the true margin of the pygidium. The plates are rudi-
mentary, spine-like, and arranged in pairs between the
lobes, at the base of which there is usually a marginal
pore. Within the body are four pairs of comparatively
short club-shaped glands connected with the spaces be-
tween the lobes, the second pair being much the longest.
Puparium of the male (PL III, fig. 4) elongate.
Colour pale purplish brown ; margin paler ; with a
somewhat ochreous, mealy surface. Exuvias towards
the cephalic margin shining black. Secretionary cover-
ing pale greyish or white.
Long. '75 1 mm.
Perfect male unknown.
Habitat. Chester, on pine apples, said to be imported
from the Canary Isles. My first examples were dis-
covered by Miss Tomlin in J 890. Subsequently, in
]897, I found a number of these insects on pine apples
exposed for sale in this city (Chester). This was in
the month of April, and although the fruit had been
exposed to the open air for several days, both females
and larvae were living, and appeared none the worse
for their sudden exposure to a iimeh colder climate.
The same fruit harboured colonies of D/ffxy/x A/-nmr//,v
in all stages.
This insect is remarkable for the singular structure
of the female puparium, which differs from all other
species of this genus in being narrowed and complete
at the posterior extremity.
DlX'KMTloN or T1IK IM..\TI>.
PL III, fig. 1.- I'uparium of adult female, dorsal
view, showing naked black exuvia*. X - : >.
Fig. 2. Puparium of adult female, ventral view,
with greater portion of ventral scale broken away,
showing the adult insect and the eggs at the
narrow posterior extremity. X - V
Fig. 3. Puparium of the female second stage. X - : >.
Fig. -t. Puparium of the male. X -">.
Fig. 5. Insects natural si/e /'// xih'i on portion of
PI. IV, fig. 2. Pygidium of adult female. X :T)0.
H. XI, fii^. 6. Margin of pv^idium of adult female.
ASPIDIOTUS Arii'ANTII (Maskell).
(Plate I, figs. 1 (>; Plate II, fig. 1 ; Mate XI, fig. 1.)
Aspidiotnx tuirmttu, Maskell ; Ti-ans. X.Z. Inst., vol.
xi, 1878, p. 199.
ritri, Comstock ; ( 1 anadian Entomologist,
vol. xiii, p. 8.
ASPIDTOTITS AURANTII. 89
corchiviix, Grennadius; Ann. de la Soc.
Entomol. de France, Ser. 6, Tom. 1, 1881, p.
Aonidia yciinadii, Targioni-Tozzetti ; Annali di
Agric., 1881, p. 151.
Aonidialla anrnntii, Berlese ; Le Cocciniglie Italiane,
Part iii, p. 212. Leonard!; Gen. e sp. di Dias-
>iti. Est. da. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 1897
"], 1900 [VIII], p. 124, fig. 141.
Puparinm of the female (PI. I, figs. 1, 2, 6) circular,
margins broadly flat, median area low convex. Colour
pale yellowish grey, or pale ochreous ; semitransparent ;
revealing the form and colour of the insect beneath it.
Exuviae central ; dull orange yellow above ; beneath
bright orange yellow and very shiny. First secretionary
covering nipple-shaped, its colour varying from white
to pale ochreous ; the second, flat and pyriform, varies
from pale ochreous to orange brown. Ventral scale
thin at the centre, but stout towards the margin ; it is
firmly attached to the dorsal scale, and to the body of
the female, from which it is with difficulty separated,
and generally comes away in patches as shown at
PL I, fig. 2. The rostrum is placed a little to one side
of the centre, its position being clearly indicated in the
Diam. 1 2 mm.
Adult female at period of gestation (PI. I, fig. 2)
almost circular ; pygidium partly contracted within
the body ; the abdominal segments forming two con-
vergent lobes. At this stage the body becomes chitinised
and retains its form. Colour pale dull orange. The
early adult (PI. I, fig. 4) is broadly pyriform, with the
pygidium produced (a form which the adult female
assumes after treatment with potash, PI. I, fig. 3).
Rostrum near the centre of the body ; filaments ex-
tending to second pair of spiracles. Margin of cephalic
and thoracic area, broadly and irregularly reticulate,
with numerous elongated thickenings. Pygidium (PI.
90 ASPIDIOTUS AURANTI1.
II, fig. 1) well defined. Circumgenital glands absent.
Vaginal opening a little above the centre. Anal orifice
towards the extremity. There are two groups of long,
filiform, tubular spinnerets connected with two double,
irregular rows of about fourteen dorsal pores ; ; 1 1 1 < 1
there is also a small central group connected with three
dorsal pores opening near the margin between the
second and third pair of lobes. Immediately above
the tubes are four conspicuous, equidistant scars.
Margin (PI. XI, fig. 1) with three pairs of well-devel-
oped lobes ; median and second pair usually notched or
emarginate at the sides, in front ; third pair, smallot.
are usually notched on the outer margin. All the
lobes extend considerably within the body, and have
the margins curved inwards and thickened. Plates
very long and deeply cut; two in each space bet\\< < -n
the lobes, and three beyond. The first plate between
the second and third lobe, and the three beyond, com-
pletely divided by a deep central cleft ; the inner por-
tion being simple or with faint serrations; the outer
with a deep blunt fringe. The spines are short, and
placed at the base of the lobes, mid there is usually one
just beyond the plates.
Scale of the male (PI. I, fig. 5) oblong, somewhat
narrowed at the anal extremity. K\uvi:e towards the
margin in front of the same colour and struct HIM- as
that of the female.
Long. 1 mm.
Perfect male not observed in this country; but
Maskell describes it as orange yellow with a dark
Habitat. In Chester on Jaffa oranges, probably
imported from the Mediterranean area. Although larire
numbers of Coccids find their way to our markets on
imported fruit, I have only once met with this species
during the last six years. It seems exclusively con-
fined to the orange and lemon, but as Coccids are such
general feeders, it is just possible this species may
establish itself on some of the exotic plants cultivated
ASPIDIOTUS ATJEANTII. 91
in this country ; care should therefore be taken not to
allow infested fruit to be placed near cultivated plants.
Distribution. Is abundant and destructive to orange
and lemon trees in New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon,
United States of America, and parts of the Mediter-
EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.
PL I, fig. 1. Puparium of adult female, dorsal view.
Fig. 2. Puparium of adult female, ventral view,
with part of ventral scale removed showing female
within. X 25.
Fig. 3. Adult female after treatment with potash.
Fig. 4. Parasitised immature female removed from
the puparium. X 25.
Fig. 5. Puparium of male.
Fig. 6. Insects natural size in situ on orange rind.
PL II, fig. 1. Pygidimn of adult female. X 250.
PL XI, fig. l.~ Margin of pygidium of adult female.
ASPJPIOTUS CAMELLUE (Signoret).
(PL III, figs. 6-8; PL IV, fig. 3 ; PL XI, fig. 3.)
Aspidiotus carnenise, Signoret; Essai, p. 117.
Aspidiotus rapax, Comstock ; Report, 1880, p. 307,
pi. xii, fig. 6.
Aspidiotux eiioniiitii, Targioni-Tozzetti ; Est., Boll.
Soc. Toscana Ortic., Anno xiii, 1888, p. 12.
Aspidiotus flctoew-iis, Green ; Insect Pests of the Tea
Plant/ 1890, p. 21.
Diaspi* circulata, Green ; Catalogue Coccidae of
Ceylon, Ind. Mus. Notes, vol. iv, No. 1, 1896.
92 ASPIDIOTUS CAMELLIA.
HemiberlesifL (Aspidites) camellias, Leonard!; Gen.
e sp. di Diaspiti. Est. da. Rivista di Patologia
Vegetale, 1897 [VI], 1900 [VIII], p. 23.
Puparium of the female (PL III, figs. 6, 8) high
convex; limpet-shaped; oblong or broadly pyri-
form; anterior portion highest, apex usually curved
towards the front margin. Texture partaking some-
what of the character of the food-plant, owing to the
admixture of hairs and surface tissues, which the
female separates and mixes with the secretion. On
hard-wooded plants, such as the Camellia, the scale is
free from the admixture of foreign substances. K \ 1 1 v ue
at the apex of the scale, which is towards the anterior
margin ; and in the curved or limpet-shaped examples
it occupies an almost vertical position ; colour dark -red
brown or piceous. Secretionary coverings circular ;
the first forming a central boss and ring of white
secretion, the second, of the same colour as the first, is
Ventral scale complete, with a central circular de-
pression ; pure white, and rarely stained ; and in the
last stage it becomes very thick and readily separates
from the dorsal portion, but usually remains attached
to the food-plant, forming a small conspicuous white
spot (PI. Ill, fig. 8).
Greatest diameter 1 2*50 mm.
The puparium of the second-stage female is circular,
with the exuviae central.
Female adult (PI. Ill, fig. 7). Short, ovate, narrowed
and slightly produced behind; segmentation distinct.
Colour bright yellow or orange yellow; apex of pygi-
dium red brown. At the advanced stage of gestation
the insect becomes broadly ovate, the segmentation dis-
appears almost entirely, and the ova can be seen in the
interior of the body as small purplish-brown bodies.
Pygidium (PL IV, fig. 3) widely rounded and rather
short. Circumgenital glands absent. Subdorsal tubular
spinnerets, very short, filiform, and number from five
ASPIDIOTUS CAMELLIA. 93
to seven ; they are connected with a corresponding
number of dorsal pores, which are circular and unusu-
ally small. There are usually four dermal scars, but
the central pairs are sometimes united. Anal opening
very large and near the margin. Vaginal opening at
the commencement of the second-third of the space
from the base. Margin (PL XI, fig. 3) with the median
lobes well developed and unusually large ; their lateral
margins are either straight or slightly curved ; and
the hind margin is usually notched at the angles, but
sometimes has a wavy outline; the second and third
pairs of lobes are very minute, and pointed. The two
plates between the median lobes are long and slender,
and have two or three points ; the next five are irre-
gularly furcate or branched, and very long; there are
usually two simple plates beyond the third lobe, the
farthest being much the shortest. There is a long
spine at the base of each lobe at the anterior margin ;
and an isolated pair considerably beyond the last plate,
which are somewhat longer.
There are two deep incisions in the body-wall, one
between the median and second lobe, and the other
between the second and third lobe ; the margins of the
incisions are strongly chitinised and thickened.
Habitat. Under glass, on Myrtle, Camellia, Euony-
mus, Euphorbia, Asparagus pluwosus, .Begonia, culti-
vated fig, etc. In Cheshire and Lancashire it is
apparently common, and very generally distributed.
Mr. Douglas was the first to record the species from
Exeter. I am not aware of its occurrence elsewhere,
but from experience I should imagine it will occur in
almost every neglected greenhouse and conservatory in
Distribution,. It occurs in the open air in the south
of Europe, and has been taken in Algeria by the Rev.
Eaton. But I have not heard of its occurrence in
other parts of Africa. Elsewhere it is a common pest,
and very generally distributed.
Habits. The females are universally parthenoge-
94 ASPIDIOTIJS CAMELLIA.
netic, and there appears to be a succession of broods
produced throughout the year. Prof. Comstock found
dead examples of the males, but they were shrivelled
and imperfect. I believe a living male has not been
seen in any part of the world; and I have never st-m
any trace of the puparia in this country.
The worst attack I ever saw of this coccid was at
High Legh, Cheshire, where it had almost covered the
branches and leaves of a number of fig-tivrs, and it
was found necessary to have the plants cut down and
lv\i'i.\\\ i -i'\ oi THK PI.ATKS.
PI. Ill, fig. (). Puparium of adult frmalc. X 25.
Kig. 7. Adult female at period of gestation. X : > (| .
Fig. 8. Insects actual si/c in situ on leaf of Camellia.
PI. IV, fig. 3. Pvgidimn of adult female. X '-!><>.
PI. XI, fiyf. >. Margin of pvn'idiuin of adult fnnalr.
ASPIDIOTUS ZONATUS (Frauenfeld).
(PI. VI, figs. 1D; PI. VII, fig. 1 ; PI. XII, fig. 2.)
Aspidiotus ZOH'ifiix, Fi-auncfcld ; Yrrliandl. /ool. B.
Gesdls. \Viru, 1868, p. 888. Signoret, Etasai,
p. 1 "'>.
Aspidiotns <//i<>irns, Signoret ; Essai, p. 132.
? Aspidiotns pi/ri, Licht. ; Hull. Soc. Ent. France,
p. li, 1881.
Puparium of the adult female (PL VI, figs. 1, 9) ap-
proximately circular, moderately convex ; other forms
occur due to compressure by overcrowding, or by con-
tact with prominent portions of the bark. Colour
smoky grey or ochreous grey. Exuvise a little towards
the margin, rarely central ; vary from yellow to dark
ASPIDIOTUS ZONATUS. 95
orange yellow. Form and colouring of secretionary
covering uncertain, as it invariably disappears in the
old examples. The old scales become so covered with
a sooty deposit as to render their colour perfectly
obscure ; the only recognition mark being the minute
orange -coloured larval exuviae. The ventral surface of
the puparium is greyer, and the larval exuviae brighter.
Ventral scale a thin powdery secretion, forming con-
spicuous white circles on the bark (PI. VI, fig. 9).
Diameter '75 1*75 mm.
Adult female (PI. VI, fig. 3) widely ovate, almost
circular, and shrivelling after gestation. Pygidium well
defined and projecting. Colour clear, bright, yellow ;
margin of pygidium darker, or orange brown. After
treatment with potash the insect assumes a more regular
ovate outline, the pygidium taking the same contour as
the body. Cephalic area with many slender hairs and
several shorter ones irregularly placed along the margin
at the sides of the body. Rostral filaments more than
twice the length of the mentum. Free abdominal seg-
ments, with several tubular spinnerets connected with
marginal pores. Pygidium (PL VII, fig. 1) broad and
comparatively short. Subdorsal groups of tubular
spinnerets moderately short ; connecting dorsal pores
in a short double series ; the outer series irregularly
alternate. Vaginal opening a little beyond the centre.
The anal opening nearly half way between the apex
and vaginal opening. Circumgenital glands in four,
or rarely five groups ; the anterior group of from
1 4; the anterior laterals from 8 14; and the pos-
terior laterals from 6 11. The following formula of
twelve examples are from a single colony of females :
108 . 1110 . 910 . 1413 . 910 . 1110
97 . 810 . 8 8 . 7 - 8 . 6 6 . 8 - 7
1111 . 1011 . 1011 . 129 . 1413 . 1012
10_ 9 . 1Q_ 7 . 810 . 88 . 911 . 911
96 ASPIDIOTUS ZONATUS.
Margin of pygidium (PI. XII, fig. 2) with three pairs
of lobes ; the median pair well developed, very broad,
usually with a small notch at the extremity of the
inner margin, and a larger one at the extremity of the
outer ; sometimes they are widely rounded, and have a
faint lateral emargmation, The second and third
pairs are more or less rudimentary; the former the
narrowest; both have the posterior margin sloping
outwards, and have an irregular, wavy, notched, or
entire outline. The median pair of plates are spine-
like ; the second pair simple, bifurcate, or finely ser-
rate ; the two between the second and third lobes are
broad at the base, and deeply furcate. There are
usually five short spines on either side of the meson,
of which the first are slightly the longest, and placed
at the outward base of the median lobes; the second
and third over the second lobe ; the fourth over the
third lobe ; and the fifth a little beyond. Body-wall
incised, strongly chitinised, and thick at the base of
the second and third groups of plates.
Scale of the second-stage female (PL VI, fig. 2) cir-
cular ; dull reddish pink with a white margin. Exuviae
central. Cabinet specimens become pale oehreous or
white, and have a somewhat mealy surface.
Female at period of fecundation broadly pvrifonn,
and pale yellow; pygidium reddish brown.
Scale of the male (PL VI, fig. 4) elongate, usually
narrower in front than behind. Straw-coloured, or
pale oehreous. Exuviae central and yellow. Secre-
tionary covering, with a faint central prominence, is
very thin at the margin, where the yellow colour of the
larval exuviae shows through.
Long. 1 mm.
Male (PL VI, fig. 5) bright yellow ; legs and antennae
dusky yellow or colourless; margins of mesot horacic
plates a little dusky. Eyes and apodenm intense shining
black; wings hyaline. Antenna* of ten joints, all with
numerous long hairs; the apical joint (PL VI, fig. (>)
with four long knobbed hairs. The legs are similarly
ASPIDIOTUS ZONATUS. 97
clad with hairs, and the tarsus (PL VI, fig. 7) has a
fine sharp claw and four knobbed hairs. Stylus about
three fourths the length of the body.
Larva pale yellow ; with six-jointed, funiculate
antennae like those of A. ostreaeformis. Caudal setae
long ; between them a pair of short spines. Mesal
lobes well developed ; margin beyond them with four
or five tuberculate projections, each bearing a minute
Habitat. On oak (Qnercus robur) ; at High Legh
(Gillanders), and Eaton in Cheshire; Bearsted (Green),
Orpington and district, Chislehurst, Frant Wood
(Saunders) ; and Lewisham (Douglas), in Kent. I find
it most abundant in Cheshire, but it never occurs in
such numbers as the preceding species. Mr. Watkins
has sent me the species from Painswick, but I have
found it very sparingly elsewhere in Gloucestershire.
This species is so closely allied to A. ostreseformis
that a comparative statement is necessary. The fol-
lowing table gives the salient characters of each :
$ A. ostre&formis. ? A. zonatus.
Body highly chitinised. Body not highly chitinised.
Circumgenital glands al- ; Circumgenital glands usu-
ways in 5 groups. ally in 4 groups.
Series of basal pores near None.
base of pygidium.
Lobes in two pairs. Lobes in 3 pairs.
Spines long. : Spines short.
$ antennae with 8 knob- <$ antennae with 4 knob-
bed hairs at apex. bed hairs at apex.
Distribution. Widely distributed, and common in
many parts of Europe.
Habits. Egg-laying takes place early in May, and
although I have not observed the larvae, I should
imagine they hatch soon afterwards, as the puparia are
98 ASPIDIOTUS ZONATUS.
formed by the end of the summer. The male larvjv
fix themselves upon the under sides of the oak leaves,
generally near the ribs ; the females invariably upon
the branches, near the tips, behind the bud scales, or
on the thicker branches, far away from their partners.
The males begin to appear about the last week in
August, and few are seen after the first week in
September. The surviving females hybernate through-
out the winter, no apparent change taking place until
spring, when the body increases in size, shrivels during
gestation, and the insect dies. The females slightly
predominate, and I imagine are often parthenogenel ic,
as many examples fix themselves in quite inaccessible
places. The females are frequently parasitised, but I
have not been fortunate 1 in rearing the parasite.
During the winter months, when insects are com-
paratively scarce, this species is Freely eaten by certain
insectivorous birds. See chapter on " Natural Knemies
of the Coccidse," pp. 33- 41.
EXPLANATION <>r TIIK PLATES.
PI. VI, fig. 1. Puparium of adult female covered with
sooty deposit ; larval exuviae naked. X - V
Fig. 2. Puparia of immature females as Found
behind the bud-scales in autumn. X 25.
Fig. 3. Adult female at period of gestation, x ; > : >-
Fig. 4. Puparium of the male on portion of oak
leaf. X 25.
Fig. 5. Male. X 50.
Fig. 6. Apical joint of male antennae. X 000.
Fig. 7. Tarsus and claw of male. X 000.
Fig. 8. Male puparia, natural si/e, /// *///! on under
side of oak leaf.
Fig. 9. Puparia of the female, natural size, in ///?
on oak branch.
PI. VII, fig. 1. Pygidium of adult female. X 2o<).
PL XII, fig. 2. .Margin of pjgidium of adult female.
ASPIDTOTUS OSTEE^FOEMIS. 99
ASPIDIOTUS OSTEEyEFOEMJS (Curtis).
(PL V, figs. 114; PL VII, fig. 2; PL XII, fig. 1.)
Aspidiotus ostreseformis, Curtis (Ruricola) ; Gar-
dener's Chron., 1843, p. 805, with fig. .
Nee Dlaspis ostre&formis, Signoret; Essai s. 1.
Coclien., p. 121, pi. v, fig. 4.
Nee Diaspis ostrezeformis, Comstock; Report, 1880,
p. 311, pi. xv, fig. 4.
Aspidiotus betulse, Barensprung ; Journal d'Alton et
Aspidiotus Mice (Bouche), Leonardi; Gen. e sp. di
Diaspiti. Est. dal. Ri vista di Patologia Vegetal e,
^1897 [VI], 1900 [VIII], p. 65.
Aspidiotus liippocastani (Signoret), Leonardi, 1. c.
Aspidiotus oxyacanthae ? (Signoret), Leonardi, 1. c.
Aspidiotus tilice (Signoret), Leonardi, 1. c.
Aspidiotus spurcatus, Signoret Essai, p. 112, pi. iv,
Puparium of adult female (PL V, figs. 1 3) more
or less circular and moderately convex ; examples dis*
torted by overcrowding, or compressed by contact with
a prominent portion of the food-plant, very variable ;
texture smooth. The central third is usually olivace-
ous black, the remainder dusky ochreous or dark grey.
ExuviaB central or, towards the margin in front, dull
yellow or bright orange yellow. Secretionary cover-
ings grey or white, the first forming a small central
boss, the second in the form of a broad concentric ring.
A young example is shown at Fig. 2. The foregoing
description applies to typical examples such as one
finds upon the smooth, young wood of the currant or
plum, and which are absolutely free from the admixture
of the surface-tissues of the food-plant. On the old
wood of the peach the scales are much thicker, almost
entirely olivaceous black, and almost completely hidden
100 ASPIDIOTUS OSTRE^FOEMIS.
beneath the thin epidermal layer of the wood (PL V,
fig. 3). The examples before me on plum (J*ritnn#
domextica) have formed a complete homogeneous layer,
only recognisable from the bark by the numerous,
minute, orange-coloured specks of the larval exuviae.
On removing this mass the bark appears quite white
from the numerous powdery ventral scales which
adhere to it.
Diam. 1 2 mm.
Adult female short ovate, almost circular, old speci-
mens becoming chitinised ; yellow or ochreous yellow.
Parasitised examples (PI. V, fig. 5) broadly pyriform,
inflated, usually bright orange brown, and highly
chitinised. Rudimentary antennas a mere stump with
a long stiff spine at the base. Rostral filaments
scarcely longer than men turn. Free abdominal seg-
ments, and margin in front with a few long hairs.
Pygidium (PL VII, fig. 2) always with five groups of
circumgenital glands, the anterior group consisting of
from 5 to 8, the anterior laterals from 7 to 12, the
posterior laterals from 5 to 1G. The formula of twelve
examples from a single colony on plum are given
57 5 6 56
810 . 910 . 8 7 . 7 8 . 9 9 . 67
8_10 . 9 8 . 5- 6 . 1011 . 11 - 9 . 1211
655 8 65
11 7 . 910 . 711 . 8 8 . 1212 . 9 9
8_ 8 . 811 . 1613 . 1211 . 1114 . 11 - 9
The subdorsal groups of tubular spinnerets, rather
short, are connected with a double series of glands or
pores. Extending from near the last marginal spine
to the base of the pygidinm on the dor sum is a series
of, usually four, large circular pores. Vaginal opening
central. Anal opening about midway between the
former and the apex of the pygidium. Margin of
pygidium (PL XII, fig. 1) with two pairs of lobes;
median pair well developed, rounded, and notched at
ASPIDIOTUS OSTKE^EFORMIS. 101
the sides ; second pair broader than the former, but
only about half the length, with the hind margin
emarginate, or irregularly notched, forming a wavy
outline; third pair obsolete. The first pair of plates
are simple and spinelike ; the second finely serrate ;
the first two beyond the second lobe simple or bifur-
cate; the third, usually, deeply and widely serrate.
There are usually five long spines on either side the
first at the base of the anterior margin of the median
lobes ; the second and third, opposite, are attached to
the base of the second lobe; the fourth and fifth
considerably beyond, equidistant from the second,
and somewhat longer. The body-wall is considerably
thickened and chitinised at the base of the plates.
The second-stage female possesses no ventral circum-
genital glands; these organs are not developed until
after the final moult.
Scale of the male (from typical examples on currant)
short ovate ; posteriorly extended and widely rounded.