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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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power of God in that heavenly flesh (as in my
heart I have often called it) for the life so to
dwell in it, that it was ever one with it. Yet
still it was a veil, and the mystery was the
thing; and the eye of life looks through the
veil into the mystery, and passes through it,
as I may say, as to the outward, that it may
behold its glory in the inward. And here the
flesh of Christ, the veil, is not lost, but is
found and known in its glory in the inward.
Be not offended at me, O tender hearted read-
er ! for I write in love things true, according
to the inward feeling and demonstration of
God's Spirit, though not easy perhaps to be


understood at present by thee ; but in due time
the Lord can make them manifest to thee, if
thou in uprightness and tenderness of heart,
and in the silence of the fleshly part wait upon

For " The Friend."

The following letter to a young relative,
written many years since by our lately depart-
ed friend John Letchworth, is racy and cha-
racteristic, and will probably interest the read-
ers of " The Friend."

East Fallowfield, Fiflli mo. 22d, 1807.

To . My mind seems drawn to

address my much-loved niece, without any
particular subject to write upon. * * * We
fuund the face of nature [after a week's ab-
sence at Yearly Meeting] much changed since
we had gone to the city. The barley was an
inch high, — the fields were putting on a green
appearance, — the buds were swelling, — and
the birds with their early songs were enliven-
ing the groves, in which of late stillness was
profound. Here, I may observe, that, notwith-
standing the abundant labour thy aunt S. and
thyself bestowed in rooting out the garlic,
there is yet abundant room for a renewal of
your toil. As you have been used to working
together, perhaps you had as good come up
again, and at it a second time.

Our peach trees are in blossom, and make
a beautiful appearance ; but how short-lived it
is! Even whilst I am writing, though some
are not fully blown, there are others falling to
the ground. Thus we have in this change-
able state, first the bud, then the blossom, and
after that the fruit ; and if the fruit proves
good, how gratifying to the planter!

There are many things in the vegetable
world, which may be compared to the animal.
Youth is like the budding of spring; a little
farther increase of age resembles the full
blown blossom. The cheeks are then flushed
with health ; the veins are filled with blood,
and the bones with marrow ; and the whole
countenance bespeaks vigour and beauty.
What a hope does it give of fruit ! The bloom
is short-lived ; but if good fruit is brought
forth, how pleasant it is to the Great Planter
of the universe I It is much more desirable
than that beautiful appearance which is as the
blossoms of the tree, subject to be scattered
by every rude blast that assails them. That
thou, my dear niece, mayst endeavour to bring
forth good fruit is my desire. Thereby wilt
thou repay the cares of a fond mother ; gra-
tify the hopes of an anxious father; and find
solid peace attend thee through this vale of

Dear M. do not stop short ; remember the
garlic ! Though we may pull up, or root out
some of the noxious weeds within us, — remem-
ber it will require watching, or they will spring
up again from the small fibres which have been
left behind. The older we grow, the sharper
we ought to look, and the closer examine. As
this continues to be thy constant practice
through life, when the awful closing period
arrives for thee to bid adieu to all things here


below, the evidence of future peace will richly
repay thee f(ir all the little crosses Ihou may-
est have to bear in following Him who died
for thee.

Thy aflectionate uncle,

J>o. Letciiworth.


From Ihe British Friend.

The following extract of a letter from Sta-
vanger, in Norway, dated 14th of First month,
1843, will, no doubt, prove interesting to many
Friends in this country : —

The number of members of the Society of
Friends there, is not large ; they seem to
have been faithful in the support ol" our prin-
ciples, and have endured of late years, much
persecution and spoiling of their goods for the
cause of Christ on this account. 'J'ill now,
the meetings for worship have been held on
First and week-days, at the house of Elias E.
Tasted, who thus writes in rather broken Eng-
lish :—

" Our little meeting-house is built, and we
have begun to keep meetings in it ; and some-
times there is not so i'ew at our meetings; and
many there is which is convinced that tliis is
the way, but to take up the cross is yet too
hard for many ; although there is many which
is gone from the public worship." He further
says, " We have yet of the small (Danish)
Tracts you sent us, and plenty of the Friends'
books, which 1 and more is satisfying by,
when we read them." The conclusion cannot
well be withheld : — " The love of God is
above all to be desired, and I wish we above
all may seek after this, for in this is eternal


Moles. — A farmer tells us that moles al- niiiy by the meeting, and a coniniitlee was
ways work about nine o'clock in the morning, appointed to attend the next Yearly Meeting

in Baltimore with the request; and with power,
f acceded to by that meeting, to unite with

and three o'clock in the evening, and, he says,
that by watching their haunts at these hours,
they iiiay easily be taken by means of a hoe
to d'ig them out. He says, thai last spring he
caught thus, in two days, over forty moles in
one of his corn fields.

Late paper.


SIXTH MOiMII, 3, 1843.

G. R. Ju.N.

Second month 23d, 1643.

Singular Preservation. — The following oc-
currence, it is said, took place some years ago
on the bold south coast of Bressay island.
There is a slate quarry there, and the work-
men had occasion to descend a perpendicular
clifiy portion by means of a ladder. A sudden
and violent storm came on in the evening
which drove the labourers from their work.
The night was dark and tempestuous, and a
ship drove a-shore close upon the quarry-cliff.
Had she struck elsewhere in the neighbour-
hood, every one on board must have perished
instantly ; "but no sooner did she come in ter-
rific contact with the cliff, than the grateful
thoUTh astounded seamen in the rigging found
a ladder ready placed, and by it they mount-
ed, and were saved. The unfortunate wife of
the captain had been previously drowned in
the cabin. Next morning there was scarcely
a vestage of the vessel to be seen.

Ashes and Plaster. — Secure a supply of five
bushels of the former, and one of the latter,
for every acre of corn you mean to plant, so
that you may be able to put a gill on each hill
of corn. Small as this quantity may appear,
it will make a diffijrcnce of 25 per cent, in the
yield of your corn.


We are informed that the Yearly Meeting
of Friends of Virginia, convened at Cedar
Creek at the usual lime ; the Meeting of Min-
isters and Elders on Seventh-day, the :iOth of
Fifth month, and the Meeting tor Discipline
on the 22d. 'I'he usual concerns appertaming
to a Y' early Meeting received the attention
and consideration of Friends. Epistles from
the Yearly Meetings on this continent and
from England were read, and replies prepared
and adopted. The state of the menibeis, as
set forth in the replies to the Queries was
solidly considered, eliciting pertinent counsel
and advice. The reading the minutes of the
Meeting for Sufferings, exhibited the labours
of that body, in advocating the rights and pro-
tecting a large number of coloured persons in
their just claims to freedon).

It is known to most Friends, that the num-
ber of members of our Society resident in
Virginia, has been on the deciease for a
her of years by emigration to the free states,
producing a doubt in the minds of concerned
Friends whether they could much longer sus-
tain the weight and responsibility of a Y'early
Meeting, to the advantage of its members, or
the welfare of Society. At their last Yearly
Meeting this consideration was renewedly
brought before them ; and being desirous of
acting in so important a matter with due de-
liberation and caution, an invitation was com-
municated in their Epistles to the Yearly
Meetings of Baltimore, North Carolina, and
Philadelphia, to appoint committees to join
them in consultation on this weighty subject.
Their request being freely acceded to, com-
mittees of men and women Friends were ap-
pointed in each of those meetings, and a num-
ber of Friends separated for the service were
in attendance at this lime, who united with a
committee appointed by Virginia Y'early
Meeting, in a solid conference on the occa-
sion. We learn the committee of Virginia
Y'early Meeting in a report signed by all theii
number, stated in substance, that after a lime
of free and full discussion, in which much
Christian sympathy and brotherly feeling was
manifested, they had been favoured to unite in
the conclusion, that the time had fully arrived
when measures should be adopted to discon-
tinue the holding of a Yearly Meeting. The
report also suggested, that the meetings in
Virginia be so arranged as to constitute a
Half- Year's Meeting, to be subordinate to, and
fi)rni a branch of Baltimore Yearly Meeting.
The report was adopted with much unani-

iheni in adopting the necessary arrangements
to carry into operation the proposed measure,
and report to the next Y'early Meeting of Vir-
ginia, to be held at Summerton ; which, if no
obstruction occurs, will probably be the last
inie that body will convene in the capacity
of a Yearly Meeting. It was constiluted in

The establishment or discontinuance of
Y'early Meetings is not a measure of mere
local convenience, affecting only the members
that compose them, but is intimately connected
with the well-being of Society at large ; hence
we cannot but highly approve of the course
taken by Friends of Virginia, in conferring
with their brethren, according to ancient
usage, in so important a movement.


member of our Soci-


An unmarried man,
ety,is wanted as a teacher in Friends' Board-
ing-School, near Picton, Canada. The present
teacher expects to leave about the first of the
Seventh month next. An engagement would
be entered into for one year. Applications to
be addressed to Thomas F. Clark, Westlake,
near Picton, Canada — or to this office ; if
made to the latter, the postage must be paid.


A member of our religious Society, aged
twenty-four years, lately arrived from Eng-
land, is desirous of obtaining a situation as
teacher of fliathematics and English Litera-
ture ; or such other employment as he may be
capable of. Apply at this office.


The committee to superintend the boarding-
school at West Town, will meet in Philadel-
phia on Sixth-day, the 9lh of ne.xt month, at
3 o'clock p. M.

The committee on Instruction meet on Ihe
same day, at 10 o'clock a. m. And the visit-
ing coniinittee attend at the school on Se-
venth-day, the third of the month.

Thomas Kimber, Clerk.

Philadelphia, Fifth mo. 27th, 1843.


A Teacher is wanted immediately to assist
in a school, within a few miles of the city of
Philadelphia. A knowledge of the Latin
language will be requisite. Inquire at this
office. °

Marrifd, at Friends' Mectinp, Fallsington, Bucks
county, Pa., on ti.e lllh nil., Samuel Holme, to Ri-
CHEL S., daughter of John Kirkbride.


the a.ilh of Second

nlh last, Mart

PLEASAvrs, in the C8th year of her age.

Seventh and Carpenter Streets.



NO. 37.



Price tXBO dollar t per annum, payable in adeanee.

Subscriptions and Payments received by





Let me remind the reader, both of what I
have not, and of what I have, attempted to
show ; and llien pass on to give some brief
rules for the administering of punishment of
whatever kind, and close with some general
remarks on the whole subject.

Well, then, let it be remembered, I have
not attempted to show that by discarding the
rod all ditficuliies will be banished from the
school-room, or that, for every system which
may arise, the teacher whose governmental
system is based mainly on moral influences,
will have a sovereign remedy. I have sus-
tained no such thing. I admit, that, on every
system of government, difficulties in the
school-room will occur, — perplexing, trying
cases, which will put teachers to their wit's
end. All I assert is, that the teacher who
acts on the mild and forbearing principle, will
have no more or greater difficulties than the
advocate of the rod ; and that he can dispose
of them, if not as easily, yet, quite as effectu-
ally, and far more consistently with the real
object, and the true principles of education.
Again, I have not said that a teacher may get
along and secure an orderly school by pure
moral suasion ; by appeals to the affections
and conscience of his pupils simply, or by
what some in discussion have sneeringly call-
ed, " the-love-pat-and-kissing-system." I have
not contended for this, though I confess I have
stronger faith in the efficacy of " love-pals
and kisses," than of blows. I believe a teach-
er must sometimes look and speak in tones of
authority, indignation and reproof; — yea, that
sometimes he must rebuke even with sharp-
ness. So did the Great Teacher. But all
this is. not taking up the rod. Nor need it
degenerate necessarily into scolding, vituper-
ation, and sarcasm, or giving utterance to vin-
dictive, revengeful and angry feelings, — a
fault, by the way, which may become worse
in its moral, or rather immoral, influence,
than even the giving of blows. So much, I
believe, the school-room requires, and so much
sound moral training admits.

1 am now to lay down some principles and

rules, by which punishment, of whatever kind
should be administered.

1. Be fully convinced that in punishing a
pupil you have his good in view; that it
not to save yourself labour, or to gratify your
passions. Of this be sure. And be careful
not to contradict it, by the air and manner
which you inflict the punishment. Other-
wise, you will fail of the proper end of discip-
line; you will harden the feelings of the
pupils, and set them in array against you.

2. Let it be manifest that you punish with
reluctance, — great reluctance. This will have
a subduing effect. I have known teachers to
err greatly in this matter, — and, though they
manifested no anger, they seemed to go to
the business as if they were sitting down to a

3. Punish sparingly. Frequency of punish-
ment hardens the feelings, multiplies trans-
gressors, and defeats its own end.

4. Be not in haste to punish. Let a con-
siderable interval elapse between the commis-
sion of the offence, and the administering of
chastisement or reproof. Review the case
again. Second thoughts are often belter than
the first. Put oft' punishment till the afternoon,
or the next day. Some fact may come to light,
that will give to the oflfence a new aspect, and
materially change its complexion. Your own
feelings, which possibly, without your notice,
may have been disturbed, may subside, and
this alone would give a different hue to the
whole transgression. There can be nothing
lost by a little delay, and much may be gain-
ed, — especially will you be likely to avoid the
appearance of anger, — a point very important
in this matter. Let there be the least exhibi-
tion of anger, of excited feelings, and the cul-
pril will believe, in spite of what you can say
to the contrary, that you are chastising him
for your own gratification, and not for his
good. And with this impression, all correc-
tion will avail nothing, — I mean, it will do
nothing for real education.

.5. When you are satisfied that the accused
is really guilty ; that the offence has been ac-
tually committed, and by him, then take into
account all the palliating circumstances of the
case. Consider his natural temperament and
disposition. You are supposed to have studied
his character, and to know something of it.
He has mirthfulness large, as the phrenologists
would say, and is almost irresistibly propelled
to fun and play. He is naturally inclined to
be obstinate, vindictive, and quarrelsome.
This, perhaps, is more his misfortune than his
fault. As Christians, philosophers, and edu-
cators, will you make no allowance for it?
Will you not pity, as well as blame him, and
be forbearing? Again; consider that not only
his natural temperament and constitution are

unfavourable to easy and successhjl culture;
but that all home and out-door associations
have been, it may be for years, pouring down
upon him their pestiferous influences, and
training him up in the very way he should not
go. Is not all this a reason, why he should
be beaten, if beaten at all, with tew stripes?

6. Never resort to physical suflering, when
an appeal to the higher, or even inferior sen-
timents, (I do not say propensities,) will an-
swer the same purpose. Approach your pupil
through his conscience, his heart, his fear of
God, his love of approbation, his self-esteem,
and even his desire of gain, before you at-
tempt to reach him through the skin.

7. And, finally, before you lay on the first
blow, consider well your own infirmities, im-
perfections, and short-comings, to sny nothing
of wilful misdemeanors. Twenty times, per-
haps, since the week commenced, has the
teacher himself been the victim (in another
form) of just such influences, as are now about
to bring this offender under the lash. But the
teacher has no earthly master to call him to an
account. Especially, consider your own possi-
ble unfaithfulness towards this very child, and
for this reason let the stripes be somewhat
lighter and fewer.

It may be that some have inferred from my
strong and decided language, that I believe
there never has been, and that there never can
be such a thing as a good school, where cor-
poral punishment is allowed ; that the intro-
duction of the rod into the school-house, is, on
the character of the scholars, like the deadly
influence of the poisonous upas on surrounding
vegetation ; that nothing good can live in its
presence. I have not said this; I have not
thought it. On the contrary, I admit, that
by sternness and austerity, by harshness of
language and manner, by rigid and severe
penalties, yea, and by stripes even, some have
secured, and do secure order, and a portion o{
the advantages of a good school. But I am
satisfied that this sort of discipline has never
secured, and never will secure a school of the
highest and best character. It may carry a
school very high, but there is a point still
her to which it cannot attain. There is
surely a moral elevation at least, which is
inaccessible by such a course. Go into such
ihool, — my opinion for it, that you will
find little or nothing of the higher kinds of
moral training; — the glorious field of the edu-
cator. The parental relation between teacher
and pupil is hardly recognised. There is
scarcely any awakening of the lender emo-
tions and kindly feelings in all the intercourse
hich is going on between the teacher and
the taught. There is, it is true, something of
industry, quietness, and order; but it is all, or
chiefly, the result of constraint and fear.



There is liti\e of the voluntary and sponta-
neous in it. There is obedience ; but it is the
submission of the crouching slave, whose heart
goes not with iiim to his work, and who is
constantly seeking to do otherwise, and who
would do otherwise, if he dared.

Place before you, in your mind's eye,
two schools, in one of which the teachers
have a hold upon the atfections of their pu-
pils; and the pupils are deeply interested in
their studies, in the harmony, order, ciiarac-
ter and success of the school ; — in which the
pupils, at least a majority of the[n, are li'i/ii/i^
to carry out the views and plans of the teacher,
and are vastly more happy in keeping his
commands than in breaking I hem ; — and withal
are no strangers to the sweets of knowledge,
or the rewards of well-doing; — and, in the
other of which, the whole work is mainly the
effect of fear, compulsion, constraiiit ; — in
which all is mere eye-service and lip-service ;
outward compliance, and the show of obedi-
ence, — in which the kindlier feelings and ten-
der emotions are not enlisted ; in which there
is no heart ; but under the semblance of sub-
mission and constrained obedience, the fires
of yEtna are smothered, in the form of rank-
lings of heart, hatred, ill-will, revenge, and
all the harsher feelings of humanity. Say,
which of these schools presents the most lovely
and attractive features ? In which would you
rather be ? In which would you rather have
your children? In which do you think the
great work of education is going on in the
best manner 1 I do not ask, in which do you
find the most stillness and seeming order; but
in which are the scholars doing and getting
the most good? I will not ask in which are
they getting the longest lessons, and learning
most accurately the Latin, Greek, or English
prosody, (though this I should not be afraid to
ask,) but in which are they training up to
become the best men and best women ? In
which are the pupils most likely to be made
good members of society, — in which made
meet for the kingdom of heaven? On th
question there is no hesitation, no doubt. All
answer at once, " in the former." If we
could suppose all the moral feelings, emot
and operations of each of these two schools,
concentered and combined in the bosom of one
individual in each, and that individual bosom
to represent the moral and intellectual charac-
ter of the whole school, how striking would be
the contrast ! AVho that has enlightened views
of humanity, or a proper concern for its im-
provement and real good, or any just appre-
ciation of the moral influence resulting from
the reciprocal relation of teacher and pupil,
can regard this point with indifference ! In
these two schools, the teachers are respect-
ively training up very different characters.
They are working out very different materials
or products to form the elements of future
society ! In the one, we see the elements, the
incipient formation of the peaceful, open-
hearted, honest, useful citizen, — the kind
neighbour, — the upright, faithful magistrate.
In the other, the double-dealing, time-serving,
crafty, morose, selfish man. The class of
motives and influences which these different
groups of children are brought under, the

training which they are receiving, is so di-j From the Namuckeiinqu

the one from the other, that they can-
not but prove to be very different formations,

when the whole fabric of manhood is finished, j The great comet of the present year, whose
We must admit this, or we must deny the | sudden appearance surprised the astronomers

^" The Comet of 1843 to appear again in 1865.

influence of circumstances in the development of our country, and for a brief period, com-
of character, and exclude means from the phi- 1 manded the admiration of all classes, produced
losophy of education. You may keep school, a similar effect in the various parts of Europe,
and carry your pupils forward with more than; from which information has been obtained,
a snail-like pace, by appeals to fear ; by aThe officers of whale-ships recently arrived,
system of pains and penalties. But school- 1 whose location at the time of the visibility of
keeping in this way is a very different thing the comet, was far more favourable than ours,
from school-keeping based on moral principle, [represent it as surprisingly beautiful. Captain
It requires much less of tact and talent ; andlHillar, of the whale-ship Zone, was in such a
it will rob the teacher and his pupils of a vast i position, during the period of its greatest bril-
amount of gratification, which, on the other iiancy, that the train was projected in a veiti-
principle, might be secured from the exercise ;cal direction, and notwithstanding the tendency
and interchange of kind feelings and friendly |of this was to foreshorten it, the angle which

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 107 of 154)