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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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would spontaneously resort, and from which
they would regard it a great calamity to be
cut oflf. Should the committee object to dis-
missing a scholar, I might consent, as a last
and doubtful experiment to try the rod ; for
order we must have.



THE FUIEJiD.

So, if I found myself in a school which had
become notorious for violence, rudeness and
insubordination, I might, at the commence-
ment, hold up to the scholars the rod in ter-
rorem, until 1 could bring higher and better
motives to bear upon them. It should be
however only for a season, and (as I would
keep a wild animal or mad dog at bay with my
staff) until I had gained somewhat upon their
confidence and esteem. But for a school of
this character, especially if the scholars were
large, and many of them boys, I would like to
try the experiment, as the most probable cure,
of employing a female teacher of decided cha- !
racter, high cultivation, and refined manners.
I believe it would be the best thing that could
be done for it. I would recommend to com-
mittees who may be unfortunate enough toj
have the supervision of such schools, to make!
the trial. But on this point it is not my pur-;
pose at this time to enlarge.

There is one great mistake into which those
who advocate the rod are constantly running.
They all the time labour under the impression,
that the same difficulties will arise under the
mild and suasory system, consistently and
firmly pursued, as under the discipline of the
rod, where all is carried by mere authority
and force. This is a mistake. I believe most
school difficulties grow out of something faulty
in the very discipline and rule of the school,
— and that tliey would cease and be unknown,
if these were changed, and made what they
ought to be. Those on the contrary side,
have no riglit to say that it would not be so,
until they have tried it, and that faithfully ;
tried it, not as the apostle says, some preach-
ed the gospel " of contention,'''' but " in love."
In morals, as in chemistry, you may so try an
experiment that it will certainly fail. I do not
claim for my system, a power either to pre-
vent or to cure all the evils of the school-
room. No scheme does this. The best ever
proposed has only approximated to it. I only
say that this system is attended with fewer
difficulties, — works better for the cause of
education, — than any system of government
which is based essentially on corporal punish-
ment. This is all I say. Now I do not be-
lieve, that in a school of a hundred pupils,
managed in the way that I would have it, a
case of the kind supposed would occur once in
a hundred years. I never knew a single, soli-
tary instance of it ; and I have had some expe-
rience. But I have known, and in more than
one instance, in schools where the rod and
strap and ferule bore sway, from four to a
dozen boys drawn up for chastisement at the
close of the school, or in the recess. But
allow that the case may happen, — yea, that it
has happened, — that here it is before you.
What then? What shall be done ? I would
treat it substantially as I have pointed out for
a single individual; — the whole dozen to-
gether, or by |)arcels, — or each one separate-
ly, as might seem best. This course, it is
true, will require more time and patience than
would be necessary to give each offender a
good strappado, and let him go; but I am
satisfied it would better subserve the cause of
education.

Let none treat these views as visionary. I



know they are practical. Be kind, — be firm,
— be dignified, — be uniform, at all times, and
to all scholars, and you will succeed.

(To be continued.)



A Day at a Flint-Glass Factory.

(Concluded from page 26G.)

In all vessels provided with a leg and foot,
such as wine-glasses, the leg is formed of one
dip of glass, and the foot of another, each in
turn being attached to the body of the vessel,
and worked into shape. In such articles as
salv(!rs, dishes, or shallow vessels generally,
the workman, after having his mass of glass
hollowed by blowing, transfers it from the
working tube to the punty : the hole left where
the tube had been attached he gradually en-
larges, by whirling, modelling, re-heating, and
bending, until the glass expands to the wide
flat concave form required. In any vessel to
be provided with a handle, a lump of glass —
if we call it glass putty, perhaps the reader
will form a better idea of its consistence — is
attached at one spot, drawn out, dexterously
curved, and attached also at another spot, an
operation nearly as surprising as any in the
manufacture, since the workman has no guide
but the accuracy of his eye in suddenly form-
ing the handle. In such a production as a
lamp or chandelier shade, the mass requires
frequent re-heating, on account of the large
size attained ; and whenever the mass of glass
has to be thus repeatedly healed, a constant
rotation is given to the tube or rod, to pre-
serve a circular form in the article attached
to it. While re-heating at the furnace, this
rotation is maintained as much as on the
" chair-arms," a restiiig-groove being placed
in front of the furnace-mouth for the support
of the rod while rotating.

The ductility of the melted glass, or that
property by which it is capable of being drawn
out, is perhaps no where so strikingly shown
as in the making of glass-tubes, such as are
employed for thermometers, barometers, &c.
A workman collects a quantity of glass on the
end of a tube, rolls it on an iron plate into a
cylindrical form, blows into it to form a ca-
vity within, and holds it towards a second
workman, who attaches a heated rod to the
other end of the mass, to which it instantly
adheres. The two men, standing opposite
each other, then walk backwards, the glass
elongating as they proceed, until a tube forty
or fifty feet long is produced. This tube hangs
down as it is formed, and rests on a ladder or
frame laid along the floor of the glass-house;
and by the time all the mass of glass is thus
drawn out, a tube almost perfectly equable in
thickness is formed, with a bore or perforation
running through its whole length. The pre-
servation of this bore is one of the most sin-
cular parts of the process, the elongated tube
acquiring a bore of the same ybrm as is given
to the cavity in the mass of glass, however
much reduced in size. In most thermometers
the mercurial column is seen to be flattened,
so as to be scarcely visible when viewed lat-
erally. This flattened shape represents the
form of the bore of the tube ; and in order to



produce it, the mass of glass, after having
been blown hollow, is gently pressed on two
opposite sides, whereby a thitleuing of the
internal cavity is produced while the external
surface is again made cylindrical by re-dip
ping into the melting-pot. This form, t. e
flat within and circular without, is retained
throughout the subsequent elongation, not
withstanding the vast diminution in the sec
tional area of the tube. Most kinds of glass
tubing, for meteorological, optical, or other
purposes, are produced in a manner nearly
analogous to that here described ; the length
of tubing being afterwards cut into convenient
portions. Most persons have probably seen
or heard of " glass-work ing exhibitions," in
which trinkets and toys are made in a very
delicate and neat manner out of melted
softened glass ; although the glass is, in these
cases, melted at a blowpipe instead of a fur
nace, yet the principle by which the exhibitor
is enabled to proceed is the same as that de-
veloped in tube-making, and calls for our
assent to the remark that " flint-glass possess-
es, at the working-heat, a degree of tenacity
and ductility not to be found in any other sub-
stance in nature."

Four thousand pounds weight of glass is
weekly wrought into these various articles;
and we must now quit the melting-furnace, and
watch the manufactured articles in the pro-
cess of" annealing." The object of this pro-
cess is to render the glass less brittle, and less
liable to fracture from sudden alternations of
temperature. If a glass-vessel, made at the
high temperature necessary for working, were
allowed at once to cool in the open air, the
surfaces of the vessel would cool and contract
more rapidly than the interior substance,
whereby the glass would be in an unequable
state of elasticity, and therefore liable to frac-
ture. We have seen a piece of thick glass-
tube, which had been plunged while hot into
cold water: the interior surface was cracked
to such a degree as to appear like a surface
covered with crystals. There are philosophi-
cal toys, known as " Bologna phials," and
" Prince Rupert's Drops," which are similarly
treated, by being plunged into cold water
while yet hot : the exterior becomes cooled
and fixed before the interior has time to con-
tract in a corresponding degree ; the conse-
quence of which is, that this unusual state of
tension causes the whole to be shattered to
atoms when the smallest incision or scratch is
made on the surface. To avoid such an incon-
venience as this, glass-ware is suflered to cool
by very slow degrees.

This slow cooling takes place in an anneal-
ing-oven called a " leer ;" a name for which it
would not perhaps be easy to furnish a reason,
unless it be an instance of the Anglicised
foreign terms used in a glass-house, and of
which the " punty," or working-rod, and the
" inarver," or iron plate, furnish examples —
these two terms being derived from the French
" pontil" and " marbre." The arched en-
trance to the " leer" is seen at one side of the
glass-house, closed by iron doors ; the oven
having the form of a long flat arch, sixty feet
in length or depth, five feet wide, and from
one to two in height. Adjoining the door of



THE FRIEND.

the oven on each side is a furnace, by which
a high temperature is maintained ; but as
there is no other heating-power, the oven ex-
periences less and less of the heat as the dis-
tance from the mouth is greater, until, at the
remote extremity, the temperature is scarcely
higher than that of the surrounding atmos-
phere. Along the floor of the oven is a minia-
ture rail-way, upon which two rows of iron
trays, called "leer-pans," travel.

iSucli being the arrangement, and all the
operations being in full play, the annealing
proceeds as follows: — As soon as a glass-ves-
sel is formed, a boy carries it, either on a
wooden shovel, or by means of a pronged
fork, to the " leer," and places it in one of
the pans. This continues until one pan is
full; and the pan being then wheeled onward
by means of a windlass, another is laid in its
place, similarly filled, and similarly wheeled
on ; and so on, one pan after another. By
this means, the pan first filled is drawn farther
and farther from the heat, whereby the an-
nealing or gradual cooling is efiected. The
time required for annealing varies from twelve
to sixty hours, according to the thickness of
glass in the article manufactured ; and mat-
ters are so arranged as lo have similar arti-
cles in the oven at one time, in order that the
same routine may be available for all ; or else
to make the two rows of pans travel with dif-
ferent speed. There are some annealing-
ovens in which the process is differently con-
ducted ; they are much shorter, and more
equably heated in the different parts ; and
after being filled with manufactured articles,
the mouth is closed, and the fire allowed
gradually to go out, whereby the whole oven
loses its heat by slow degrees. The form
first described is, however, found most ad
vantageous in the flint-glass manufacture.

'J"he order of processes now requires us to
visit a room at the remote end of the annea
ing-oven. The key of this room is in the
possession of an excise-officer, under wh
supervision all the arrangements of the room
are conducted. Were this the place, we might
remark on the evils resulting to manufactures
from the mode in which excise duties are co
lected on the articles manufactured ; but we
must take the case simply as we find it. Th
annealed vessels are removed from the pans,
examined to see that they are perfect, and
weighed ; a duty being payable on such arti-
cles only as leave the annealing-oven in a per-
fect slate. This restriction is necessary, for the
vessels are frequently spoiled in the oven,
either by being imperfectly annealed, or by
being overheated near the furnace.

Many articles of flint-glass ware are deem-
ed finished when they leave the annealing-
oven, and are accordingly warehoused ; but
the brilliant display of a side-board or diimer-
table owes much of its attraction to the cut, or,
f the term be allowable, sculptured forms of
the glass-vessels. This cutting is effected
fter the vessels are annealed, in a distinct
part of the building, and by a process wholly
different from those hitherto described.

The glass-cutting room has a singular ap-
pearance. A double work-bench extends
along the room, divided into several compart-



275

metils for an equal number of men. In front
of each workman is a thin wheel revolving on
a horizontal axis ; and above some of the
wheels are vessels containing sand and water,
which drop through a small orifice in the bot-
tom, and fall on the edge of the wheel. All
the wheels are set in motion by steam-power,
and each workman has the means of unfixing
his wheel, and putting on another of a different
kind. These wheels are of various sizes, and
made of various substances, such as cast-iron,
wrought-iron, Yorkshire stone, and willow-
wood. The edge of the wheel is that part by
which the grinding is efTected ; and different
shapes and thicknesses are given to these
edges, in order to produce different results.

'J he workman takes the glass, decanter, or
other manufactured article, and holds it against
the edge of ihe revolving wheel, by which the
substance of the glass is ground down, and fiat
or curved surfaces produced. The vessel is
held in various positions, according to the pat-
tern required; accuracy of eye and steadiness
of hand being indispensable in the workman.
The iron wheels, with sand and water, are
used for grinding away the substance of the
glass ; the slone-wlieel, with clean water, for
smoothing the scratched surfiices; and the
wooden wheel, with rotten-:5fone and putty-
powder, for polishing.

In a separate room the stoppers or stopples
for bottles are ground, and the necks of small
bottles made truly circular by attaching them
to a kind of lathe, and applying small tools to
the surface while revolving. The value of
well-stoppled bottles to the chemist renders
this operation one of nicely and importance.

In addition to the cut surfaces of glass-ves-
sels, whereby such a lustrous play of colours is
produced, the more cosily articles are en-
graved, that is, devices are cut on the surface
inore delicate than can be produced by the
cutting-wheel. A separate apartment is devo-
ted lo the operations of the glass-engraver,
who is seated at a bench before a small lathe;
and to this lathe he attaches one of a series
of little metallic disks or wheels, generally
made of copper, and varying from an eighth
of an inch to two inches in diameter. The
edge of the rotating disk he touches with a lit-
tle emery moistened in oil, and then holds the
glass-vessel against the edge of the disk, by
which very minute scratches or indentations
are produced. By dexterous changes in the
position of the glass, and in the form and size
of the disks employed, he combines these in-
dentations so as to produce beautiful intaglios
or sunken pictures.

This is strictly a' branch of the fine arts, and
as such places the engraver on a diflerent level
from the other workmen. Taste, both natural
and cultivated, a knowledge of the exiernal
forms of natural objects, and a delicacy of eye
and hand, are all required in this operation;
and we viewed with pleasure the labours of an
intelligent workman engaged therein. A
laudable attempt is now being made in England
to diffuse among workmen a more extensive
knowledge of the arts of design than has yet
been possessed by them ; and such operations
as those of glass-cutting and engraving afford
an ample field for the display of this kind of



276



THE FRIEND.



knowledge. We believe that the proprietor
of this establishment is himself one of the
council in the new government School of De-
sign.

The most profitable and important articles
of flint-glass are such as are largely employed



the principle being nearly the same as in the
other process.

The astronomer and the optician obtain
from the (lint-glass manufacturer the materials
from which their lenses are made. It has
been ascertained that there is a certain state



and have a current sale; but the costly and i of the fused glass which is best calculated for
delicate articles occasionally produced, call , optical purposes ; and when the mass has at-
for great skill and inventive ingenuity. There lained this state, about seven pounds weight is
is a kind of cut-glass in which the projecting ■ taken up in a conical ladle and blown into the



parts of the pattern are coloured, and the
sunken parts colourless. These are produced
ia a remarkable way ; for after the working-
tube has collected nearly sutficient colourless
glass from one pot, the mass is dipped into
another containing glass which is coloured by
the addition of certain metallic oxides, by
which an external coating of coloured glass is
given to the mass. When the blowing and
modelling are completed, this exterior coat-
ing is, in the finishing process of cutting,
ground away in some parts, and left remain-
ing in others, thus producing a singularly deli-
cate effect.

Another kind of ornamental manufacture is
the " crystallo-ceramie," or glass-incrusta-
tion, patented by iMr. Pellatt some years ago,
and consisting of an opaque substance, im-
bedded in a mass of colourless glass. A
medallion, or bas-relief, representing any
device whatever, is moulded in a peculiar
kind of clay, capable of resisting the heat of
melted glass ; and the medallion is enclosed
between two pieces of soft glass, or else is
introduced into a cavity in I he glass, from
whence the air is afterwards extracted. The
introduction of the medallion into the glass is
the main difficulty in this process, and re-
quires much skill and ingenuity, in order that
no air-bubbles may exist between the two
substances. When finished, and the external
surface of the glass cut the required form, the
appearance of the imbedded medallion is sin-
gularly chaste and elegant ; for the white clay,
seen within the clear and highly refractive
glass, presents an appearance nearly resemb-
ling that of unburnished silver. This branch
of art, i. e. the incrustation of clay devices,
was invented by a Bohemian, about sixty years
ago ; at a later period some French manutac-
turers encrusted medallions of Napoleon in this
way, and sold them at an enormous price ; but
since the introduction of the art into England,
under an improved form, a wide extension has
been given to its applicability. Decanters,
goblets, wine-glasses, lamps, girandoles, chim-
ney-ornaments, plates, door-handles, and other
articles formed of flint-glass, have been orna-
mented in this way; the incrustations being
arms, ciphers, crests, inscriptions, portraits,
small busts, caryatides, or indeed any small
objects capable of being modelled or moulded
in clay. The incrustation may be painted
with metallic colours, which will remain
uninjured by the heat required in the pro-
cess.

There is a mode of incrusting opaque orna-
ments or devices on the surface, instead of
within the substance of the glass. This is
effected by adjusting the ornament in a brass
mould, and blowing and moulding the glass to
it ; the details requiring considerable skill, but



brm of a hollow cylinder. This cylinder
cut open, and flattened into a sheet t^venly
iiches long by fourteen wide, and from two to
hree eighths of an inch in thickness. In this
form it passes into the hands of the optician,
who cuts and giinds it to the shapes required
for optical purposes. The masses of glass for
large telescope lenses require a somewhat dif-
ferent process, and extraordinary care in the
choice, preparation, mixing, and melting of
gredients : indeed, the production of good
glass for this purpose is one of the most
uncertain things in the whole glass-manufac-
ture.

We terminate our \isit by alluding to the

elegant show-rooms, or galleries, in which the

finished materials, of all the various kinds

above alluded to, constitute a brilliant display.

Ptnny Magazine.



A Teetotal Family. — Thomas Parr was
born in the reign of Edward the Fourth. He
was brought to London by Lord Arundell, in
1635, and introduced to Charles the Second ;
but the change of situation and his altered
mode of life, particularly drinking wine, soon
proved fatal to a constitution supported by
more abstemious habits, and he died the same
year, aged 152. One of old Parr's sons died
at the age of 109. A grandson died aged 113;
and Robert Pari', great grandson to old Tom,
died at Bridgnorth, on September 21st, 1757,
aged 124. A peculiar trait in the character
of these four generations of Parrs was their
temperate habits, amounting almost to total
abstinence. — Late Paper.

Effects of the Earthqvake. — A correspon-
dent of the N. O. Tropic, writing from Ha-
vana, says, that the island of Martinique has
changed its level ; on the northern side it is
two feet higher above high water mark than
formerly ; on the lee side it is sunk two feet.
All the houses have an inclination from a per-
pendicular. In Antigua a large mountain has
been rent asunder, leaving a fissure in it of
one mile and a half in extent, seventy-five feet
deep, and thirty-five feet in breadth. It is
impossible to save the sugar crops, as the mills
are so broken that they cannot be repaired in
time to grind cane.

For " The Friend.'
THOMAS BROWN.

In the eighth volume of " The Friend
page 278, will be found an interesting account
of Thomas Brown, a very remarkable minis-
ter of the gospel in the Society of Friends. In
his youth he worked with a biscuit-baker in



this city. A friend from England (probably
Benjamin Kidd) appointed a meeting in Phi-

adelphia; and after it had been solidly gath-
ered, a young man in the centre of the house
pped out into the passage-way, and preach-
ed with much energy. He was attired in his
working-clothes, wilh a leathern Land round
his waist. The Friend from abroad bad
nothing to communicate. After the meeting

losed, some Friends began to condole with
the stranger, on having appointed a meeting,
and its time being thus occupied by another.
But this servant of the Lord could feel where
words came from — and he rebuked them by
saying, " The service fell vpon the lad." The
following lines were written in a piece-book
of the wife of one of Thomas Brown's des-
cendants.

An incident in the life of Thcmas Brown, a ministtr
of the gospel, who died Sixth month yis/, 1757.

From father-land across old ocean's wave.
Servant of Him wlio died poor man to save,
Came one, his Master's bidding to proclaim,
To true believers gathered in his name.
He called the people to the house of prayer,
And solemn silence shed its influence there;
The wing of Ancient Goodness hovered o'er.
While contrite hearts in mercy could adore !

He who had bade the congregation meet,
In silent reverence had liis crumb to eatj
For him the Saviour brake no bread, to give
To hungry sonls, that they might cat and live.
Taught in his Master's school lo wait his time.
He dared not move without the unerring sign ;
But with the patriarch he the faith could share,
"God will himself a sacrifice prepare I"

As a ram caught the thicket wilds among,
Forth into view an unsought offering sprung;
A humble youth, like John the Baptist found
Wilh leathern girdle compassing him round ;
He sat not where the propheis sat ; — he knew
No other learning than from Christ he drew;
But as the Spirit quickened, forth there came
Like forked tongues the glowing thoughts of flume;
Words that he knew not, fitly found their place.
And untaught sentences flowed tbrlh with grace;
Of classic learning he possessed no store.
But preached in demonstration and in power.
No southern eloquence, or northern wit.
Or studied phrase tlie varying sense to fit,
Was his lo offtr ;— pure the current sped
As it gushed sparkling from the fountain head ;
The earthen vessel gave not of its taint.



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 102 of 154)