly been consulted. The
Author desires also to record his obligations to Mr. Burn,
the Rev. C. E. Ranken, and Mr. Steinitz, for friendly advice
and assistance.

Liverpool Chess Club,
December^ 1889.



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''^HC . H^"S.G>.i\



CONTENTS.



Chap.









PAGB


I.— Introductory i


II.— The Board and Men .






2


III.— The Moves ....






. 6


IV. — Object and Method of Play






10


v.— Technical Terms .






II


VI.— Notation ....






24


VII.— Rules of Play






. 29


VIII.— Hints to Beginners






. 37


IX.— Preliminary Game






42


X.— Scheme of the Openings .






53


XL — Index to the Openings •






6i


XII. — End-games ....






71


XIII.— Examples of Master- play .






94


XIV.— Chess Literature .






in



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CHESS.

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTORY.

The game of Chess has of late years become so popular
among all classes in this country, that any statement of its
attractions is almost superfluous. Coming to us as it has,
invested with every dignity and importance that antiquit)
can give, it has kept pace for more than five centuries with
the most rapidly advancing civilization. Never forgotten
in any country where it has once set foot, it has only been
neglected when art, science, and every intellectual pursuit
have been neglected also. It has been for centuries the
favourite recreation of the greatest minds; it has emancipated
itself from every social restriction and surmounted every
national custom and prejudice; it has survived every
political change and every distraction of fashion, and is,
to-day, more widely known and practised than any other
game in the world. AVho, in view of these facts, and
making the slightest claim to culture, can afford to neglect
it?

That it is an exceedingly difficult game, and that its study
involves no small expenditure of time, must be admitted ;
but these cannot be regarded as drawbacks. No knowledge
or proficiency, easily acquired, could be held in such high
and general esteem ; and the time involved may, especially
in the case of young students, be looked upon as well
spent It constitutes a mental training of the greatest

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2 CHESS.

possible value, and promotes a taste which can only be
elevating. An interest in Chess once roused, the fascina-
tion of games of chance, with their inseparable temptation
to gambling, is lost for ever.-



CHAPTER IL

THE BOARD AND MEN.

i'he game of Chess is played by two persons or parties ;
each having at command sixteen figures or "men," which
are moved upon a chequered board.

The Board,

The chess-board is a square, divided by intersecting lines
into sixty-four equal smaller squares. These smaller squares
are coloured (to facilitate calculation) of a dark and light
colour alternately.^ For play it is a rule to place the board
so that each player has a white square at his right hand
corner.

The Men.

There are thirty-two chessmen, sixteen belonging to each
player. The men of one side are distinguished from those
of the other by a different colour ; one set being of a light
colour and called " white," and the other being of a dark
colour and called " black."

The following diagram represents a chess-board with the
men arranged in proper order for play.



* The dark and light squares are called respectively, **black"and
•'white,"



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4



THE BOARD AND MEN,



BLACK.

Quem^s side, Kiii^s side.




The men belong-
ing to each player
are divided into two
classes : — " Pieces "
and ''Fawns." Those
on the first ranks are
called " pieces/' and
those (which it will
be seen are all alike)
on the second ranks
are "pawns." The
student should note
this distinction,
which is an impor-
tant one.

The eight pieces
belonging to each
player are : —



One King denoted by K

One Queen „ „ Q

Two Rooks or Castles „ „ R M

[The term "castle" is now almost obsolete.]
Two Bishops denoted by B & &

Two Knights „ „ Kt^ ^ ^

And in addition, each ^ ^

player has eight Pawns „ „ P ii X

* The Knight is sometimes, in America, denoted by S, the initial of
its German name, ** Sfrin^er," The object of this innovation, which



Queen's side. ' King s side.

WHITE.

Fig. I.



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4 ' C//ESS.

The above types are those in common use throughout the
world ; ^ and they sufficiently resemble actual chessmen to
enable the student to recognise the latter readily.

Arrangement

In arranging the men for play, it should be noted that
the King and Queen occupy the two middle squares of the
first rank. The Queen on the square of her own colour. Next
come the Bishops, one on each side ; then the Knights ;
and lastly the Rooks, which occupy the corner squares.
The pawns are arranged on the second rank, one in front
of each piece.

» Names of the Pieces,

The pieces and pawns belonging to each player are
further distinguished by their position on the board at the
beginning of the game. Those on the King's side of the
board are called the King's pieces, and those on the Queen's
side, Queen's pieces. Thus, the Bishop which stands next
to the Queen, is called the Queen's Bishop. The full title
of each piece is as follows, beginning at the left hand (see
Fig. I) :-

Queen's Rook (QR), Queen's Knight (QKt), Queen's
Bishop (QB), Queen (Q), King (K), King's Bishop (KB),
King's Knight (KKt), King's Rook (KR).2

The Pawns are named after the pieces they stand



has not found favour in this country, is to avoid the possibility of con-
fusion with K (King), and to maintain the one-letter series.

* The Bishop, it should be noticed, is an exception to this rule,
being differently denoted in France, Italy, Denmark, and Norway.

- The King's Knight and King's Rook are frequently marked with
a crown or small disc, so that they may be identified throughout the
game. The King's Bishop, as will be seen later, does not need any
distinguishing mark.



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THE BOARD AND MEN,



5



opposite. Thus, again beginning at the left hand, we have
the Queen's Rook's Pawn (QRP), Queen's Knight's Pawn
(QKtP), Queen's Bishop's Pawn (QBP), Queen's Pawn
(QP), King's Pawn (KP), etc.

Names of the Squares.

The squares are named after the pieces which occupy
them at the ^^^^^^

beg inning
of the game.
Thus, the
square on
which the
King stands
is calle d
the King's
square (K
sq.), and the
squares in
front of it
are num-
bered, in
order, to the
other side of
the board :

King's sec- white.

ond = K2, Fig. 2.

K3, K4, and so on to K8.

It will be seen thus that each square nas two names, each
player counting from his own side of the board. The white
Queen's Knight's fourth square is the black Queen's Knight's
fifth square, etc. This should be carefully noted, as in all



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6 CHESS.

games recorded by the English system of notation, the
moves of each player are reckoned from his own side of the
board.



CHAPTER III,
THE MOVES.

The student is recommended to obtain the help of some
experienced player in learning the moves at Chess. Although
exceedingly simple when explained over the board, their
description in words is apt to make them appear somewhat
complicated.



BLACK.




Fig. 3.



WHITE.

-The Kittys Move,



The King may
move in any direc-
tion, but one square
only at a time. Thus,
when standing on
Q4, he " commands,"
or may move to, any
one of the eight ad-
joining squares.

Under certain con-
ditions, the King may
also take part with
the Rook in a double
move, called "cast-
ling." (Seep. II.)



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THE MOVES.



The Queen may
move in any direc-
tion : in a straight
line, vertically, hori-
zontally, or diagon-
ally; and may move
across any number of
unoccupied squares.
Thus, a Queen stand-
ing on Q4, com-
mands twenty-seven
squares.



The Rook may
move in any direc-
tion parallel to the
sides of the board,
/>. vertically or hori-
zontally ; and may
move across any
number, of unoccu-
pied squares. Thus,
a Rook standing on
Q4, commands four-
teen squares.



BLACK.




WHITE.

Fig. ^.— The Queen's Move.

BLACK.



WHITE.

Fig. 5. — The Rook's Move.



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8



CHESS.



The Bishop may move in any direction diagonally ; and
may move across any number of unoccupied squares. A
Bishop on Q4, commands thirteen squares.



BLACK.




WHITE.

Fig. 6,— The Bishofs Move.

It will be seen that the Bishop remains throughout the
game on squares of one colour ; and since the King's Bishop
and Queen's Bishop occupy squares of a different colour at
starting, they can readily be distihguished at any time in the
game. This is why it is unnecessary to mark the King's
Bishop like the K Kt. and KR.

The Knight may move in any direction to the square
next but one of a different colour from that on which it
stands; or in other words, may move horizontally or vertically
in either direction, two squares forward and then one square
to either right or left. It leaps over the intervening squares
whether the latter are occupied or not. A Kni^t on Q4,



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THE MOVES,



BLACK.




commands -eight
squares.

The Knight's move
forms the diagonal of
a parallelogram of
three squares by
two.

Tfie Pawns may
move forward only,
one square at a time^
For their first move,
but not afterwards,
they have the option
of moving one or two
squares.

WHITE.

, Fig. T.—The Knighfs Move.

Capturing,

AH the pieces capture, or " take," as they move. If they
can move to a square, they can take any man of the opposite
colour which stands on that square. Thus, the black King
can take (subject to the laws of play) a white man on any
adjoining square ; a Queen can take at any distance in a
straight line ; a Bishop at any distance diagonally, and a
Rook at any distance vertically or horizontally ; provided
always, of course, that the squares between the capturing
piece and the man captured are unoccupied. The Knight,
however, may take an adverse piece or pawn standing on
any square he commands, whether the intervening squares
are occupied or not The pawns take forward, diagonally^
and pnly command the two adjoining squares. Thus, a
pawn standing on K4 could only take an opposing piece or



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lo CHESS.

pawn standing on KB 5 or Q5, it could not take a man on
K5. The method of capture is to remove from the board
the captured man, placing the capturing man on the square
thus left vacant



CHAPTER IV.

OBJECT AND METHOD OF PLAY.

The real object of each player at Chess is to take or capture
his opponent's King. The game actually ceases, however,
one move short of this : />., when either King is in such a
position that he cannot avoid being captured at the next
move. The player who can first capture his opponent's
King wins the game, of course. If from any reason neither
King can be captured, the game is drawn. If the King be
"attacked," that is, threatened with capture, the attacking
player is bound to give warning by calling " Checks If
the King cannot avoid the attack in any way, he is " Check-
mate " or " Matey^ and the game is at an end.

In beginning a game, the players arrange the men as in
Fig. I, draw lots for choice of forces, and the player who
has the white men begins by moving a piece or pawn. His
opponent then makes a move, and the game proceeds by
the players moving alternately. In no circumstances ^ may
either player make two moves in succession. Of course
each player may only move the men of his own coloiur, and
may only capture those of the opposite colour.



* Except where the odds of the first two moves are conceded. Sec
"Technical Terms ''—Odds (p. 19).



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TECHNICAL TERMS.



II



CHAPTER V.
TECHNICAL TERMS.

Attack. — The combined action of several pieces against a
position. Attacks are of course most frequently directed
against the King ; but they are often strategic, and directed
against a weak part of the enemy's force.

To Attack. — A piece or pawn is said to attack an adverse
man when it is in a position to capture such adverse man.
A piece or pawn is said to be attacked when it is threatened
with capture by an adverse man.

Blindfold ChesSy pr Chess sans mr.— Games played with-
out sight of either board or men. The power of playing at
least one game in this way seems to be acquirable by most
students. Players with a special faculty for Chess have
conducted as many as twelve such games simultaneously.
The effort is not, as is commonly supposed, entirely one of
memory.

Castling. — A com-
bined move of King
and Rook, allowed
to each player once
in a game. The
Rook is moved to
the square next the
King and the King
is then moved to the
other side of the
Rook.

The conditions
under which Castling




a. Position before Castling.






I?. Position after Castling.
Fig. S.— Castling with Kin^s Rook.



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CHESS.




b. Position after Castling.
Fig. 9. — Castling with Queen's Rook,



is allowed, are : — (i)
That neither King
nor Rook has been
moved. (2) That no
piece intervenes. (3)
That the King is not
in check. (4) That
the King has not to
cross, and does not
move to, a square
commanded by an
opposing piece or
pawn.
Check. — The warning which must be given when the

adversary's King is attacked. The King, in such cases,

is said to be "in
check," and the
threatened capture
must be avoided by
(i) moving the King,
(2) taking the attack-
ing piece, or, (3) in-
terposing (q.v.). On
the annexed diagram,
the White King is in
check, being threat
ened by the Black
Rook. White may
avoid the check by
playing his King to
QKt3, QKt4, or

QKt5, or he may take the attacking Rook with his Bishop.
Checkmate^ or Mate, — A position m which the King can



I ■ ■ ■
I ■ ■ ■

■ • B ■
. pa —



Fig. 10.— Check.



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TECHNICAL TERMS.



13



not by any ^ means
avoid being captured
by the opposing
force. The two dia-
grams annexed give
examples of simple
checkmates. They
are frequently much
more complicated, as
the student will see
later.

In Fig. II it will
be seen that the Black
King is checkmated.
He is attacked by
the Rook, which he
cannot capture. To
avoid the attack, he
must move off his
present rank of
squares ; but should
he do so he would be
subject to capture by
the White King. He
has thus no means of
avoiding the attack.
In Fig. 12 the White
King is checkmated.
He is attacked by
the Knight, which
cannot be taken.
The only squares to
which he can move



BT.ACK.




WHITE.

Fig. II. — Checkmate.

r.LACK.



WHITir.

Fig. 12. — Checkmate,



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14 CHESS,

are KBsq., KKt2, and KR2. The first and second of these
are commanded by the Bishop, and the third by the Knight,
so that the King has no means of escape.

Close Game. — A game in which the development of the
pieces is chiefly effected behind the pawns. This method,
which demands the greatest judgment and accuracy, is only
willingly adopted by experienced players. An Open Game
is one in which the development is effected chiefly in
advance of the pawns. P to K4 as a first move on both
sides, leads generally to an open game ; and formerly all
games begun in this way were called open — other openings
being treated as close. Modern authority, however, has
regard to the position resulting from the opening, whatever
the first moves may have been.

Combination, — The concerted action of two or more
pieces for a specific object. The power of making effective
combinations is the surest proof of Chess skill, and is
altogether absent in those who have no faculty for the game.

Command. — ^A square is commanded when any man
occupying it may be captured.

Counter Gambit. — ^See "Opening."

Debut. — Opening.

Defence. — See " Opening.'*

Develop. — ^To develop, a piece, is to bring it, from its
comparatively powerless and inactive position at the begin-
ning of the game, to a position more favourable for attack
or defence. To develop a game, is to bring all or most of
the pieces into such positions. The rapidity and care with
which the game is developed, is a characteristic feature of
master-play.

Discovered Check. — An attack opened upon the King by
the removal of an intervening piece or pawn. In the follow-
ing diagram it will be seen that the Black King is not in

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TECHNICAL TERMS. 15

check; but it the
Bishop be moved,
the file to the Queen
is opened and the
King is then at-
tacked. In this posi-
tion the Bishop, in
moving, is said to
** discover check."

Double Check-'h
King attacked by
two pieces simulta-
neously is said to be
in double check. _ _. . . ^.r .

Doubled Pawn.- ^'^- ^Z^- Discovered Check.

Two pawns on the same file.

End Game. — A complete and perfect game of Chess is
divided into three parts: i. The Opening (^. v.); 2. The
Middle Game ; 3. The End Game. The point at which one
part develops into the other is of course variable, and can-
not be definitely stated. The Middle Game may be said to
begin when theoretical analysis ends, or when the pieces
are all or nearly all available for action. The End Game
begins when the force on each side is so far reduced that
theoretical analysis again becomes possible. The student
will readily understand that there are many games which do
not admit of this division. Some are decided in the Open-
ing ; many of the most brilliant end in the Middle Game,
mate resulting from some combination. It is not even the
rule in higli-class play that End Game positions are readied.

En passant — The pawns, as stated on p. 9, have the
privilege of moving one or two squares for their first move.
If a pawn move two squares, and in doing so pass an



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i6



CHESS.



BLACK.



opposing pawn, the latter mvcy, on the next move only,
capture it eji passant^ just as though it had moved one
square only, E.g, If there be a White pawn on Q5 and

Black pawns on QB2
and K2, the student
will see that if either
Black pawn be
moved one square it
may be captured by
the White pawn. If
either Black pawn
move two squares,
ue, to QB4 or K4,
it may still be cap-
tured en passant by
the White pawn,
which is thereupon
played to QB6 or
K6 accordingly. A
capture en passant^
if made at all, must
follow immediately the double move of the pawn.

En prise, — ^A piece or pawn is en prise when it can be
taken by one of the adversary's men, and is not fully de-
fended. The phrase in connection with ordinary pieces and
pawns corresponds to *' check " used in connection with the
King. A King is in check, pieces and pawns are en prise.

Establish. — To establish a piece or pawn, is to place it
in a position from which it cannot be dislodged, and where


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