Cost. ā Ā£ 1 00.
Great Northern Railway Wool Shed, Bradford.
Engineer, R, Johnson; Builder, W. Pickard & Son. Built, 1875.
Description. ā Square stone shaft and pedestal.
Height, including foundation 96' o"
,, above ground line 90' o"
,, of pedestal above ground line 19' o"
Outside measurement at foundation 12' o"
,, ,, at ground line 9' o"
Inside ā ,, ā 2' 9"
Outside ,, above pedestal 6' 9"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 2' 9"
Outside ,, under cap 4' 10"
Inside ,, at top 2' 6"
Fire-brick Lifting. ā A 4I" fire-brick lining is constructed
independently of the stone work to chimney, for the height of
Dtity. ā No. 4 boilers, each 24' long; outside diameter, 6';
internal flue diameter, 3'.
Batter. ā Pedestal, parallel. Shaft, i in 66.
Cost. ā -^260.
Specification, Extract from. ā The site is on rock, and if in
digging out for the foundations it is found that any faults or
defective places exist, or if the rock has been quarried to a
greater depth than that shewn for the footings, then the excava-
tion is to be continued down to the solid, and a wall i' wider
than the lowest course of footings is to be built up to the proper
level for commencing the walls. This wall is to be of rubble
masonry in Portland cement, or otherwise (as the Engineer may
determine) of concrete composed of stone, broken to pass a 2"
mesh, sand and Portland cement in the proportion of six of
stone, two of sand and one of cement, to be properly mixed
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 117
together with the least quantity of water, and thrown into the
trench from a height of at least 8'.
The mortar is to be composed of the best Skipton or South
Elmsall lime, as the Engineer may determine, and clean sharp
sand, in the proportion of one of lime to two of sand, to be
ground together in a mill worked by steam power on the ground,
and only prepared as required for use.
The walls are to be built with block in course, pitched face
stone from the Bradford, Idle or Calverley quarries, as the
Engineer may determine; the stones to be not less than w" on
the beds and 6" on the joints, and not less than 7" or more than
\^' in thickness ; the thicker courses at the bottom, and dimin-
ishing gradually upwards ; thick courses in no case to be laid
upon thin ones ; the whole to have boasted beds and joints.
No natural faces must show in the wall. The footings are to be
of rag stone.
The chimney is to be carried up true and vertical upon its
axis ; the base is to be lined inside with Stourbridge fire-brick
to a height of 20' from bottom of flue. The shaft is to have an
internal width at base of 2' 9'' square, and at top 2' t" square.
At junction of shaft with pedestal it is to be corbelled over
internally 6" all round. It is to be 2' thick at this point, and is
to be gradually diminished to a thickness of V 3" under cap. A
space of 4" is to be left between the top of fire-brick lining and
the bottom of corbelling in chimney, to allow of free expansion.
The base moulds, necking and cap to chimney, together
with all oversailings, strings and dentils, are to be executed in
strict accordance with the drawing upon which all the sizes and
forms are given. The cap and base mouldings are to be set in
cement, the profiles of which are to be cleanly and sharply cut.
The fire-bricks are to be of the best Stourbridge, or quality
equal thereto, set in ground fire-clay, mixed with water to the
consistency of cream. The bricks are to be dipped into the
liquid fire-clay, laid in place and hammered together, so as to
be when finished brick and brick.
Kent Water Works.
Engineer, W. Morris, M.I.C.E. ; Builders, J. Rider & Son.
Built, 1879 ; four months occupied in construction.
Description. ā Brick, square pedestal, circular shaft, stone
1 1 8 Tall Clmnney Construction.
Height, including foundation 97' 3"
,, from ground line to top 90' o"
Outside measurement at ground line 9' 3 "
Inside ,, ā , 4' o"
at base of circular shaft . . . . 7' 9"
ā .... 4' o"
at top, under cap 5' ^"
d. ā Loamy gravel on chalk.
Pedes fa l. ā 22' high with Portland stone mouldings, i' \o\"
Firc-hrick Lining.' ā 20' high from ground line, 4^" thick ; no
space between brickwork of pedestal and lining.
Shaft. ā This is erected in three sections, viz. : ā
1st section . . . 21' high . . . i io|" thick.
2nd ā ... 25' ā ... I 6" ā
3rd ,, ... 22' ,, ^vith cap i l^" ,,
WrongJit Iron Bo?id, &c. ā No. 1 1 rings of wrought iron bond
are built into shaft at about 6' intervals, and No. i wrought
angle iron band placed round circumference of Portland stone
cap ; also No. 2 copper rings built into stone cap.
Batter. ā i in 56.
Scaffold. ā Outside.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper tape.
Duty. ā No. 6, 35 h.p. boilers connected to shaft.
G. Tucker & Son, Brickworks, &c., Loughborough.
Designed and built by G. Tucker & Son.
Description. ā Square brick.
Dim ensions^ ā
Height, including foundation 95
,, from ground line to top 85
Outside measurement at foundation 12
ā ,, at ground line 8
Inside ,, ,, 4
Outside ,, at top 5
Inside ā ,, 4'
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 1 1 9
Foundatioti. ā Concrete on marl foundation bed.
Bricks, ā Ordinary size, 9" X 45'' X 3".
Batter. ā i in 68.
Scaffold. ā Inside.
Cap. ā Constructed of large purposely-made bricks.
Lightning Conductor. ā Galvanised iron strand.
Duty. ā To carry off smoke, &:c., from two boilers and a
Cost. ā About ;^ 1 20.
West End Laundry Company's Chimney, Fulham, London.
Architect, William C. Street ; Builders, West End Laundry Company.
Built, 1 883 (spring of year) ; time occupied, four months.
Description. ā Brick, circular shaft, on square pedestal.
Total height, including foundations 97' f*"
Height from ground line So' o"
Concrete foundation, square 17' 6"
,, ,, in height 6' o"
Outside measurement base of footings ^"^i '^'
ā ā bottom of square pedestal ... 10' 3"
M ā top ā ,, ... 9' 9"
,, ,, base of circular shaft 8' o"
Inside ,, ,, ,, ,, 4' 3"
Outside ,, top of shaft 5' o"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 3' 6"
Bbundation. ā The foundation bed is gravel, 17' 6" below
Fire-hrick Lining. ā The 9'' fire-brick lining extends 22' from
inside base of pedestal, and is built up square 2' b" x 2' 6",
leaving a cavity at base of 6" and top 4" between fire-brick and
inside of pedestal.
Pedestal. ā This is 27' 6'' high from top of concrete, and has
a batter of i in 52.
1 20 Tall Chhmiey Construction.
Pedestal . . .
6" high 2' yi'
Shaft 1st section
0" ,, I' lOi'
ā 2nd ā
0" ,, i' 6"
Ā» 3rd ).
0" ,, 1' iV'
,. 4th ā
0" ā 9"
91' 6" height from base of footings.
Bricks. ā 59 VI. ordinary bricks used in construction, laid to
Scaffold. ā Outside.
Weight. ā 301^ tons, giving a little less than one ton pressure
per super foot on foundation bed.
Duty. ā One boiler flue and one vapour flue connected to
shaft ; total h.p. 45.
Hastings Electric Light Company's Chimney.
Architect, E, W. J. Hennah ; Builder, A. ViDLER.
Built, 1882-3 (August to March).
Description. ā Square brick.
Total height, including foundation 85' o"
Height from ground line 78' o"
Outside measurement at ground line 6' 6"
Inside ,, ,, ,, S' 6"
Outside ,, at top 4' o"
Inside ,, ,, 2' 6"
Fomulation. ā Concrete on clay and sandstone.
Batter. ā The sides for the first 27' of shaft are parallel ; for
the remainder of height they diminish to a batter of i in 41.
Materials. ā 30 ;//. of ordinary bricks used in construction
laid in cement. Measured work, 6 rods, 226' reduced brickwork.
One course 4'^ stone on top.
Weight. ā About 90 tons.
Scaffold. ā Outside, costing about Ā£ 1 7 extra.
Duty. ā Two boilers working up to 200 h.p.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper tape, cost ^12 fixed.
Cost. ā Chimney and scaffold complete, ;^ 147.
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 1 2 1
Messrs. Robert Heath & Sons' Chimney Shaft, Ravens-
dale Iron Works, Tunstall, Staffordshire.
Description. ā Circular wrought iron shaft, not spread at base.
Height from ground line to top 75' o"
Outside diameter at ground line 6' o"
ā ā at top 6' o"
Wrought Iron Plates. ā No. 75 wrought iron plates were
used in the construction of this shaft, the thickness being ^' .
The plates have a lap of 2I", and are riveted together with f"
Fire-brick. ā The shaft is lined its entire height with fire-
Duty. ā The shaft carries off the fumes from three boilers.
Geo. M. Hammer & Company, Cro\vn Works, Bermondsey,
Architect and Builder, G. M. Hammer & Co. ; Built, 1882.
Description. ā Brick, square pedestal, octagonal shaft.
Height, including foundation 80' o"
,, from ground line to top 70' o"
Portland cement, square concrete foundation 5' tliick . . 14' o"
Height of pedestal 15' o"
Outside measurement at ground line 7' 4"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 2' 9"
Outside ,, at base of octagonal shaft ... S' 10"
Inside ,, ,, ,, ,, . . . 2' 10"
Outside ,, at top, under cap 4' o"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 2' 6"
Foundation Bed. ā Ballast.
Shaft. ā This is built up in three sections, as follows : ā
1st section 15' high 18" thick.
2nd ,, 20' ,, 14" ,,
3rd ā 20' ā 9" ā
Scaffold. ā Outside.
Batter. ā Pedestal, parallel. Shaft, i"in 5' or i in 60.
122 Tall Chhnney Coyistmction.
Weight. ā 90 tons including footings = '45 tons per square
foot on concrete foundation.
Lightning Cojiductor. ā Copper strand rope.
Duty. ā No. I, 30 h.p.
tors consider it capabh
Cost. ā Ā£20^ complete.
Duty. ā No. I, 30 h.p. boiler now connected, and the pro-
prietors consider it capable of taking another 30 h.p. boiler.
Messrs. Harvey & Son, Brewery Chimney, Lewes.
Architectf'W .'Rkahyo-rd ; Builders, H. Card & Son. Built, 1881 ; about two months
occupied in construction.
Description. ā Octagon brick on square pedestal.
Total height, including foundations 85' o"
Height from ground line 70' o"
Outside measm^ement at ground line, square 6' 6"
Inside ,, ,, ,, ,, 2' o"
Outside ,, at top 3' 6"
Inside ,, ,, square 2' o"
Foundation. ā Blue lias concrete, 17' x i6' x 8' 6" deep, on
clay foundation bed.
Scaffold. ā Outside.
Capy &c. ā Stone in cap and base, cost ^70.
Duty. ā To carry away smoke, &c., from one boiler of 25 h.p.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper rope, cost ;^ 10 fixed.
Cost. ā Chimney complete, ^270.
Chain, Cable and Anchor Testing Works, River Wear
Figs. 70 and 71.
Engineer, H. H. Wake, M.I.C.E. ; Builder, Geo, Grainger.
Built, 1873, at the rate of i' 6' in height per day.
Description. ā Concrete, square pedestal, octagonal shaft.
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 123
Height, including foundation 62' 6"
,, above ground line 56' 6"
,, of pedestal above ground line 24' 9"
,, of shaft, including base moulding 3'' 9"
Concrete foundation square 12' o"
Outside measurement at ground line 7' 6"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 4' o"
base of shaft 5' 9"
at top 3' 4"
Foundation. ā The foundation bed is " forced ground," con-
sisting of sand and town rubbish tipped on to sea beach ; upon
this is laid a concrete bed 12' x 12' x 6'.
Pedestal. ā The square pedestal is outside 7' 6" X 7' 6'' parallel.
Inside to a height of 19' the flue is 4' d' square and parallel; from
this height (see Fig. 71) the insides of pedestal have a batter
similar to that of the insides of octagonal shaft.
Base moulding . i' 9"
Shaft and cap . 30' o"
The shaft is built up in two sections, as follows : ā
1st section 15' high i' 3" thick.
2nd , 15' ā 9" ā
Fire-brick Linijig. ā The lining extends the whole height of
pedestal, viz., 24' t" above ground, and is constructed in two
thicknesses : ā
15' high 9" thick.
9l' .. aĀ„ ..
There is no cavity or space between the fire-brick and the
concrete of pedestal.
Batter. ā i in 25.
Materials. ā Concrete to foundation and pedestal was com-
posed of I of Portland cement to 8 of shingle and sand.
Concrete to shaft, i Portland cement to 5 gravel and sand. Out-
side of chimney was coated with I" of cement, in the proportion
of I cement to i sand, and joints struck to represent Ashlar.
Constrnction. ā The shaft from base moulding was constructed
in the following manner : ā Wood moulds 3' in height, formed of
f" boards, hinged together in pairs at their outer edges, were
constructed to form the quoins of the octagonal shaft. Standards
6' in height were used to bolt the outside moulds to the inside
ones, and also to have 3' hold on the work already executed
124 Tall Chwiney Construction.
while a 3' length was being constructed. The batter of the
shaft being uniform the quoin moulds did not require re-adjust-
ing every 3' to suit the decreasing girth of the shaft, but this
was provided for by wedge pieces being placed on each face
working between the quoin moulds ; these wedges had to be
reduced in width every 3'. When the quoin moulds had reached
half the height of the shaft their edges on each face met, and
wedges could not be inserted. The moulds were, therefore,
re-adjusted, and a fresh set of wedges started ; the edges of
quoin moulds met again at top.
TAKING DOWN SHAFT.
Messrs. Gilkes, Wilson, Pease & Co., Tees Iron Works,
Figs. 72 and 73.
Engineer Mr. Chas. Wood.
Taking Down a Chimney Shaft.
An ingenious arrangement for facilitating the taking down
of an old chimney shaft was here employed.
In consequence of the shaft standing in a crowded position,
the plan of letting it fall was inadmissible, and it had to be
taken down from the top.
The bricks had to be lowered with as little damage as
possible, so that they might be used again for building purposes.
Owing to the position of the chimney the bricks could not be
thrown down outside, and if thrown down inside they would
have been smashed, and if lowered by mechanical means the
process would have been very tedious.
Under these circumstances it was considered whether the
bricks could not be allowed to fall by their own weight, and at
the same time be cushioned sufficiently to break their fall and
In order to do this an air-tight iron box was placed at the
bottom of the chimney (Fig. 72). This box was fitted with an
air-tight door, mounted on hinges and closing on an india-
rubber face, against which it was tightened by a wedge.
A wooden spout was then fixed on to the top of the box
and carried up the chimney. It was iV' x 5" inside, made of
Taking Doiun Shaft. I25
planks i\" thick, well nailed together with a little white lead on
the edges, thus making it air-tight. The spout was made in
about 12' lengths, and these were joined together by cast iron
sockets or shoes (see Fig. 73), and caulked round with tarred
yarn, the whole apparatus costing about ^6.
A few stays were put inside the chimney to keep the spout
steady. Steps were nailed upon the wooden spout by which
the workmen ascended. The whole of the spouting being air-
tight, if a brick filled the spout it would not descend, but as the
size of a brick is 3'' x 4i"and the spout was 3I" x 5", there was
^" space each side, through which the air could pass the brick
freely, this space further allowing for any irregularity in the
sizes of the bricks. The result was, that the bricks being
cushioned in their fall, arrived at the base without damage.
As soon as the box was full the man at the bottom rapped
on the spout as a signal to stop, and then opened the air-tight
door and removed the bricks inside. This being done he shut
the door and signalled " all right" to the man at top.
The workman at top lowered his own scaffold, and as the
spout became too high he cut a piece off. If there were much
mortar adhering to the bricks it was knocked off before putting
the latter into the spout. Such mortar, &c., was allowed to fall
inside the chimney and was afterwards wheeled out.
The plan here described was, we believe, quite novel, and
is certainly simple. There are, no doubt, many similar circum-
stances under which it might be advantageously employed.
Chimney Shaft, Bingley, near Bradford.
Straightening. ā This chimney, which was built at a cost of
;^ 2,000, was found some few years since to be 4' 6" out of the per-
pendicular. The inclination was found to be due to the founda-
tions having settled under the superincumbent mass of brickwork
at one side. In this emergency it was advised that excavations
should be made under the foundations at the other side until the
chimney settled down to the same extent, and so brought itself
back into the perpendicular. A well was actually dug beneath
the higher side of the shaft, and supplied with water to favor
126 Tall Chimney Construction.
the yielding of the rigid part of the foundation. This was a
very perilous method of straightening the shaft, as after the
ground had become sodden with the water and the foundation
of the shaft undermined it would have been next to impossible
to have stopped the subsidence at the desired point, and the
shaft would have most likely fallen in an opposite direction to
that in which it had previously leant. Before, however, any
injurious effect had occurred the rectification was placed in the
hands of Messrs. Sanderson, of Huddersfield. The first step
was the restoration of the foundation to its original state ; the
well was filled in and made firm with brickwork and concrete.
A gap was next cut half through the bottom of the shaft on the
side where no settlement had taken place by removing three
courses of brickwork. As this was being effected strong screw-
jacks of iron were inserted perpendicularly into the gap to take
the pressure of the unsupported mass of brickwork. The jacks
were 10" long, and iron plates i" thick were inserted above and
below their ends to serve as temporary platforms. The jacks
were inserted one after the other, a few inches apart, as the
brickwork was cut away, and each one was adjusted by its
regulating screw, so as to come at once into right bearing for
sustaining its share of the weight. When the entire gap had
been formed and all the screw-jacks inserted, the jacks were
very slowly and gradually shortened as the weight did its work,
and when the shaft had nearly settled back into its original
perpendicular position, the portions of the gap, which lay
between the screw-props, were filled in with masonry, the
screws were, one after the other, removed, and masonry also
put in their place. The making good of the work was com-
menced before the shaft had quite reached the perpendicular,
because it was known that a slight allowance must be made for
a small compression of the new work after the entire filling in
of the gap. The straightening, as here detailed, was successful,
and the shaft now stands perpendicular.
Chemical Works, Pitchcombe, Gloucestershire.
Straightening Chimney. ā The octagonal brick shaft at
Messrs. Matthews & Sons' Works, as above, built 1862, and
132' high, gradually settled from its upright position until in
1875 it was found to be 3' 10" at top from the perpendicular.
Mr. H. J. Taylor, of Nailsworth, assisted by three workmen,
undertook to straighten the shaft, by means of cutting out one
course of bricks on the five sides opposite to the inclination,
inserting a thinner course in its place, and letting the stack
Straightening Shafts. 127
regain its upright position by the action of gravitation. A plat-
form was erected about 40' from the base, and the walls, which
at this height were 2' in thickness, cut through by means of
hammers and chisels. As the bricks were removed a thinner
course was substituted, and the space above filled with iron
wedges. This work lasted three weeks, the weather being most
unfavourable. The chimney stood the operation well. When
everything was in readiness the wedges were withdrawn, and
the stack settled to within an inch or two of the perpendicular.
It had been calculated that |" would bring the stack back
']" at top, so that the difference in the thicknesses of the courses
had to be if".
The cost of a new shaft was estimated at ^^ 800, and the old
one was straightened at about one-tenth this amount, and is
still working satisfactorily.
FALL OF SHAFTS.
Straightening and Fall of a Chimney.
Oldham. ā A large shaft 165' high, 16' diameter at base and
Y ^" diameter at top, was, in 1873, constructed at the new works
of Messrs. Abraham Stott & Son, Osborn iSIills, Feather Stall
Road, Oldham. It was found necessary to straighten the pile,
which leaned considerably over to one side. The owners, there-
fore, entered into a contract with two brothers named Gradwell,
of Newton Heath, to " saw" the chimney. Mr. Stott found that
the men were taking out a whole course of bricks, at a third of
the height of the shaft, and temporarily supplying its place
with a series of wedges of wood and iron, instead of "sawing"
the mortar out as arranged. The owner at once remonstrated
with one of the men, but he declared the plan was safe, and
took Mr. Stott to some rising ground adjacent, to observe the
safety, when, as if in ridicule of his assertion, the chimney
toppled over, except about 30' at the base. The poor fellow on
the scaffold was buried in the fallen bricks. Adjacent to the
shaft was the boiler house, a large new building, which was
completely wrecked, a portion of the stalk falling upon it.
At the inquest it was deposed that the shaft was built on
sound principles, but in a faulty manner. The material was
inferior, the bricks being soft and the mortar improperly mixed,
consisting too largely of sand.
128 Tall Chimney Construction.
Taking Down and Fall of a Chimney.
Glasgow. ā A chimney nearly 100' high in the yard of a
railway wagon builder at Glasgow, fell on January loth, 1870,
killing two men. The stalk had been deemed insecure, and the
men killed were employed with two others in taking down 20'
from the top. Cross stays were erected inside the shaft, by
means of which the men ascended to the top, where they
removed the bricks, and dropped them inside the chimney.
An aperture was made in the base 5' high by 3' wide, through
which the two men at foot of shaft removed the fallen bricks.
While they were so engaged the stalk suddenly gave way at
the base, killing the two men at top ; the men at the bottom,
however, escaped without injury. The accident was supposed
to have been occasioned by the aperture weakening the base.
Heightening and Fall of a Chimney.
Bury. ā On January 23rd, 1884, a chimney at Messrs. Allen
and Parker's Eaton Vale bleachworks, near Bury, fell, killing
three women and wrecking the building. The shaft was 105' high,
7' 2" at base, 4' inside and 9" brickwork at top. The chimney
was originally 90' high and was partly pulled down, rebuilt,
raised and the batter lessened in June, 1870, by Messrs. Chris.
Hardman & Sons, to increase the draught. In December, 1882,
Mr. Robert Williams, of Elton, straightened the shaft by taking
out a course of bricks from one side and replacing it with a
thinner one ; he also put five wrought iron ties round the shaft,
the uppermost one being above the cornice and stonework,
there being a fissure in the blocking at top, part of which was
nearly hanging off. The work was done in frosty weather.
The crack was filled up with mastic and oil.
]\Ir. James Maxwell, an architect, who examined on behalf
of the Coroner, stated at the inquest that the base was defective,
not only in its area but in the strength of the walls and the
construction of same. The walls were built of 9" brickwork
and 9" stonework outside. Little attempt had been made to
obtain a proper bond. The increased height, he considered, to
be the primary cause of the accident.
The chimney was observ^ed, at the time of accident, to be
caught by a gust of wind that caused it to vibrate about a
foot, and a second gust following brought down the stalk. It