2nd ā 25' 3" ā 2\ ā
3rd ā 25' 3" ā 2 ā
4th ā 25' 3" ā I|
5th , 28' 3" ā I ā
120' 6" high above ground.
The top 28' 3" was built in cement.
Scaffold. ā Erected independently of shaft, without putlogs.
Messrs. Reid & Co., Brewers, Clerkenwell Road, London.
Engineer, Geo. Scammell ; Builders, Messrs. CuBiTT & Co.
Description. ā Square brick pedestal on concrete foundation
about 52' high, including 9' stone moulding. Round brickshaft.
Detailed Examples of Exist mg Shafts. 103
Total height, including foundation 142' 3"
Height from ground line to top 1 20' o"
Outside measurement of square concrete foundation . . 22' o"
ā ,, square footings 20' 3"
Height of footings 5' 9"
Outside measurement at ground surface 1 2' o"
Inside ā ā ā 5' 3"
ā ,, at outlet top of cap 5' 8"
Foundation Bed. ā Gravel.
Coiistritction. ā The walls of pedestal are constructed in
brickwork 2' iV' thick (3I bricks), then the first 21' of circular
shaft 2\ bricks thick, next height of 23' in 2 bricks thick, and
topmost height of 12' in \\ bricks thick. The top of shaft is
formed by a 6' length of stone work, and then terminates with a
cast iron cap about ,5' high, fitted together in segments, bolted
internally. The outlet formed by this cap is bell-mouthed, and
is 5' 8" internal diameter.
Yale Lock Manufacturing Company, Stamford,
Figs. 60 to 64 inclusive.
Engineer, Henry R. Towne. Built, 1881.
Descriptio7i. ā Square brick shaft on panelled pedestal.
Height, including foundation 126' o"
,, from ground line 120' o"
ā of pedestal above ground 18' o"
,, of shaft above pedestal 102' o"
ement at base of foundation 15' o"
at top of ā II' 10"
at ground line 11' 10"
at top of pedestal 11' o"
at base of shaft 10' 4"
at top under cap 6' i"
ā 4' 9"
Foundation. ā The foundation is shallow, for the reason that
a bed of hard gravel was struck a few feet below the surface of
the ground, which formed a good basis for the chimney founda-
tion. The first course of stone was composed of large selected
104 Tall Chimney Constrtidion.
flat boulders 4' x 4', upon top of which were placed other
smaller ones laid in Portland cement. The upper part was built
of small stones grouted with cement.
Outer Shaft. ā This is built up in four sections, viz. : ā
1st section 7' high 20" thick.
2nd ,, 25' ā 16" ,,
3rd , 31' M 12" ā
4th , 34' ā 8" ā
Inner Shaft (Fig. 60). ā This is constructed in three sections,
commencing zi' 6" above ground line, as follows : ā
1st section 9' 9" high 12" thick.
2nd 36' 3" ā 8" ā
3rd , 30' o" ā 4" ā
The inner shaft is built independently of the outer one, its
inside measurement at base being 4' and at top 4' t". From
this it will be seen the inner shaft has an outward batter of "04"
in one foot, and was so designed that it affords free escape for
the products of combustion, as they expand in their progress
At the summit of this inner shaft is a sheet iron hopper
top. No. 18 W. G., which covers the sharp off set that would
otherwise occur to affect the draught.
Iron Bond. ā Tie irons, consisting of pieces of flat hoop iron,
with each end bent downwards, were built into the walls all the
way up, at distances of 3' apart. The inside walls also had tie
irons up to termination of 8" work.
Iron Ladder. ā An iron inside ladder extends from the bottom
to the top, and is formed by building in short bars of round
iron f" in diameter across one of the corners of the square
interior (see Figs. 63 and 64I. An iron ladder is suspended
from one of these bars to reach over the sheet-iron hopper top
of the inner shaft (see Fig. 60).
Fire-brick. ā There is a wall of fire-brick 8' high (see Fig. 60)
on the inside of chimney, where the flue enters pedestal. This
wall was put up after the chimney was completed, and may be
re-placed at any time without disturbing the outer walls. There
is a 2" space between the fire-brick and the brickwork of the
Batter. ā Pedestal, parallel. Outer shaft, \" in i' or i in 48.
Duty, &c. ā ^This shaft was constructed to run six horizontal
tubular boilers, 54" in diameter and 15' long. Each boiler has
54 tubes 3" in diameter, with a grate 4' long x 4' 6" wide, and
is rated at 65 h.p. The opening from each boiler to flue is
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 1 05
13" X l'^\ while the main sheet iron flue is 36" in diameter.
The boilers, in addition to furnishing steam to drive a id' x 42"
stationary engine of the Corliss type, have to supply steam for
heating extensive buildings, and for other purposes.
Extracts from Specification.
1. Foundation. ā That the Company will have built and
finished, ready for the brickwork, a proper stone foundation,
and will assume all responsibility therefor.
2. Bricks. ā That said Company will furnish, delivered on
the ground, as the contractor may require them, all bricks
required in the construction of the chimney, and that the con-
tractor will carefully select bricks of good and uniform colour
for the external faces of the chimney.
3. Materials. ā That the contractor will furnish all other
materials required, including lime and sand, all of which shall
be of thoroughly good quality of their respective kinds, special
care being exercised to secure a strong and durable mortar.
4. Brickwork. ā That all portions of the chimney shall be
built in strict accordance with the plans and sections shewn on
the drawings attached hereto. The bricks for outside faces of
walls to be selected as specified above, and no swelled, rotten,
or unsound brick to be used in any part of the structure. All
bricks to be well wetted before laying, and to be laid with flushed
solid joints, leaving no empty spaces in the walls, except where
called for on the plans. All courses to be run perfectly level
and straight. The batter of outside walls to be exactly one-
fourth inch to the foot, and the greatest care to be taken that a
uniform batter is preserved on each of the four faces, so that
the chimney, when completed, shall be exactly perpendicular.
Special pains must also be taken to carry each of the outside
angles exactly vertical and to avoid giving them any " twist."
The joints of the exterior walls of the chimney and of the interior
walls of the vertical flue (that is, those with which the smoke
will come in contact) to be filled fully flush with faces of bricks
when struck with the trowel, and every joint, both horizontal
and vertical, to be neatly and carefully' rubbed smooth with a
"jointer," so as to leave the faces of the walls perfectly smooth
5. Bonding Irons. ā That the Company will furnish proper
bonding strips of hoop iron, cut to lengths required, and that the
contractor will lay these strips in both the inner and outer walls
1 06 Tall Chivincy Construction.
of the chimney, at vertical intervals of about three feet, as may
be directed by the Company, the ends of each bonding iron
being bent so as to engage with the brickwork and assist in tying
it firmly together.
6. Ladder. ā That the Company will furnish, and the con-
tractor build in place, in one corner of the inside flue, iron bars,
to constitute a steps or ladder for gaining access to the top of
the chimney. These bars to be placed diagonally across one of
the corners and at vertical intervals of about i8'^
7. O peelings. ā That the contractor will set and build into the
chimney, as shewn on the drawing, an iron cleaning door (to be
furnished by the Company), and will also construct two circular
flue openings of the form and position shewn by the drawing.
8. Caps. ā That the Company will furnish, delivered on the
ground, a cast iron cap or funnel, to be placed on the top of the
inside lining or flue, as shewn by the drawing, and also cast iron
cap, in four pieces (complete with joint plates) to form the final
finish on top of chimney, the contractor to raise these caps and
carefully set them in their proper positions.
9. Fire-hrtcks. ā That the contractor will construct a fire-
brick lining (the joints to be carefully laid with fire-clay) near
the base of chimney, as shewn on the drawings. This fire-brick
lining to be laid independently of the surrounding walls, so that
it shall not carry any part of the weight of the chimney, and so
that it may be removed and renewed without disturbing the
surrounding walls. The fire-bricks and clay to be furnished by
10. General. ā That the contractor will provide all necessary
scaffolding and will remove the same upon completion of the
contract ; that the Company will make provision whereby the
contractor can obtain a supply of water by a line of hose (to be
furnished by the contractor), not exceeding 100' in length; that
the contractor will exercise constant supervision of the work
while in progress, and will, to the best of his ability, construct
and complete the work in a thorough and workmanlike manner
throughout, it being the intention of this contract to secure the
construction of said chimney in as perfect a manner as possible.
Contract Price. ā 1,250 dollars, or ^260. 8s.
Detailed Examples oj Existing Shajts. 107
Phcenix Bolt "And Nut Company, Handsworth,
Archihxt, Yeoville Thomason ; Builders, W. Parkkr Si Son. Built, 1871.
Total height, including foundation .
Height from ground line ....
Outside measurement at foundation
,, ,, at ground line
Inside ,, ,, ,,
Outside ,, at top . .
Inside ,, ,, . .
Surrey' Commercial Docks, Rotherhithe.
Engineer, JAS. A. McConnochie ; Builders, Holland & Hannen.
Built, 1883 ; April to August inclusive.
Description. ā Square brick pedestal with panelled sides,
circular brick shaft.
Height, including foundation 132' 2"
,, from ground line 108' 8"
Outside measurement, concrete bed, square 19' 6"
ā ,, brick footings ,, 17' 6"
,, ,, at ground line ,, 13' 9"
,, diameter at base of shaft, circular 10' o"
Inside ,, ,, ,, S' ^"
Outside ,, at top, under cap 7' 3 "
Inside ,, ,, 5' 9"
Foicndation. ā The foundation bed is gravel 22,' d" below
ground line. A square column of cement concrete 19' b" x 19' 6"
is carried to within 4' 6" of ground line, at which height the
Fire-brick Lining. ā A fire-brick lining is built up 34' 6" in
height, in contact with brickwork of chimney proper but not
bonded to same.
Constrnction. ā The chimney has a square pedestal with
panelled sides, brickwork 3' thick, 33' 4" high from bottom of
brick footings to top of Portland stone moulding at base of shaft.
1 08 Tall Clihimey Construction.
The shaft is built in Old English bond with all headers on
external face of circular work, and is constructed in four sections,
with thicknesses as follows : ā
1st section 23' 11" high i' 10^" thick.
2nd ,, 20' o" ,, i' 6" ,,
3rd ,, 20' o" ,, i' \Y ā
4th ā 13' 4" .. 9" ..
The brickwork is then stepped out and surmounted by a
moulded Portland stone cap i' 10" deep. The stones forming
cap are held together by a wrought iron strap.
Scaffold. ā Outside.
Batter. ā ^V' in 20', or i in 53.
Capacity. ā The fumes from No. 8 boilers are carried away
by this shaft, and it is intended to serv^e engines of 430 h.p.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper tape.
Cost, including fixing, ;^ 17. 13s. 3d.
South Metropolitan Gas Works, Retort- House Shaft,
Old Kent Road, London.
Figs. 65 to 68 inclusive.
Engineer, G. Livesey, M.I.C.E. ; Contractor, ā Morf.land, Old Street, St. Luke's.
Description. ā Square brick shaft, built parallel the entire
height and buttressed on the four sides, as see illustrations.
Height, including foundation 1 1 6' o"
,, from ground line to top 108' o"
Concrete foundation 1 7' o" square X 5' o"
Outside measurement over buttresses at ground line . . 12' o"
,, ā over square shaft ,, ,, . . 7' 4"
Inside ,, of ,, ,, ā ,, . . 5' o"
Outside ā at top 6' 6"
Inside ,, ,, 5' o"
Foundation Bed. ā Gravel.
Bo7id a7td Fire-brick Lining. ā The shaft is built in English
bond, with stock bricks outside and fire-bricks inside, bonded
together ; thus the courses of fire-bricks are alternately q" and
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 1 09
4I". The fire-bricks were specially obtained for this chimney,
of the same size as the stock bricks. Mr. Livesey has some-
times adopted the plan of bonding the fire-bricks into the stocks
every sixth to eighth course, where in using the ordinary sized
fire-bricks the courses of the two coincide.
Bricks. ā Total, about 80,000.
Iron Bond. ā Bonds of 2" x j" flat iron, riveted at points of
intersection, were built in the brickwork at intervals of 5' in
height. (See Fig. 68.)
Draught. ā The pressure at the base of this shaft when only
forty-four furnaces were in action and a quantity of cold air
entered through the dampers of the remaining ten was equal to
o"95'' of water, and the quantity of heated air and gases discharged
was about 470 cubic feet per second.
Duty. ā This chimney when erected had fifty-four furnaces
working into the shaft, and it was intended to connect twenty
more. The shaft has been in constant use since its erection in
1862, and the brickwork has not burned away. Mr. Livesey's
opinion is that the heat is not sufficient to injure good fire-brick.
Cap. ā Cast iron, weighing 2 tons.
Copper Rim. ā On the top and sides of the 2' 3" blocking
course, above" cap, there is a copper rim |" thick, put on at the
suggestion of the contractor.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper wire.
Cost. ā Complete, Ā£^10.
Remarks. ā In a similar chimney 70' high, built entirely of
fire-brick for the engine-house, since the one above described,
Mr. Livesey carried up the 14'^ work about 50' and then reduced
it to 9'' work to the top by a set off inside ; thus the flue is larger
at top than at base.
Architect, Alex. Payne, F.R.I.B.A.,in conjunction with the Engineer, H. J. Marten,
Builder, John Garlick, Birmingham. Built, 1880.
Description. ā Brick, circular pedestal and shaft.
Tall Chwiney Constniction.
Height above concrete foundation 14' 6"
,, ,, ground line 107' o"
Outside diameter, circular pedestal Ii' 6"
Inside ,, ,, ,, 6' 6"
Outside ,, base of shaft 8' 6"
top , 6' 3"^
Inside ,, ,, , 4' o"
Foundation. ā Massive concrete foundation.
Construction. ā The chimney above concrete is built up in
eight sections as follows : ā
1st section Brick footings in mortar
Brick pedestal ,, 1 1' 6" external diam
Base mouldings in cement . . .
Brick in cement, 8' 6" external diam
,, mortar, 8' o" ,, ,,
,, cement, 7' 6" ,, ,,
,, mortar, 7' o" ,, ,,
,, cement, including cap . .
Height above concrete
The shaft has one internal set off.
Hoop Iron Bond. ā Hoop irons were used in several courses
close together and several lengths in each course.
Brick in Cement. ā The architect had the cement rings con-
structed " to give greater strength to the shaft and to obviate
cracks, cement having greater adhesive power than ordinary
Fire-brick Lining. ā Constructed 50' high.
Cap. ā Constructed on a good ring of York stones well
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper tape, insulated.
Boston, Lincolnshire, Flour Mill Chimney Shaft.
Engineer, AV. H. Wheeler, C.E., Borough Surveyor. Built, 1869-70.
Description. ā Octagonal brick pedestal, circular shaft and
cast iron cap.
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 1 1 1
Height from bottom of piles to top '35' 3"
,, ,, ,, concrete foundation to top. . .119' 3"
,, ,, ,, brick footings ,, . . .111' 3"
,, ,, ground line to top 105' 3"
Outside measurement over sides of pedestal at ground line 1 1' 6"
Inside ,, of fire-brick shaft 4' 9"
base of circular brick shaft ... 8' o"
>> >Ā» )Ā» )) ā¢ ā¢ ā¢ 3 ^
at top, under cap 4' 6"
Foundation Bed. ā The upper part of ground is silty clay,
and the lower part hard clay and chalk stones.
Construetion. ā The chimney is built on No. 9 piles, 15' long
by m" square. The shoes of piles are 30' below floor line of
mill. The piles at top are connected together with capsills, on
which rests cross planking, then a concrete bed 15' x 15' X 8',
on the top of which the brick footings commence.
The octagonal pedestal is 20' high above floor level of mill
and has Bramley Fall stone quoins.
The circular shaft has a stone base moulding 3' 9" in height.
The first 3' of shaft at base above moulding and the first 9',
measuring from under cap and mouldings at top, are built in
The cap is of cast iron \" thick, 9" wide, 9" deep inside and
3" deep outside, 4' 6" external diameter ; constructed in three
segments, bolted together with internal flanges.
Materials. ā Brickwork, 16 rods. Bramley Fall stone, 740
Fire-brick Lining. ā The inner shaft of fire-brick is 40' high
from ground line, built in 4^" work.
A. Gordon & Co., Caledonian Road, Brewery, London, N.
Engineer, C. Panting; Builders, Williams & Sons. Built, 1867; 3 to 4 months
occupied in construction.
Z)^^^;?'//^//;^.ā Octagonal brick pedestal, circular brick shaft.
1 1 2 Tall Chhnney Construction.
Height, including foundation
,, from ground line to top
Outside measurement, square concrete foundation 4' o" thick
base of brick footings
at ground surface
of fire-brick lining
at base of shaft
at top, over C.I. cap
Footings. ā The footings are stepped upwards from 14' square
to 11' yi", in seven courses; from this height the footings in
thirteen courses are stepped at the four corners until they work
into the octagon pedestal at ground line.
Pedestal. ā Octagonal, panelled on each face, and 25' high
from ground line, including a stone cornice, from which starts
the circular shaft.
Shaft. ā The shaft is constructed in four sections with thick-
nesses as follows : ā
1st section 21' high i' io|" thick.
2nd ā 15' ,, I' 6" ā
3rd ā 15' ā I' i|" ā
4th ā 24' ā 9" ā
Batter. ā Shaft 10' vertical, 15' i in 60, 50' i in 42 nearly.
Cap (Fig. 77). ā The shaft has a cast iron terminal 5' t>" high,
of '^' metal, made in segments and bolted together by internal
flanges. It was painted in three coats of good oil colour, the
last coat being Portland cement in oil.
Cost. ā ā ;^440.
DoNCASTER Local Board of Health, Sewage Irrigation
Enzineer B. S. Brundell.
Description. ā Square brick pedestal, surmounted with square
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts. 113
Total height, including foundation 112' 9"
Height from ground to top 100' o"
Outside dimension at foundation, square 18' o"
,, ,, at bottom of footings, square . . . 14' 3"
,, ,, at ground line 9' 9"
Inside ,, ,, 3' n"
Outside ,, at commencement of shaft .... 7' 9"
Inside ,, ,, ,,.... 3' li"
Outside ,, under cap 6' i"
Inside ,, ,, 3' 9"
Pedestal. ā This is 17' high, 2' 5" thick brickwork, with
stone moulded plinth at base and moulded stone cornice at top
Shaft. ā Square with panelled sides, erected in three sections
as follows : ā
1st section . . . 25' high 18" brickwork.
2nd ā ... 25' ā 14" ā
3rd ,, ... 22' ,, to under cap 9" ,,
Batter. ā i in 86-4.
Cap. ā Ornamental stone top, surmounted by a cast iron cap.
Great Northern Railway. Farringdon Street Goods
Engineer, R. Johnson, M.I.C.E. ; Builders, Kirk & Randall.
Built, 1880; five weeks occupied in construction.
Description. ā Round brick shaft on square pedestal.
Total height, including foundations 102' 6"
Height from ground line to top 96' 6"
,, of pedestal, including footings and stone base moulding to shaft . 23' 9"
Outside measurement at ground line, square 8' 6"
Inside ,, ,, circular 3' Ā°"
base of shaft 7' 6"
under cap 4' 6"
at outlet top of cap 2' 9"
Foundation. ā Concrete base 12' 6" square x 3' deep on
foundation bed of London clay.
1 1 4 Tall Chimiiey Construction.
Materials and Weighty ā
In base there are 22,000 bricks, weight, including mortar . 86 o
,, shaft ,, 21,000 ,, (radiating) ,, ,, 64 o
,, base, weight of stone no
ā cap ā ,, I 16
,, ,, cast iron terminal of |" metal, in segments, bolted \ ā .,
together by internal flanges j
Beart's patent perforated radiating bricks were used in the
circular shaft, laid all headers on external face.
Scaffold. ā Inside and outside.
Cojistruction. ā The walls of pedestal are 2' 9" thick, shaft is
built up in five sections, as follows : ā
1st section 9' high 2' 3" thick.
2nd ā 16' ā r loV' ā
3rd ,, 16' ,, i' 6" ,,
4th ā 16' ā I' i|" ā
5th ,, top . 9" ā
Fire-brick Lining. ā This is carried up independent of
pedestal, with about i" space for expansion, to a height of
21' 6" in 4I" work set in fire clay.
Batter. ā The first 9' of circular shaft is built vertical, then
16' to a batter of i in 42, and the topmost length of 41' to
underneath cap i in 37 nearly.
Duty. ā To carry off the products of combustion from flues
of No. 2 Cornish boilers 24' long x 6' external diameter, each
having one internal tube 3' diameter.
Lightning Conductor. ā Copper tape.
Cost. ā Chimney complete, ;^4oo.
Messrs. Peek, Frean & Co.'s Chimney, Drummond Road,
Architects, Snooke & Stock ; Builders, Rider & Son.
Built, 1866; two months occupied.
Description. ā Square brick shaft and pedestal.
Total height, including foundation 99' 3"
Height from ground hne 91' 3 "
Outside measurement at ground line 10' o"
Inside ,, >, .> 4' 9"
Outside ā at top 7' 3"
Inside ā ā 4' 6"
Detailed Examples of Existing Shafts.
Foundation Bed. ā Sandy gravel.
Batter. ā i in 66.
Briclcs. ā 66 ;;/, used in construction.
Weight. ā 313 tons.
Scaffold. ā Outside, costing ^60.
Lightning Cojidnctor. ā Stranded copper rope.
Cost. ā Chimney complete, ^560.
Experimental Chimney, Mayfield Print Works,
Engineer, R. Armstrong; Owners, T, Hoyle & Sons.
Builders . . . D. Bellhouse & Sons.
Description. ā Brick, square foundations and pedestal ; shaft
Height, including foundations
ā above ground line . . .
,, ,, level of fire-bars .
,, of pedestal above ground
,, of shaft, including cap .
Outside measurement base of footings
,, ,, square pedestal
base of octagonal shaft
)> Ā»> >j
top of ,, ā
Shaft. ā This is octagonal both inside and outside, and is
built up in two sections, viz. : ā
1st section 36' high 19" thick.
2nd ,, 36' ,, 9" '.
Batter. ā i in 36.
Capacity^&c. ā The internal capacity of the chimney, together
with the short flue connecting it with the boiler to which it is
attached, is about 50 cubic yards.
1 1 6 Tall Chimney Const nidioii.
The internal horizontal area of the outlet ā the narrowest
part ā is about i,ooo square inches, which, as it was intended to
make the shaft large enough for about 50 h.p., gives 20 square
inches for each h.p., while there is about i cubic yard capacity
in the chimney for each h.p.
These proportions were adopted after averaging some of
the best chimneys the engineer and proprietors were acquainted
with in Lancashire.