Internal diameter throughout 11' o"
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 77
Foundation. — Stone laid in cement, and is situate in what
is termed the " Bottom " next to Cuyahoga River, where the
ground is all of alluvial formation. For such a load as this
chimney the foundation required close piling ; piles were driven
2T,' to 24' in depth, and almost in contact with each other.
Through the stone foundation. No. 8, 2 J" bolts were passed,
connecting a circular cast-iron foundation plate of T section,
18" X 8i" at bottom of stonework to a similar casting upon the
top of stone foundation. This top circular ring or base plate is
formed with a projecting flange placed at an angle of 60'' to
receive plates forming bell-shaped base, 2' above ground.
Construction. — The chimney was constructed by inside
scaffolding and built up one plate high at a time. The workmen
hanging what is called a " cage " on the plates to serve as a
stand for the " holder on " while riveting the plates in situ.
Bcll-shapcd Base. — The plates forming the base are bolted
to the flange of chimney base ring by ^' bolts, and when com-
pleted to a height of 21' form a bell-shaped base 21' 2" diameter
at bottom and 13' 6" at top.
Shaft. — From the top of bell-shaped base the wrought-iron
outer casing is continued to a height of 21' from below top; from
this point the cap is formed as shown on drawing.
Rivets and Riveting. — The plates are all riveted together
with a lap of 2" .
The constructors used conical-shaped rivet heads, and the
diameter of rivets for this class of work is as near as possible
twice the thickness or upwards of plate, and the pitch of rivets
is 5 diameters.
Ladder. — A wrought-iron ladder is fixed to the outside.
Fire-brick Lining. — A fire-brick lining was built up through
the entire height of the chimney, commencing at junction of
flues in foundation with a thickness of 1 8", and finishing at top
The internal diameter, when finished with lining, is 11' and
constant throughout its height.
The radiated fire-bricks were of five sizes, purposely made.
Stability. — The chimneys built on this plan are calculated to
withstand 50-lb. wind pressure per square foot with safety. The
constructors say the climate of America is dry and no doubt
better for such structures than the climate of England. They
believe that no one alive at the present time will see the end of
a W. I. chimney lined with brick. The oldest ones in America
show no material deterioration.
Tail Chimney Co7istruction.
Painting. — The wrought-iron chimneys in America are
painted every three or four years with oxide of iron paint,
Cost. — Complete, 13,000 dollars; or ^2,708. 6s. 8d.
Samuel Fox & Co., Stockbridge Works Chimney, Deepcar,
Biiihier Mr. Matthew Brearley.
Description. — Octagonal brick shaft, erected in 1866: six
Height, including foundation
„ from ground line to top
Outside measurement over sides at foundation
Inside ,, ,, ,,
Outside ,, ,, at ground line
Inside ,, ,, ,,
Outside ,, ,, at top . .
Foundation. — Ashlar stone and brick.
Inner Shaft. — A fire-brick lining is provided for 90' high in
9'' work, with a 3" cavity between lining and shaft proper.
Bricks.. — 250 m. used.
Weight. — Total, 1,000 tons.
Scaffold. — Cost about ^20.
Batter. — f" to i yard, or i in 48.
Lightning Conductor. — Copper wire.
Bury Corporation Chimney.
Engineer, J. Cartavright, Borough Surveyor; Builder, Cammick Dennis, Buiy.
Description. — Circular brick.
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 79
Height, including foundations 195' 9"
,, from ground line l8o' o"
Outside diameter at ground line i?' 4"
Inside ,, ,, n' 4"
Outside ,, at top 8' 4"
Inside ,, ,, 6' o"
Height of inner brick shaft 30' o"
Inside diameter of ,, 6' o"
Foundation. — The foundation bed is loamy clay, on which is
laid a bed of concrete 2>2' square and 6' 9" high, the footings are
stepped from 30' square to 17' 4" and have a height of 9'.
Inner SJiaft, — An inner shaft 6' diameter is built parallel for a
height of 30', the brickwork is 9" in thickness, the inner 4I'' of
which is fire-brick. Between the outside of the inner shaft and
the inside of the chimney proper there is an annular space of
\' 1 1'' at ground line.
Thicknesses. — The chimney is divided into four sections, each
of 45' in height and having the respective thicknesses as follows,
beginning at the ground line, 2' 3", 2', 18", 14".
The bottom section is stepped out externally to 3' in four
set-offs, the highest being i' above ground line.
Cap. — The moulded cap is of fire-clay.
Construction. — The scaffold was an inside one. Purposely
made radiating bricks were used. The shaft has a regular
batter of -j^' to the yard, and was constructed in 188 1, during the
months of March to September inclusive.
Lightning Conductor. — Copper rod 213' long, cost of which
fixed was £,2\. 6s.
Cost. — Complete, ^750.
Bradford Corporation Chimney, Hamerton Street.
Engineer, J. H. Cox, Borough Surveyor ; Builders, Messrs. Naylor & Smith,
Description. — Circular brick shaft, built 1880, in connection
with " Fryer's Destructor " for town refuse.
80 Tall Chimney Construction.
Total height, including foundations 192' o"
Height from ground line to top 180' o"
Concrete foundation square 30' o"
Outside diameter at ground surface 14' i"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 9' 7"
Outside ,, at top 9' o"
Inside ,, ,, 6' 8"
Thicknesses. — The shaft is composed of four sections, the
lowest being 2' 9" in thickness and the highest i' 2" ,
Fire-brick Lining. — A fire-brick lining 8' internal diameter
is built to a height of 45', apart from the shaft proper, thus
leaving a cavity between.
Construction. — The foundation rests upon tough clay of a
somewhat blue colour, known locally as " Bowling Tough."
The time occupied in building was nearly five months. Inside
scaffold was used. The batter of shaft is \" to a yard, or i in
72. The proportion of diameter to height above ground is as i
Weight. — 480 tons.
Chimneys at Georgs IMarien Iron Works, near
1st Chimney. — Dimensions. — The first chimney, erected in
1857, has a height of i8o'.
Clear width at the bottom of 10' 9"
,, n top „ 7' o"
Height of square basement built in sandstone 30'.
Octagonal shaft of bricks, the walls of which are constructed
of six different thicknesses, consisting of \\ bricks at the top,
and of 4 bricks at the bottom. The bricks are \o" long.
'Znd and 3rd Chimneys. — Two other chimneys, 102' high, have
also a square basement of sandstone, and an octagonal shaft of
bricks, with a clear width of 4' at the top and of 6' 3'' at the
bottom ; the walls of these shafts are each 20" thick at the top
and 30" thick at the bottom.
!ith Chimney. — Built in four segments. A fourth chimney,
erected in 1868, has a height of 102', a clear width of 7' at the
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 8 1
top and 9' at the bottom. The shaft is built in four thicknesses
of I, 1 1, 2 and 2\ bricks, and the base is 18' in height, 3' 6" thick
and built of sandstone.
The shaft of this chimney is built from the base to the top
in such a manner that it forms in the circumference four separate
parts, which are simply brought in contact with each other.
This arrangement is shown in diagram No. 39, in which the
vertical joints are designated by letters , h, e, d.
This construction has been found to answer exceedingly
well, and is recommended for chimneys exposed to various
temperatures, as, for example, in the case of chimneys connected
with coke ovens, the gases of which are either applied to the
firing of boilers, or are allowed to escape directly into the
chimney in the event of the boilers being laid off for cleaning
The latter arrangements have, however, here been supple-
mented by the admission of cold air into the chimney together
with the hot gases.
bill Shaft. — This chimney was built in 1870, and is sufficient
for twenty Cornish boilers, and has a height of 120' and a
circular shaft of a clear diameter of 10' at the top, and 10' 10" at
The thickness of the walls decreases in seven steps from four
bricks at the base to one brick (10") at the top.
Dens Works, Dundee, Messrs. Baxter Brothers.
Figs. 40, 41, 42 ajid 43. No, 3 Chimneys.
Description. — Square brick pedestals ; square taper brick
shafts with pyramidal tops.
No, I, No. 2, No. 3.
Total height, including foundations 193' o" — 112' 6"
Height from ground line to top 174' o" 135' o" 102' 8"
,, ,, to base of pyramidal top 162' o" 126' o" 97' il"
Height of square brick pedestal 34' o" 25' o" 25' 11"
Foundation below ground 19' o" — 9' 10"
Outside measurement at foundation 21' o" — —
Inside ,, ,, 9' 6" — 4' 3"
Outside ,, at ground line 16' 3" 13' 3" 8' 9"
Inside ,, ,, 9' 6" 7' o" 4' 3"
Outside ,, at base of pyramidal top . 7' 6" 5' 9" 3' o"
Inside ,, „ ,, . 6' o" 4' 3" i' 6"
Erected 1854 1844 1864
^2 Tall Chimney Construction.
Boilers and Flucs^ N'o. 1 CJiimncy. — This shaft carries away
the products of combustion from No. 19 boilers, each with two
furnaces, as follows : —
15 boilers 63' below the base of chimney = 225' from firing level to base of taper top
4 )> 86' >> )> >> := 248' ,, ,, ,,
The smoke and gases are conveyed from both of these
ranges of boilers by a long sloping brick flue or tunnel mostly
When chimney No. i was designed it was of large area for
the twelve boilers it was intended to serv^e, since then seven
boilers have been added, making a total of nineteen. When it
had only a few boilers connected with it soot collected inside to
a considerable extent, and occasionally caught fire and burned
out in sparks and showers of smut. As boilers were added the
chimney became free from soot, and the inside surface of bricks
Mr. Peter Carmichael, in a paper read before the Institute
of Engineers in Scotland, stated — " In our practice invariably
as more boilers and furnaces have been added to a chimney the
draught has been improved ; and it is obvious that if the opening
in the chimney be too large compared with the whole of the
openings at the dampers passing into it, the draught will be
Taper Tops. — It will be seen from diagrams Nos. 42 and 43,
illustrating shaft No. i, that the tops are constructed in the form
of a pyramid, by cross walls being built from each of the four
corners ; the advantage of this arrangement is given by Mr.
Carmichael as follow^s : — " The taper top is found to answer the
purpose well, the smoke ascending from it very freely, especially
w^hen there is a breeze of wind. At such times the ordinary top
is acted on like a key when blown into to make it whistle, the
blasts of wind affecting very perceptibly the draught of the
furnaces. In the taper top this is not much felt as the wind can
only blow into one or two of the four compartments at a time,
and this still allows the other two to vent freely."
In the discussion that followed Mr. Carmichael's paper the
taper top, which diminishes the area at outlet, was opposed by
several members, who advocated increasing the area at top.
Oscillations. — At Dundee on Saturday, the 13th day of Feb.,
1864, there was a violent storm of wind, which was at its height
between 2 and 3 p.m. The tops of shafts Nos. i and 2 were
blown down w^ithout injury to the shafts. The storm being a
more violent one than any that had occurred for twenty years,
]\Ir. Carmichael was anxious to see how the chimneys stood the
gale ; the movement of No. i shaft was plainly visible, and was
a steady rocking motion like the swing of a pendulum. The
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts.
oscillation did not appear to exceed 12", and the observations
gave a feeling of security as to the stability of the chimney.
The taper tops were re-built with bricks much heavier than
those blown down, and were modelled so as to dovetail together,
as shown in Figure 42. While the tops were off there was not
much difference in the draughts, the cross-walls at top not being
injured ; but there was more dark smoke than before, and after,
and it did not rise so freely, but in a breeze of wind fell down
the leeward side and clung more to the chimney.
These chimneys are still working satisfactorily, and have
withstood several severe gales. The owners consider the taper
construction an advantage, and the shafts "yield like a fishing
Consumption of Coal. — ]\Ir. Carmichael, in his paper, laid
before the Society some valuable data with respect to the coal
consumed, draught and areas of chimneys, which we have
tabulated as follows : —
Area of shaft.
Area of shaft
for each Boiler.
Draught recorded in
Coals consumed per
week of 60 hours,
For twelve months he had the coals and water supplied to
two ranges of boilers, one of four and the other of seven in a
range, recorded weekly, with the following results : —
Range of Four Boilers.— Two flues to each boiler, area of opening at fire bridge
123 square inches coals consumed 45 tons per week of 60 hours, or i5-c\vt. per hour.
.*. 123 X 8 =r 984 square inches total opening -f- by coals
per hour = 5_J: =; 65 square inches for i-cwt. per hour.
Range of Seven Boilers. — Two flues to each boiler, area of opening at fire bridge
123 square inches coals consumed 75 tons per week of 60 hours, or 25-cwt. per hour.
.*. 123 X 14 = 1722 square inches total opening -J- by coals
per hour r= -L— = 68 square inches for i-cwt. per hour.
Each boiler had two furnaces, each furnace was 2' 9" wide, and had two lengths of bars
each 32 long, and consumed 1 1 tons in 60 hours.
.'. 2^75 X 3'5 X 2 = i9"25 square feet = fire grate area of one furnace
.'. 38*5 square feet = >> >> to one boiler.
.-. iitons.or24,640-lbs. _ ^^.^.^^^^ ^ ^^^^ 1^^^^^
60 hours X 38-5
84 Tall Chimney Construction.
The 123 square inches area of opening at fire bridge was
adopted, after careful experiments. Mr. Carmichael stated in
his paper he was of opinion that the narrow throat produces a
higher temperature in the furnace, and the gases are more
perfectly mixed and consumed while passing through the narrow
opening, and said that at such a high temperature there was no
discharge of small unconsumed cinders from the chimney.
Teinpei'ature. — The temperature of escaping gases is obtained
by using small strips of the following metals : —
Zinc, which melts at 736° Fah.
Lead, ,, ,, 612° ,,
Bismuth,, ,, 495° ,,
Tin, „ „ 442° „
Small bits of each of these, about i"long x j'' broad, are
pierced with a hole for suspension by a wire in the flue behind
the damper, or at the bottom of the chimney, and the time
occupied in melting recorded.
Mr. Carmichael, from repeated observations under various
circumstances, found that the temperature of the escaping
products of these chimneys was uniformly 600^ behind the
dampers ; tin melted at once, bismuth generally in less than
a minute ; lead melted when the fires were in good condition,
and zinc did not melt.
Crossness, Metropolitan Board of Works.
Engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette.
Built — Commenced May, 1863; Completed January, 1865.
Description. — Square brick shaft with curved base on pedestal,
with stone mouldings, surmounted by ornamental iron cap.
Height, including foundations, to summit of iron cap 246' 7"
,, from ground line to top of stone moulding under iron cap. . 177' o"
Foundation bed below ground line 40' o"
Outside dimensions, concrete foundation 30' 2" X 28' 6"
,, measurement at ground line square 26' 6"
,, ,, parallel shaft square 12' o"
Inside diameter ,, flue circumference 8' 3"
Fonndafion. — Foundation bed is 24' below ordnance datum.
The concrete block is 16' in height, and upon it are laid two
courses of 6" York landings before commencing footings to
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 85
Fire-brick Lining. — The shaft is lined with Stourbridge
fire-bricks for a height of 40'.
Materials. — Cement concrete (6 to i and 8 to i), 800 cubic
yards ; bricks, about 400,000.
Afen. — The bricklayers employed varied, but when above
the curved portion 4 were engaged on the shaft.
Progress. — Varied very much, but the general run was 10'
Scaffolding — Outside, cost about ;^6oo.
Cost. — Approximate, ^4,000.
Woolwich Arsenal, Gun Factory Chimney.
Description. — Square pedestal, octagonal shaft.
Dimensions y —
Height from ground line to top 1 70' o"
,, of pedestal above ground 30' o"
Outside measurement of base at ground surface . . . 18' 9"
,, ,, bottom of shaft 13' i"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 9' 4"
Outside ,, at top 5' 6"
Inside ,, ,, 4' o"
Construction. — The chimney is built up in 5 sections. The
heights and thickness are as follows : —
1st section . . . pedestal 30' high 3 bricks thick.
2nd ,, ... shaft . 50' ,, z\ ,,
5th „ ^
170 ,, above ground.
Cap. — Stone, supplied by S. Trickett, Millwall, London.
Massachusetts, U.S.A., American Print Works, Falls
River, Chimney Shaft and Ventilator.
Fio^s. 44, 45, 46 ami 47.
Engineer . . . J. A. MiLLER, New York.
Height from ground line to top 160' o"
Chimney proper internal diameter throughout .... 6' 0"
86 Tall Chwiney Co7istriicHon.
Hoi Chamber. — It will be seen upon reference to diagram
No. 46 that at the base of the shaft an enlargement or " hot
chamber," 20' high x 10' diameter is formed, into which the
gases delivered by the flues are discharged. The object of this
chamber is to allow the currents from the flues to be gradually-
diverted upwards, and is of more advantage when two or more
flues discharge into the same chimney, and where there are
consequently conflicting currents. This chamber is vertically of
eliptical form, being contracted from 10' diameter at centre to 5'
diameter at outlet.
Chimney Proper. — The circular chimney proper commences
from the top of the hot chamber, and is internally 6' diameter
throughout its entire height. The brickwork is increased in
thickness downwards by external offsets, as see diagram No.
46, so as to avoid internal projections, which, in the engineer's
opinion, cause eddies, and obstruct the upward flow of the gases.
Outer Veiitilating Sliaft. — The outer shaft is octagonal upon
a square base, about 20' high. Four of the eight sides project
for the width of a brick beyond the line of the others (see
Figure 47). This projection, it is said, besides improving the
architectural effect of the shaft, enables the work to be executed
with fewer cut bricks than are ordinarily required in octagonal
or circular shafts. Between the exterior of the inner shaft and
the interior of the outer one there is an annular flue of an area
of 2,200 square inches, which is used for ventilation purposes,
being specially suitable by reason of the heated state of the air
in it, caused by the high temperature of the gases in the inner
Cap (Fig. 45). — The inner shaft is terminated a little below
the top of the outer one, and by piercing the latter with open-
ings the wind passes through and impinges upon the sides of
the cap of the inner shaft, the shape of which causes it (the
wind) to be deflected upwards, and thus, by the action of induced
currents, assists the draught rather than diminishes it, as is the
case with the ordinary top, where it acts to a certain extent as
a damper and checks the draught.
The cast iron caps to both the inner and outer shafts are built
up in sections, each of which is of such shape that its centre of
gravity falls outside the inner line of the bases of the sections,
and the sections thus tend to fall together and form a kind of
arch. Each section is connected to that adjoining it by two
bolts, but from the shape given to the sections they will maintain
their position, even if the bolts are corroded away. The sections
are provided at their bases with flanges, which grip the shaft
both within and without, as see Fig. 45.
Detailed Exmnples of Existing Shafts. 87
Mr. W. D. Barker, Patent Brick Works, Worcester.
Architect, F. CHAMBERLAIN, Barnsley ; Builder, W. D. Barker.
Built in 1869, from March to July (about four months).
Description. — Circular brick chimney, outer and inner shafts.
Height, including foundations 1 64' o"
,, from ground surface to top 160' o"
Diameter of circular brick foundation 24' o"
Outside diameter at top of footings 13' 10"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 7' 7V'
Outside ,, ,, under cap C 9"
Extreme ,, of cap 10' 6"
Inside ,, ,, 4' ^"
Foundation. — The foundation bed is rock marl, 4' below
ground surface, upon which the brick footings commence, and
are carried up to ground level.
Constntction. — The Outer Sliaft from top of footings to a
height of 21' is of 14'' work, and from thence for a height of 1 10'
(28' from top) is 9'' in thickness. The alteration from 14" to 9''
work is made by an external set back of half a brick, thus
giving the appearance of a pedestal.
The Inner SJiaft for a height of 10' from footings is in 9"
work, thence to within 28' from top is 4V' in thickness; at this
height the outer and inner shafts merge into one, and are
continued in 14" solid work to under cap. The inner shaft is
every 10' in height bonded to the outer one by No. 12 radial
The shaft was built by day labour, under the supervision of
BrictiworJi. — 92,000 purposely made red bricks 9'' x 4^'' X 3^
were used in the construction of this shaft, costing 26s. per m.
The whole of the bricks in the exterior shaft were made to suit
the radius of the stack. The lime and sand were ground together
in a mill, and used almost hot.
Bond. — Three stretchers to one header.
Weight. — 390 tons r= -86 ton pressure per square foot on
Batter. — The batter of the outer shaft is f " per yard, that of
the inner shaft is -|" per yard.
Scaffold. — Inside.
Tall Chhnney Construction,
Duty. — One boiler and one Hoffman's brick kiln.
Cap. — The cap is of brick formed by a course of round end
bricks 1 8" X 6" X 4", then two courses of white bricks cornered
out, then two courses of ordinary red bricks, then a course of
round ends 18" X 9^" X 6", then gathered in and finished with
half round coping 14" X 1" . This work is in cement, and the
large bricks were cut to the radius of the cap. Mr. Barker says
this cap gives a pleasing finish to the shaft, and is excellent in
its simplicity, and he cannot understand why heavy cast iron
caps are adopted when a better effect can be obtained in brick-
Lightning Conductor. — Copper, costing about ^11 fixed.
Wrought Iron Chimney, Messrs. Francis & Co., The Nine
Elms Cement Works, Cliffe Creek, Rochester.
Erected, 1878 ; Designed by Mr. V, DE Michelle, C.E. ; Constructed by Messrs.
Fielding & Platt, Gloucester.
Description. — The shaft is circular and parallel throughout,
and is constructed as follows : —
Height from ground line to top 160' o"
External diameter throughout S' o"
Internal ,, ,, 4' 6"
Wrought Iron Plates. — The plates vary in thickness down-
wards, from \" to f ''.
Fire-brick. — The shaft is lined with 3" fire-brick its entire
Wind Stays. — The chimney is stayed against the wind by
No. 4, yl" steel guy ropes.
Duty. — This chimney was erected over the centre one in a
row of nine cement kilns, which are all connected to shaft by a
wrought iron horizontal flue 4' in diameter. Two additional
kilns have since been added, and the chimney now carries off