grow without topping until September or tho next spring,
when the tops can be taken out and they will bush and form
heads, and have the appearance of grafted plants.
Figure 6 represents a cutting after being removed to a
pot. It is eight weeks old. I notice that many growers
(and I have done it myself until experience taught me
better) after taking the cuttings from the sand and placing
them in pots, generally remove them to the benches in the
greenhouse. This situation will have a fatal effect. Red
spider and thrip will make sad havoc among them
My treatment of cuttings after being potted is
to place them in a frame instead of on a greenhouse
bench. Then cover with sash, which should be
shaded. Keep them covered with glass from 9
a.m. to 4 p.m., to exclude the strong rays of the
sun, not forgetting that the sash should be re-
moved every day after the sun is off them, that they
may have the full benefit of the night dews.
If the dews are not heavy, syringe twice a day
of plant night and morning, the same as if they were
weeks old pl ace d in the greenhouse. A little attention
in a pot. AV } 1811 t} 1C y are young will fully repay you. Give
AZALEA CULTURE. SI
them, water at the roots when they require it. Should
they want water badly they will wilt, but they should never
be allowed to become so dry. Air the frames daily and
keep the young plants cool. In dark or rainy weather the
sash will not be required over them. Let the cuttings
always have the benefit of the showers, as one good shower
is worth a dozen artificial waterings. If the proper care
has been taken to follow the directions given they will
not need any other attention until the middle or last of
WHEN TO KEMOVE THE CUTTINGS TO THE GREENHOUSE.
ENGRAVING OF AZALEA CUTTING SIX MONTHS OLD.
WH!:N TO RE POT THESE PLANTS. ENGRAVING OF ONE
YEAR OLD PLANT. WHEN TO REMOVE FROM GREENHOUSE.
ENGRAVING OF ONE YEAR OLD PLANT WITH TOPS TAKEN
OUT. ENGRAVING OF PLANT EIGHTEEN MONTHS OLD.
ENGRAVING OF PLANT TWO YEARS OLD NUMBER OF
CUTTINGS TO BE HAD FROM THIS AGED PLANT. ENGRAV-
ING OF PLANT TWO AND A HALF YEARS OLD. ENGRAVING
OF PLANT FOUR YEARS jDLD. ENGRAVING OF PLANT FIVE
YEARS OLD. ENGRAVING OF PLANT FIVE YEARS OLD,
By the 'middle or last of Septem-
ber those plants which have been in
the frames during the summer
will require removing to the
benches in the greenhouse. Keep
them up within eighteen inches of the
glass that they may have all the ben-
efit of the light and air without
allowing them to be in a draught.
All dead leaves should be removed
before bringing them to the house
for the winter.
At this time these cuttings which
were placed in a two-inch pot during
Engraving of plant six
months old. May should have the appearance of
figure 7, with two or three shoots on each plant. This
growth was made in the frame during the summer. Had
they not been topped when potted they would have had
only one straight stem.
I always keep Azaleas from cuttings well topped, in
order to have them low and bushy. Grafted plants are
treated very differently.
The plants now being on the greenhouse bench,
syringe twice a day , and water to the roots when dry. The
following February or March they will need re potting.
They should all be of such a size as to require a three-inch pot.
Soon after this they will make their young growth, and by
the first of April will be what is termed a one year old plant
from a cutting, and should have the appearance of figure 8.
Nip the top of the young wood as you did the previous
year. These plants should
be removed from the green-
house to the open air in May.
Plunge them in sand or any
other material that will keep
the roots cool during tho
Shade is not nocessary
after the first year for this
plant,as so many recommend.
I put them out in the hot
scorching sun, being careful
that they are removed from
the greenhouse on a wet
Engraving of one year old plant, day.
The young and old foliage will become hardened by the
tiine the sun strikes them. If put out on a clear day the
sun will burn the foliage and the plants will have an
unhealthy and unsightly appearance.
Both the Azalea and the Camellia will stand our sum-
mer suns if the two precautions are used, putting them out
on a wet day and plunging the pot to the rim in the sand.
I do not approve of putting them in the shade under
trees, as the drip from them causes many unhealthy plants,
which are covered with vermin, &c.
If the plants have been
properly cared for, re-potted
nnd topped, at one year old
they should have the appear-
ance of figure 9. Plunge the
pots in beds in the open air
during May. These plants
will make another growth,
covering up the unsightly
stems which have been topped.
Many of them will form buds
and bloom the second season.
The plants will require no
One year old plant re-potted
and topped. further attention except water,
ing, and occasionally, during the months of June, July
and August when the night dews are not heavy, syringe
once or twice a day. Syringing and dampening the foliage
are as important during the summer as if the plants were
housed. By September these plants will be eighteen
months old, their buds will be formed, but with only one
or two flowers on each. Perhaps only one -fourth of your
stock will bloom. Flowers should not be looked for on
this sized plants ; rather encourage them to grow.
Although tho plants are small and in three-inch pots, they
are worth, at present prices for named varieties, ten dollars
per hundred. The same retail for twenty-five cents each,
or two dollars and forty cents per dozen.
The middle of September the plants should have the
appearance of figure 10.
Remove to the greenhouse
benches before there is any
danger of frost.
Syringe once or twice a
day according to the heat in
Young plants of Azaleas
thrive best in a cool house.
The following March or
April the plants will be two
years old and most of them
will require a four-inch pot.
They each will have perhaps
from two to three flowers, as
figure 11 represents. They
are worth, at wholesale price,
fifteen dollars per hundred.
After making their growth the second season take the
the tops from such shoots as are getting long, or from those
which give the plant an unsightly appearance.
This wood can be used for cuttings.
Engraving eighteen months
Each plant at this age
will produce from six to
eight cuttings or five
times that number of
Remove the plants
to the open air, plunging
them in sand and using
the precautions for set-
ing out that were used
the previous year, not for-
getting to syringe daily.
The fall of this season
the plants will be two
and a half years old.
P. They should be well
Engraving two years old plant. budded and finely shaped,
and will command, at trade price, twenty dollars per
hundred, or five dollars a dozen, retail.
Figure 12 represents a plant two and a half years old
in a four-inch pot, in September. Use the same treatment
as for former years.
The third year re-pot all Azaleas that need it dur-
ing the month of February or March before they make
their young growth.
The fresh soil will greatly benefit both the young
growth and the flowers.
Top all shoots and use them for cuttings, as you did
in previous years. Put the plants outside at the proper
This being the third
year, many Azaleas will
need five-inch pots ; re-pot
only those that require it.
Let the pots be filled with
roots. Keep the plants
in good shape by topping.
Use the knife freely.
Azaleas will grow or
break freely from either
the young or old wood.
They are not like the
Camellia, but will make
two growths in one season
without injuring the
Some Azaleas make a
growth in September, and
flower the coming season.
Figure 13 represents a plant four years old in a five-
inch pot. It is finely budded and well shaped, and will
produce about fifty flowers. Give the same treatment
us for former years.
Wholesale price of plants this age, four dollars per dozen,
or thirty to thirty-five dollars per hundred.
Plants over four years old may only need re-potting
once in two years, and as they become older will only
need it once in from three to five years. The grower
must be the judge of this. If the plants are in a healthy
Engraving two years and a half
condition and doing well do not disturb them until the roots
have extended to the
sides of the pot.
When the ground
has soured, the drainage
has become imperfect,
and the plants are not
in a healthy condition.
Reduce the ball of
earth, give fresh drain-
age and a smaller pot.
Do not give large pots
to sickly plants.
Encourage them to
make new roots. Aza-
leas shed or lose many
of their leaves in the
fall and winter, and
many persons imagine
their plants are dying.
Flg ' I3 * This is natural to the
Engraving of four year old plant. ^ ^ deciduous)>
They will fill up this nakedness with fresh green foliage
the following season.
When Azaleas are in an unhealthy condition their
foliage becomes a yellowish-green, and they grow very
slowly or not at all. Old plants may be dying for years
before they arc noticed by those who have had a limited
Engraving of a five year old plant.
Figure 14 represents a well grown plant of good shape,
five years old from a cutting. It is grown in such a way
that it can be trimmed up to one straight stem.
There are other varieties of the low growing kind, which
are better-grafted if you wish them to form heads on straight
Engraving of a five year old plant, trimmed up.
Figure 15 represents the same plant five years old from
a cutting, with stem trimmed up to give it the appearance
of a grafted plant. Any of the strong growing varieties
can be trimmed in this way.
ON GRAFTING THE AZALEA. THE PROCESS I PREFER. THE
BEST STOCK TO USE.
t am often asked which I prefer, the grafted plants of
the Azalea or those grown from the cuttings. I grow
largely of this plant, and practice both growing from cut-
tings and from grafting. Sometimes I inarch, but very
seldom. I have a preference, not that one way is better
than the other in respect to flowering, for there is no differ-
ence in this particular, but there is a difference in the
appearance of the plants after they are five years and older.
As this is only a matter of taste, each grower of the Azalea
must decide for himself.
I prefer the grafted plants for one reason only : if they
receive the proper attention and the young shoots are
pinched or topped often, they will form beautiful round
heads on stems twelve to fifteen inches from the pot,
and when in flower will be an ornament for the conservatory,
parlor or greenhouse. Large plants can be grafted with
several different kinds on one plant, but I prefer to graft
the young plant and with only one variety.
The old plants cannot be grafted with the same success
as the young ones, and further, they cannot be as shapely
as those which are grafted on the stock one year old.
Many varieties that grow strong from cuttings can be
trimmed up and have the appearance of those that are
42 AZALEA CULTURE.
grafted with fine round heads by pinching the young shoots
and keeping them up to one straight stem.
Of all plants I grow, and of all methods of increasing
them, there is none so interesting as grafting the young
Azalea. It is so easily performed, and with such great suc-
cess, that there is seldom found a dead one in five hundred.
Keep a supply of plants on hand of the white
variety named Indica Alba, .to use as a stock on which to
graft, or the variety named Phoenicia, which makes equally
as good a stock to graft upon. I prefer Indica Alba, for the
reason that the plants are always valuable, while those of
. *t 4
Phoenicia are worthless as regards flowers.
By keeping a few of these stocks on hand the grower
will have a quick way of getting a supply of any new kind
which may be introduced.
Most of our new varieties of Azaleas are imported from
It is the aim of all importers and growers of this plant
to get the new kind propagated early by means of grafting.
This can be done if the stocks are in condition, and there
is young wood on the newly-imported variety. By the
process of grafting, plants can be in condition to sell in six
weeks after tho parent plants have been imported.
These small grafted plants, with probably one inch of
the new kind on the stock growing, will oftentimes com-
mand a higher price than those of the older varieties three
and four years old.
It is not the size or age that causes them to sell at a high
figure, but it is some new variety that has never been in
AZALEA CULTURE. 43
It is therefore the interest of all growers to procure the
new kinds as early as possible, in order to be able to offer
them as soon as they are in demand.
Azalea stocks should always be kept on hand.
My reason for recommending Indica Alba in preference
to Phoenicia for a stock is that they can be grown as other
varieties, and the plants and flowers are always salable,
even should you not wish to graft all the stock of
Alba you have on hand.
Phoenicia is equally as good for a stock, but the flowers
which are a dark purple have no demand, and are really
worthless after they are too old to be used as a stock.
ENGRAVING OF CUTTING OF INDICA ALBA TO BE USED AS A
STOCK. ENGRAVING OF INDICA ALBA ROOTED.
Grafting the Azalea differs entirely from the Camellia.
The stock on which I graft is Indica Alba, the
old single white. Although I use this for a stock, I consider
it the best single white in my collection for flowers and for
early forcing. It should be grown largely by those who
grow for profit. It is easily rooted, of quick growth, and
makes a strong stock.
Grow this variety precisely the same as the other kinds,
with one exception : make the cuttings a little longer, say
about three inches. Remove two or three leaves from the
bottom of the cutting, as represented in figure 1 6 ; place in
boxes. In previous chapters will be found
full directions for rooting this cutting.
Figure 17 represents a cutting of Indica
Alba rooted. It is five weeks since it was
placed in the sand.
It has made a growth of half an inch,
which will be seen by the engraving. If
this plant is wanted to be used, on which
to graft the new kind, do not remove the
Fig. 1 6. If to be grown without grafting, I would
Cutting three advise the top to be pinched out when
inches long. pottedj in order to make a bushy plant.
If for grafting allow the top to grow, and
in four weeks after being potted this plant
will be in a suitable condition to graft.
The young wood of the imported kinds,
which is suitable to graft on this stock, will
at this time be found very scarce, as the young
growth has been made and buds are forming
for the next season's flowering. Therefore
this hardened wood is not suitable to use for
My practice is to grow the stock until the
following February or March, when it will
be one year old, and then graft upon it.
Keep the stocks in the smallest size pots
until after the ^ are g rafted -
BEST TIME TO GRAFT THE AZALEA. SUITABLE WOOD FOR
GRAFTING. 2NGRAVING OF BOX TO RECEIVE THE GRAFTS.
ENGRAVING OF MY FRAME OF GRAFTED PLANTS.
I advise the Azalea to be grafted in February and
Where the florist's business is conducted properly, there
are certain months for performing the different modes of
propagation. The plants from which the wood is taken
must be your guide in regard to the proper time. For
instance, I am most successful in grafting the Azalea during
the months of February or March, when the wood, both
graft and stock, is very young.
I usually work about three thousand plants at this
I also practice grafting at other times during tho year,
but in limited quantities, and not with the same success as
in the months recommended.
Most Azaleas seen with fine round symmetrical heads
on a bare stem of twelve inches from the pot, are grafted
Do your grafting of this plant during February and
March. At this time the imported kinds will be show'ng
their young shoots. The stocks will also be in fine con-
dition for this work. The wood being very young, great
care must be exercised so as not to allow the young graft
to wilt or flag before or after it is worked.
For grafting there is a frame or box needed inside the
greenhouse, with two coverings of glass.
Place the frame inside of tho house, putting a sash or
a covering of glass over it. Inside of the frame nail strips
on the sides, having them extend across the frame, or in
any way that you may think best, so as to allow another
covering of glass. I use for this inside covering single
panes of glass.
Box for grafting.
Figure 18 represents a box frame, showing grafts, and
also the coverings needed.
For persons who do not graft in large quantities a bell
glass will answer.
When grafted in large quantities a frame is needed, and
a double covering of glass is really necessary, as it is im-
possible to keep a sufficient quantity of air from them with
only the sash.
Use the double covering and your success will be sure.
Exclude the air as much as possible from the young
48 AZALEA CULTU11E.
The younger the wood of both stock and graft, the more
easily they will unite.
If properly done, the directions being followed, they
will unite in forty-eight hours.
By many, the time may be considered very short for a
graft to unite to the stock. As I have remarked before, in
the rooting of the cutting, it is done and can be shown.
One very important point in grafting this plant is to
have young wood, as it unites more readily.
Keep them close for two weeks, when the panes of glass
can be removed from the inside of the frame. Then with
good shading and the one covering of glass they should not
wilt or flag. Should they show a tendency to flag, put the
glass back again that was removed. Keep their heads
AZALEA CULTURE. . ^
50 AZALEA CULTURE.
Figure 19 represents my frame for grafting inside of
Make the frame to suit the number of plants that are to
The engraving shows frame forty feet long by three
feet wide, twelve inches high. It will accommodate three
thousand plants, which is the number I generally graft in
February and March.
Notice the two coverings. This is all necessary to grow
graft for plant.
To grow seventy-five out of one hundred is not what I
call a success. Many growers would be satisfied with this
number. I want ninety -five out of one hundred, or there
has been a lack of attention.
With all the coverings of glass that I have recommend-
ed, the frame is not air-tight, nor do we wish it so, but
it will tend to keep enough air away from them to unite the
Keep the sash well darkened with whiting. It is not
necessary to whiten the single panes of glass that are inside.
ENGRAVING SHOWING STOCK SUITABLE FOR GRAFTING. HOW
TO GRAFT. ENGRAVING SHOWING HOW TO INSERT THE
GRAFT. ENGRAVING SHOWING PLANT GRAFTED. DIREC-
TIONS FOR GRAFTING.
Figure 20 represents the Azalea stock, which is one
year old, in a two-inch pot. Plant six inches high.
Notice in the engraving where the line is
drawn and marked A. This is where the
top should be taken from the plant to
insert the graft. The smallest particle is
only taken off.
The stocks are not fit to graft upon if
they are not in a growing state, and having
young wood on the tip ends where the grafts
are to be placed. The graft which is to be
inserted in this stock must also be of the
Oi , young wood.
Stock one year
old. The younger the wood is of both, the
surer the success.
Do not cut the top from the stocks before you are
ready to place the grafts on them.
The same care should be taken of the grafts, not for-
getting that a newly-made wound, if bandaged and attended
to immediately, is more quickly healed than one which has
remained open some time.
52 AZALEA CULTURE.
Use none but good healthy plants for stocks. Let the
grafts be the same.
Figure 21 represents the stock with the top taken off,
the opening is made in the stock and the graft placed. I
use what is termed by florists a wedge graft. Cut the stock
right through the middle of the stem, as the engraving
shows, but only allow this cut to be a quarter of an inch or
less down. A good knife is best to use
Take the young graft which is intended
for the stock, not allowing it to be more
than half an inch in length. Slice the
smallest portion of wood from each side.
If the graft is so young and soft that the
knife will not pare it, then scrape it. Only
the smallest portion of the wood is to be
taken from the piece which is intended for
" " & " : the graft.
How to insert
the graft. Insert the graft and tie with thread, and
it should have the appearance of figure 22. This operation
is now complete.
As soon as there are a dozen, or even less, grafted,
remove them to the frame.
The wood being very soft they will not stand erect long
without being in a close place.
If they wilt down at this time, both labor and time have
been spent for nothing.
Keep them erect for the first three days, and success is
certain. After the plants have been grafted ten days or
two w^eks, remove the single panes or the inside covering
AZALEA CULTURE. 53
of glass, keeping the sash over them three weeks longer,
then gradually give them air.
The first day raise the sash a half inch, closing it at
night for one week, after this time allow
more air, gradually hardening them
off. After the fifth or sixth week
the sash can be removed from the frame.
The grafts will now be firmly united,
and the unions hardened.
The thread which held the grafts in
position should now be taken off. It is
not necessary to tie the graft again like
hard wood grafting.
At this time the stock which has been
Graft inserted and
tied. newly grafted will have a tendency to
throw out shoots below the graft. All such shoots should be
removed at once. The newly-inserted graft is the only
portion of the plant that should grow.
It will not be necessary to syringe the grafted plants while
they are in the frame. They will receive ample moisture
from the glass, caused by keeping the frame close. Often-
times there is too much moisture in the frames. Obviate
this by ventilating twenty or thirty minutes, or just long
enough to dry the extra moisture in the frame This damp-
ness often proves disastrous to the young graft, therefore
care and watchfulness must be exercised at this time.
ENGRAVING OF PLANT SIX WEEKS AFTER BEING GRAFTED.
ENGRAVING OF GRAFTED PLANT WITH THE TOP NIPPED
OUT. TIME TO RE-POT YOUNG GRAFTED PLANTS. THREE
ENGRAVINGS OF PLANTS TWO, THREE, AND FOUR YEARS
Figure 23 represents a plant six weeks after being
grafted. The graft is firmly united to the stock. It has
made a growth of about two inches before the thread
has been taken off. These plants will all
require re-potting. Give them three-
inch pots, which is one size larger than
those in which they have been grafted.
Fresh soil at this time will encourage the
grafts to grow.
Remove these to the open air in May.
Plunge the pots in sand, taking the neces-
sary precaution to set them out on a wet
Nip the tops from the grafts before
putting them outside, and they will have
the appearance of figure 24. These
plants require nothing further for the summer except water
at the roots when dry, and syringe once or twice a day.
Occasionally during the summer nip the tops, in order
that they may begin early to form heads.
Remove to the greenhouse in September. Syringe once
a day until the next spring, February or March, when the
plants will be one year old from grafts, or two years old
from cuttings. At this time they will require re-potting,