ice above the thickness of a hand-breadth. In that period twenty-five of
our best men died, and all the rest were so exceedingly ill, three or
four only excepted, that we had not the smallest hopes of their
At this time it pleased God to cast an eye of pity upon our
forlorn state, and to send us knowledge of a remedy which restored us to
health in a most wonderful manner. Our captain happened one day to walk
out upon the ice beyond the fort, when he met a company of Indians
coming from Stadacona, among whom was Domagaia, who only ten or twelve
days before had his knees swollen like the head of a child two years
old, his sinews all shrunk, his teeth spoiled, his gums all rotten and
stinking, and in short in a very advanced stage of this cruel disease.
Seeing him now well and sound, our captain was much rejoiced, being in
hopes to learn by what means he had healed himself, so that he might in
the same manner cure our sick men. Domagaia informed him, that he had
taken the juice of the leaves of a certain tree, which was a sovereign
remedy against that disease. Our captain then asked him if that tree was
to be found thereabout, and desired him to point it out, that he might
cure one of his servants who had got the disease when up at Canada with
Donnacona. He said this that it might not be known how many of us were
sick. Domagaia sent immediately two women, who brought ten or twelve
branches of that tree, and shewed the manner of using it; which was to
boil the bark and leaves of the tree in water, to drink of this
decoction every other day, and to put the dregs upon the legs of the
sick. He said likewise that this tree was of great efficacy in curing
many other diseases. This tree is called _Ameda_ or _Hanneda_ in their
language, and is thought to be that which we call Sassafras. Our captain
immediately caused some of that drink to be prepared for his men; but at
first only one or two would venture to use it, who were followed by the
rest, and in a short time they were all completely cured, not only of
this dreadful sickness, but even of every other with which any of them
were at that time afflicted. Some even who had been four or five years
diseased with the _Lues_ became quite cured. After this medicine was
found to be effectual, there was so much eagerness to get it that the
people were ready to kill each other as to who should be first served.
Such quantities were used, that a tree as large as a well grown oak was
completely lopped bare in five or six days, and the medicine wrought so
well that if all the physicians of Montpelier or Louvain had been to
attend us, with all the drugs of Alexandria, they could not have done so
much for us in a whole year as that tree did in six days, all who used
it recovering their health by the blessing of God.
While the disease lasted among us, Donnacona, Taignoagny, and many
others of the natives went from home, pretending that they went to catch
stags and deer, called by them _Aiounesta_ and _Asquenoudo_. They said
that they were only to be away a fortnight, but they staid away above
two months, on which account we suspected they had gone to raise the
country against us while we were so weak. But we had used so much
diligence in fortifying ourselves, that the whole power of the country
could only have looked at us, without being able to have done us any
harm. While they were away, many of the natives used to come daily to
our ships with fresh meat, such as stags, deer, fishes and other things;
but held them at a high price, and would often take them away again,
rather as sell them moderately. It must be allowed however that the
winter that year was uncommonly long, and there was even some scarcity
of provisions among the natives.
On the 21st of April 1536, Domagaia came to the shore accompanied by
several strong men whom we had not seen before, and told us that the
lord Donnacona would come next day to visit us, and was to bring
abundance of venison and other things along with him. Next day Donnacona
came to Stadacona with a great number of men, for what purpose we know
not; but as the proverb says, "He who takes heed of all men may hap to
escape from some." Indeed we had great cause to look about us, being
much diminished in numbers, and those who remained being still very
weak; insomuch that we were under the necessity to leave one of our
ships at the port of St Croix. Our captain was informed of the arrival
of that great number of men along with Donnacona, as Domagaia came to
tell him, yet dared not to cross the river between us and Stadacona as
he used to do, which circumstance made us suspect some intended
treachery. Upon this our captain sent one of his servants along with
John Poulet, who was much in favour among the natives, to endeavour to
discover their intentions towards us. Poulet and his companion pretended
only to come on a visit to Donnacona, to whom they carried some
presents; but as soon as Donnacona heard of their approach he went to
bed, feigning himself very sick. After visiting the chief, they went to
the house of Taignoagny, and wherever they went they saw a prodigious
number of people, so that they could hardly stir for each other, most of
whom they had not been used to see before. Taignoagny would not allow
our men to go into any other house in the town, always keeping company
with them wherever they went; and while accompanying them back to the
ships, desired them to ask our captain to carry off with him to France,
a native chief named Agouna, from whom he had received some injury, and
that if our captain was pleased to do him this service he would esteem
it a great favour and would do in return whatever he was desired;
requesting that the servant might be sent back next day with the answer.
When our captain learnt that so great a number of natives were collected
apparently with some evil intentions towards us, he proposed to make
prisoners of Donnacona, Taignoagny, Domagaia and some others of the
principal men, that he might carry them into France, to shew them to our
king along with other rarities from this western part of the world.
Donnacona had formerly told us that he had been in the country of
Saguenay, in which were infinite riches in rubies, gold, and other
precious things. He said also that there were white men in that country,
whose dresses were of woollen cloth like that we wore. He likewise said
that he had been in another country inhabited by a people called
_Picquemians_, and other tribes. Donnacona was an old man, who
even from his childhood had been accustomed to travel into distant
regions, both by means of the rivers and by land. When Poulet and the
other told their message to our captain from Taignoagny, he sent back
the servant desiring Taignoagny to come and visit him, promising him
good entertainment, and a compliance with his request. Taignoagny sent
back word that he would wait upon our captain next day, bringing
Donnacona and Agouna along with him; yet he staid away two days, during
which time none of the natives came from Stadacona to our ships as they
were wont, but seemed anxiously to avoid us, as if we had meant to slay
them, which added much to our suspicions.
[Footnote 59: A tribe named Picquagamies still inhabits around Lake St
John at the head of the Saguenay river. The people in woollen dresses,
with the rubies and gold, must be fabulous, or misunderstood by the
French. - E.]
At this time the natives of Stadacona, understanding that we were
visited by the inhabitants of Sidatin, and that we were pulling one of
our ships to pieces to get out the old nails and other iron work,
meaning to leave it behind, came to visit us on the third day, crossing
the river in their skiffs and seeming to have laid aside their former
shyness. Taignoagny and Domagaia remained however above an hour on the
other side of the river, conversing across the stream, before they would
come over. At length they came to our captain, whom they requested to
order the before mentioned chief, Agouna, to be apprehended and carried
over to France. The captain refused to do this, saying that he had been
expressly forbidden by the king to bring over any men or women; being
only permitted to take over two or three young boys to learn French
that they might serve as interpreters, but that he was willing to carry
Agouna to Newfoundland and leave him there. Taignoagny was much rejoiced
at this, being satisfied that he was not to be carried back to France,
and promised to bring Donnacona and all the other chiefs with him to the
ships next day. Next day being the 3d of May or Holyrood Day, our
captain caused a goodly fair cross to be erected in honour of the day,
thirty-five feet in height, under the cross tree of which he hung up a
shield of the arms of France, with this inscription in antique letters,
_Franciscus primus Dei gratia Francorum Rex_.
About noon, according to the promise of Taignoagny, a great number of
men, women, and children came from the town of Stadacona, saying that
their lord Donnacona was coming to visit our captain attended by
Taignoagny and Domagaia. They came accordingly about two o'clock in the
afternoon, and when near our ships, our captain went to salute
Donnacona, who endeavoured to assume a cheerful countenance, yet his
eyes were ever and anon bent towards the wood as if in fear. As
Taignoagny endeavoured to dissuade Donnacona from going on board, our
captain ordered a fire to be kindled in the open air; but at length
Donnacona and the others were prevailed upon to go on board, when
Domagaia told the captain that Taignoagny had spoken ill of him and had
endeavoured to dissuade Donnacona from going to the ships. Seeing
likewise that Taignoagny was sending away the women and children, and
that the men only remained, which indicated some hostile intentions, our
captain gave a signal to his men who immediately ran to his assistance,
and laid hold on Donnacona, Taignoagny, Domagaia, and two more of the
principal natives. On seeing their lord taken, the Canadians immediately
ran away, some crossing the river towards Stadacona and others taking to
the woods; whereupon we retired within our bulwarks, and placed the
prisoners under a secure guard. During the ensuing night great numbers
of the natives came to the river side near our ships, crying and howling
like so many wolves, and continually calling upon _Agouhanna_, being the
name of office or dignity of Donnacona, whom they wished to speak with,
but our captain would not allow of this. Next day about noon the natives
indicated by signs that they supposed we had killed their chief. About
this time, the natives in the neighbourhood of the ships were in
prodigious numbers, most of them skulking about the edge of the forest,
except some who continually called with a loud voice on Donnacona to
come and speak to them. Our captain then commanded Donnacona to be
brought up on high to speak to his people, and desired him to be merry,
assuring him that when he had spoken to the king of France, and told him
all that he had seen in Saguenay and other countries through which he
had travelled, that he should be sent back to his own country in ten or
twelve months with great rewards. Donnacona rejoiced at this assurance,
and communicated the intelligence to his people, who made three loud
cheers in token of joy. After this Donnacona and his people conversed
together for a long time; but for want of interpreters we could not know
the subjects of their discourse. Our captain then desired Donnacona to
make his people come over to our side of the river, that they might talk
together with more ease, and desired him to assure them of being in
perfect safety; which Donnacona did accordingly, and a whole boatful of
the principal people came, over close to the ships, where they renewed
their conversation, giving great praise to our captain, to whom they
presented twenty-four chains _esurgney_, as the most precious
thing they possess, and which they hold in higher estimation than gold
or silver. After a long talk, as Donnacona saw that there were no means
of avoiding the voyage to France, he commanded his people to bring him
some victuals to serve him during the passage. At this time our captain
gave Donnacona two frying pans of copper, eight hatchets, with several
knives, strings of beads, and other trifles, with which he seemed highly
pleased, and sent them to his wives and children. Our captain also made
similar presents to the chiefs who had come to speak with Donnacona, who
thanked him for the gifts and retired to their town.
[Footnote 60: A very unintelligible account of the manner in which this
article, so precious in the eyes of the Canadians, is procured, has been
already given in this chapter; but there are no data on which even to
conjecture what it is. Belts of _wampum_, a kind of rudely ornamented
ribbons or girdles, are universally prized among the North American
Indians, of which frequent mention will occur in the sequel of this
work. - E.] Very early on the 5th of May, a great number of the people
came back to speak with their lord, on which occasion they sent a boat,
called _casnoni_ in their language, loaded with maize, venison, fish,
and other articles of provision after their fashion, and lest any of
their men might be detained, this boat was navigated by four women, who
were well treated at our ships. By the desire of Donnacona, our captain
sent a message on shore by these women, to assure the natives that their
chief would be brought back by him to Canada at the end of ten or twelve
months: They seemed much pleased at this intelligence, and promised when
he brought back Donnacona that they would give him many valuable
presents, in earnest of which each of the women gave him a chain of
_esurgney_. Next day, being Saturday the 6th of May 1536, we set sail
from the harbour of St Croix, and came to anchor at night in another
harbour about twelve leagues down the river, a little below the Isle of
Orleans. On Sunday the 7th we came to the Island of Filberts, or
_Coudres_, where we remained till the 16th of the month, waiting till
the great flood in the river had spent its force, as the current was too
violent to be safely navigated. At this time many of the subjects of
Donnacona came to visit him from the river Saguenay, who were much
astonished upon being told by Domagaia that Donnacona was to be carried
to France, but were reassured by Donnacona who informed them he was to
come back next year. They gave their chief on this occasion three packs
of beaver skins and the skins of sea wolves or seals, with a great knife
made of red copper which is brought from Saguenay, and many other
things. They also gave our captain a chain of _esurgney_, in return for
which he presented them with ten or twelve hatchets, and they departed
On the 16th of May we departed from the Isle of Filberts, and came to
another island about fifteen leagues farther down the river, which is
about five leagues in length, where we remained the rest of that day and
the following night, meaning to take advantage of the next day to pass
by the river Saguenay, where the navigation is very dangerous. That
evening we went ashore on the island, where we took such numbers of
hares that we called it Hare Island. But during the night the wind
became quite contrary and blew so hard that we were forced back to the
Isle of Filberts, where we remained till the 21st of the month, when
fine weather and a fair wind brought us down the river. On this occasion
we passed to _Honguedo_, which passage had not been seen before. Passing
Cape _Prat_, which is at the entrance into the bay of _Chaleur_; and
having a fair wind we sailed all day and night without stopping, and
came next day to the middle of _Brions_ Islands. These islands lie
north-west and south-east, and are about fifty leagues asunder, being
in lat. 47-1/2° N. On Thursday the 26th of May, being the feast of
the Ascension, we coasted over to a _land and shallow of low sands_,
about eight leagues south-west from Brions Island, above which are large
plains covered with trees, and likewise an enclosed lake or sea into
which we could find no entrance. On Friday following, being the 27th of
the month, in consequence of the wind becoming foul, we returned to
Brions Island, where we remained till the beginning of June. To the
south-east of this island we saw land which we supposed another island,
which we coasted for two or three leagues, and had sight of three other
high islands towards the sands, after which we returned to the cape of
the said land, which is divided into two or three very high capes.
At this place the water is very deep and runs with a prodigiously swift
current. That day we came to Cape Lorain _which is in 47 1/2 degrees
toward the south_. This cape is low land, and has an appearance as of
the mouth of a river, but there is no harbour of any worth. At a short
distance we saw another head-land toward the south, which we named Cape
[Footnote 61: These geographical indications are so obscure as not to be
intelligible, unless perhaps the passage between Cape Breton Island and
Newfoundland is here meant under the name of Honguedo. - E.]
[Footnote 62: The text here is either corrupt, or so vaguely expressed
as not to admit of any reasonable explanation or conjecture. - E.]
Sunday following, being the 4th of June, we saw other lands at about
twenty-two leagues east-south-east from Newfoundland, and as the wind
was contrary we went into a harbour which we named the Bay of the Holy
Ghost. We remained there till the Tuesday following, when we sailed
along the coast to St Peters Islands, passing many very dangerous rocks
and shoals, which lie east-south-east and west-north-west, stretching
about twenty-three leagues out to sea. While at St Peters Islands, we
saw many French and British ships, and remained there from the 11th to
16th of June, after, which we sailed to Cape _Race_, where we went into
a harbour named _Rognoso_, where we took in a supply of wood and water
to serve us on the voyage home, and at this place we left one of our
boats. We left that harbour on Monday the 19th of June, and had such
excellent weather and fair winds, that we arrived in the Port of St
Maloes upon the 6th of July 1536.
* * * * *
In Hakluyts Collection, III. 286-289, there is a short imperfect
fragment of a _third_ voyage by Jacques Cartier to Canada, Hochelega,
and Saguenay in 1540; but as it breaks off abruptly and gives hardly any
additional information respecting the country and its inhabitants or
productions, beyond what is contained in the two voyages already
inserted, it has not been deemed necessary to adopt it into the present
collection. - E.
_Specimen of the language of Hochelega and Canada_.
1. _Secada. 2. Tigneni. 3. Hasche. 4. Hannaion. 5. Ouiscon.
6. Indahir. 7. Aiaga. 8. Addigue. 9. Madellan. 10. Assem_.
_Aggonzi_, the head. _Atha_, shoes.
_Hegueniascon, the brow. _Amgoua,_ a shirt.
_Higata_, the eyes. _Castrua_, a cap.
_Abontascon_, the ears. _Osizi_, corn.
_Esahe_, the mouth. _Carraconny_, bread.
_Esgongay_, the teeth, _Sahe_ beans.
_Osnache_, the tongue. _Ame_, water.
_Agonpon_, the throat. _Quahouascon_, flesh.
_Hebelim_, the beard. _Honnesta_, damsons.
_Hegouascon_, the face. _Absconda_, figs.
_Aganiscon_, the hair. _Ozoba_, grapes.
_Aiayascon_, the arms. _Quahoya_, nuts.
_Aissonne_, the flanks. _Esgueny_, an eel.
_Aggruascon_, the stomach. _Undeguezi_, a snail.
_Eschehenda_, the belly. _Hueleuxima_, a tortoise.
_Hetnegradascon_, the thighs. _Sahomgahoa_, a hen.
_Agotschinegodascon_, the knees. _Zisto_, a lamprey.
_Agouguenehondo_, the legs. _Ondacon_, a salmon.
_Onchidascon_, the feet. _Ainne-honne_, a whale.
_Aignoascon_, the hands. _Sadeguenda_, a goose.
_Agenuga_, the fingers. _Aionnesta_, a stag.
_Agedascon_, the nails. _Asquenondo_, a sheep.
_Aguehum_, a man. _Saurkanda_, a hare.
_Agrauste_, a woman. _Agaya_, a dog.
_Addegesta_, a boy. _Achide_, to-morrow.
_Agniaquesta_, a girl. _Cudragny_, God.
_Exiasta_, a child. _Quenhia_, heaven.
_Conda_, woods. _Damga_, the earth.
_Hoga_, leaves. _Ysmay_, the sun.
_Cabata_, a gown. _Assomaha_, the moon.
_Caioza_, a doublet. _Stagnehoham_, the stars.
_Hemondoha_, stocking. _Copoha_, the wind.
_Adogne_, a hatchet
_Ahencu_, a bow.
_Quaetan_, a dart.
_Canada_, a town.
_Agogasy_, the sea.
_Coda_, the waves.
_Cohena_, an island.
_Agacha_, a hill.
_Canoca_, a house.
_Addathy_, my father.
_Adauahoe_, my mother.
_Addagrim_, my brother.
_Adhoasseue_, my sister.
_Quaza hoa quea_, Give me some drink.
_Quaza hoa quascaboa_, Give me my breakfast.
_Quaza hoa quatfriam_, Give me my supper.
_Casigno agnydahoa_, Let us go to bed.
_Casigno donnascat_, Let us go a hunting.
_Casigno caudy_, Let us go to play.
_Casigno casnouy_, Let us go in the boat.
_Assigni quaddadia_, Come speak with me.
_Quagathoma_, Look at me.
_Aignag_, Good morrow.
_Aista_, Hold your peace.
_Buazahca agoheda_, Give me a knife.
A GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.
PART II. CONTINUED.
CONTINUATION OF THE DISCOVERIES AND CONQUESTS OF THE PORTUGUESE IN THE
EAST; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE EARLY VOYAGES OF OTHER EUROPEAN
NATIONS TO INDIA.
DISCOVERIES, NAVIGATIONS, AND CONQUESTS OF THE PORTUGUESE IN INDIA, FROM
1505 TO 1539, BOTH INCLUSIVE: RESUMED FROM BOOK I. OF THIS PART.
We have formerly in the _First_ BOOK of this _Second_ PART of our
general arrangement, given a historical account of the Portuguese
Discoveries along the Coast of Africa, with their Discovery of and early
Conquests in India, from the glorious era of DON HENRY prince of
Portugal in 1412, down to the year 1505. Necessarily called off from
that interesting subject, to attend to the memorable Discovery of the
_NEW WORLD_ by the immortal COLUMBUS, we have detailed at considerable,
yet we hope not inconvenient length, in the III. IV. and V. Volumes of
our Collection, the great and important Discovery of America, and the
establishment of the principal Spanish colonies in that grand division
of the world, with some short notices of the earliest American
Discoveries by the Portuguese, English, and French nations. We now
return to a continuation of the early Discoveries and Conquests in
India, taking that word in its most extensive signification as
comprehending the whole of southern Asia, from the Persian Gulf to Japan
and Eastern China. In the present portion of our Collection, we propose
chiefly to direct our attention to the transactions of the Portuguese;
adding however such accounts as we may be able to procure of the early
Voyages to India made by other European nations.
[Footnote 63: Portuguese Asia, by Manuel de Faria y Sousa-Astleys
Collection of Voyages and Travels, I. 58. et sequ.]
It is not necessary to particularize the various sources from which the
different articles to be contained in this _Book_ or division of our
work has been collected, as these will be all referred to in the several
chapters and sections of which it is composed. Indeed as the
introductions we prefix, on the present and other similar occasions, are
necessarily written _previous_ to the composition of the articles to
which they refer, contrary to the usual practice, it would be improper
to tie ourselves too strictly on such occasions, so as to preclude the
availment of any additional materials that may occur during our