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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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offices. You will witness the workings of the I it subtended, as determined by his se.xtant,
more violent passions, and not unfrequently measured near fifty degrees; its whole image
come into fearful conflict with them. You may j being at the same lime delightfully reflected
expect transgression, whenever transgression, by the surface of the sea. The train of this
is safe, you must expect to be imposed upon comet was its distin£uished feature. Its

and deceived. You must feel continually that
you are exacting a constrained, unwilling ser-
vice, a grudging obedience, where you might
have a cheerful acquiescence and a ready co-
operation. Where scholars are kept in order
chiefly by dread of punishment, advantage will
be taken of every opportunity, in the absence
or inattention of the teacher, for mischief-
making; and all cases of roguery will be stu-
diously concealed by tacit consent, or precon-
certed combination among the pupils. All the
liberty they can safely take with rules and
order, all the tricks they can play oft', all the
mischief they can do, undetected, will be re-
garded as so much net gain secured to the
amount of their enjoyment. If fear is made
the ruling principle, then, when scholars are
so situated that they can no longer be reached
through that medium, they will feel released
from all restraint, and act as they list. The
teacher, who has placed his dependence on
fear, has virtually cut himself off' from all ap-
peal to love, hope, conscience, and the better
principles of our nature; or, at best, such
appeals will have but a very partial and limit-
ed influence. Choose, then, you must, between
fear and the smart of the rod, on the one hand ;
and hope, conscientiousness, and a just regard
to duty and to reputation, on the other. They
will not act well in concert. You cannot hesi-
tate long which to choose. The one opens to
you a wide field for the exercise of ingenuity
and benevolence, while the other calls for little
more than strength of muscle and firmness of
nerve. It is a slavish system, which has little
else to recommend it than that it saves time,
and puts in requisition a very small amount of

The ship Edward, Captain Steel, on her
passage from New Y'ork to Montevideo, was
struck by a sword fish, the sword of which
penetrated through the copper, plank, and
ceiling, and into a barrel of flour, which caus-
ed the ship to leak. On discharging the cargo,
the cause of the leak was ascei tained. Captain
Steel has had the plank cut out, and intends
bringing it and the sword home as a rare curi-

cieus is a small one ; perhaps concentrated, as
common, by its proximity to the sun, a cir-
cumslance to which it also owed the great
length of its train. This immense appendage,
on the day of its perihelion passage, described
an arc of more than 100 degrees, and its ex-
tremity, in thirty-six hours, performed a jour-
ney of 200,000,000 of miles, sweeping, in its
course, a region but little removed from the
earth, and still steadily and inflexibly main-
taining its direction opposite the sun, — facts
entirely incompatible with its supposed mate-
riality, or otherwise irreconcilable with the
theory of gravitation.

In Europe, as in this country, its come-
tary character was at first questioned by
some observers, and, in a few instances, it
was absurdly identified with the zodaical

The elements of this comet have been cal-
culated and verified with immense labour by
Professors Peirce and Bond, of Harvard Uni-
versity, and Sears C. Walker and Professor
Kendall, of Philadelphia, and some others.
The results finally differ as little from each
other, as might be expected from the unavoid-
able difference and errors of observations. It
is a common popular question whether this
comet was an old acquaintance, or whether
this was its first visit to the sun within the
reach of astronomical record — a question, the
solution of which is deeply interesting in sci-
ence, and has employed the best energies of
astronomers. The identity of this comet with
that of 1668 was early suspected by Professor
Peirce ; but the tail only of the comet of 1668
was observed, and although its position and
circumstances are strikingly similar, we lack
the best testimony of identity. Walker and
Kendall in the United States Gazette of the
sixth ult., suggested the claim of identity with
the comet of December, 1689. The nucleus
of this comet was seen, and its position rela-
tive to many fixed stars was noted, and its ele-
ments daily calculated : but a discrepancy in
the inclination of its orbit presented a serious
difficulty ; but this was removed by Professor
Peirce in recomputing its elements as origi-
nally calculated by Pingre. While these



astronomers were discussing the respective
claims of these two cornels to the honour of
identity with the comet of 184S, Walker and
Kendall happily discovered that both were
entitled to that privilege, and this interval of
twentv-one years, or more accurately of twen-
ty-one years and ten months, strange as it may
appear, is the actual period of the great comet
of the present year; that since 1668, it has
revolved around the sun eight times, and since
1689 seven times, these results being as accu-
rate as can be expected, without computing
the perturbations of the comet, arising from
the action of the planets, near which it must
sometimes necessarily pass. Moreover, this
conclusion removes, in the happiest manner, a
difficulty which was encountered by Walker
and Kendall, and also by Professor Encke in
supposing the comet to describe a parabola
rather than an elliptic orbit. The facts and
reasoning therefrom, as published by Walker
and Kendall in the Gazette of the eleventh
instant, though modestly offered by them as
suggestions, leave no doubt that the comet of
this year will again appear in the early part
of the year I860, and the relative position of
the earth, sun, and comet, will then be such
as to afford even a better view than that which
we have recently witnessed. After this, the
circumstance will be unfavourable till the year
2018. Thus we may consider this discovery
as another grand triumph of science, and
strictly an American achievement.

W. M.

Tht Whale.— The whale, though an inhabi-
tant of the depth of the ocean, and invested
with amazing power in swimming, and direct-
ing its course with no legs to walk on, and no
capacity to exist out of the water, its proper
element — the whale, notwithstanding these
fish-like qualities, is not a fish, but belongs to
the order of mammalia — of animals that bring
forth their progeny, and suckle them with
milk ; and its fins ditler in a singular manner
from those of fishes ; they nearly resemble
the human arm, and terminate with a hand
having four fingers. The whale is thus en-
abled to clasp its young, and carry them in its
arms, and perform many of the acts of tender
affection for which the mother is distinguished
amongst terrestrials. The tail of the whale
is also a combination of mechanical powers ;
and in addition to the great strength bestowed
upon it, the muscles allow it to be turned any
way with as much facility as the human arm.
The blood of the whale is warm like that of
terrestrial animals : its brain is much li
in proportion than that of the fish ; its eyes
have a remarkably intelligent expression, and
its sense of hearing is so acute as to increase
very considerably the difiicully of approaching
it near enough to inflict the stroke by which
its great strength is finally overcome. — Late

Corn Broadcast. — In an experiment of
sowing corn broadcast on the 1st of June, at
the rate of H bushel per acre, on rich land.
General Harmon, of Wheatland, N. Y., ob-
tained eighteen tons of green stocks per acre.

The stalks were so full of saccharine matter,
that the cattle ate them perfectly clean when
dry ; though they were not cut up fine. The
yield was estimated at six tons dry fodder per
acre, and was raised on a clover sod, and
turned over and sown the last of May, and the
corn cut September 15. The saccharine
matter, which goes to supply the corn in the
r, is retained in the stalk when not suffered
to ear, and materially adds to its nutritive

American Agriculttiralist.

Superiority of American Locomotives. — At
a meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineer-
ing in London, Feb. 28, a discussion was held
upon American locomotive engines. It was
stated that the superiority of the American
locomotives was incontestible. In a trial on
an inclined plane, an American " Bogie" en-
gine, with a cylinder of 12i inches in diam-
eter, driving wheels four feet diameter, weigh-
ing fourteen tons, conveyed a gross load of
fifty-four tons up the incline at the rate of
twelve miles an hour ; while the best of the
English engines, with a thirteen inch cylinder,
five feet driving wheel, and weighing twelve
tons, drew thirty-eight tons up the incline, at
the rate of six miles an hour. It was stated
that the American engines consumed a greater
amount of fuel than the English.

Late paper.

Religion is the help and ornament of life,
the hope in death, and the perpetual reward of
its votaries in the world to come. Let us be
roused by the calls of the Spirit — by the invi-
tations of the church — by the work of the
day, and by the necessity of the times, more
and more to devote ourselves to the cause of
Christ, and His holy undefiled religion — and
way of worship of God — and of walking be-
fore men, which the blessed Author established
on earth, by his precepts and visible example ;
and which our forefathers (near two centuries
ago) were raised and enabled, by power from
on high, most nobly, firmly, and faithfully, to
revive and maintain. Great and lamentable
is the declension and blindness which hath
happened in our time, to the successors of
those honourable worthies — professors of the
same everlasting, precious faith. Our city is
not only closely besieged by enemies from
without, but there are virulent enemies, hos-
tile confederacies, deceitful allies, and weak
defenders even with the verge of its walls.
The head, (the skill and understanding) is in
a great degree sick ; and the heart (the cour-
age and zeal) is faint. May the consideration
of these things sink deep into our souls, and
take root there ; let it cover our minds in se-
cret, as sackcloth within upon our flesh ; being
dipped into sympathy with the seed unde
oppression, and dwelling in the house of
mourning therewith, we shall witness our
hearts made better, our inward man to be
strengthened, and an ofleriiig prepared in us,
which will be acceptable in the sight of God.
— KendaWs Letters, Vol. I., p. 197.

For " The Fri«nd."

The first number of a new series of the
Annual Monitor, or Obituary of the Members
of the Society of Friends in Great Britain and
Ireland, has been published at York, " io
which the Obituary, with the accompanying
notices of the deceased, form, ostensibly, the
primary object of the work."

There are about 355 deaths recorded, and
the ages are nearly all given. Ninety-one
occurred in 1841 ; of these, 15 were between
60 and 70 years of age— 18, from 70 to 80—
9, from 80 to 90, and 3 over 90.

Of 257 stated to have died in 1842 —
27 were between the ages of 50 and 60
36 " " 60 " 70

55 " " 70 " 80

33 " " 80 " 90

and 3 over 90.

The decease of several ministers and elders
of the Society are recorded, with notices con-
cerning some of them. The work is of a cha-
racter calculated to contribute to the moral
and religious improvement of its readers; and
the editors say they " hope to obtain, very
nearly, a complete list of the deaths which
take place in our community during the year.
Such a list, as a statistical document merely
is not without its value. And in a small So-
ciety like ours, in which some acquaintance
with each other so extensively prevails, it is a
satisfaction to be informed of events, often so
important to the families in which they have
occurred, the knowledge of which may pre-
vent our making painful inquiries ; and whilst
in looking over the brief record of others'
mortality, our sympathies are healthily ex-
cited, the Annual Monitor may do its office in
reminding us of our own."


" I saw concerning the Priests, that although
they stood in the deceit, and acted by the
dark power, which both they and their people
were kept under, yet they were not the great-
est deceivers spoken of in the Scriptures, for
they weie not come so far as many of these
had come. But the Lord opened to me who
the greatest deceivers were, and how far they
might come, even such as came as far as
Cain, to hear the voice of God ; such as came
out of Egypt, and through the Red Sea to
praise God on the banks of the sea-shore ;
such as could speak by experience of God's
miracles and wonders ; such as were come as
far as Corah, Dathan and their company ;
such as were come as far as Balaam, who
could speak the word of the Lord, who heard
his voice and knew it, and knew his Spirit,
and could see the star of Jacob, and the good-
liness of Israel's tent, the second birth, which
no enchantment could prevail against ; these
that could speak so much of their experiences
of God, and yet turned from the Spirit and
the Word, and went into the gainsaying, —
these were and would be the great deceivers,
far beyond the priests.

" Likewise among Christians, such as should
preach in Christ's name, should work mira-
cles, cast out devils, and go as far as a Cain,


a Corah and a Balaam, in llie gospel limes these
were and would be the great deceivers. They
thatcouldspeak some experiencesot'Christ and
God, but lived not in the life, these were they
that led the icorld after them, who got the
form of godliness, but denied the |)ower ; who
inwardly ravened from the Spirit, iind brought
people into the form, but persecuted them that
were in the power as Cain did, and ran gree-
dily after the error of Balaam, through covet-
ousness, loving the wages of unrighteousness,
as Balaam did.

" These followers of Cain, Corah, and Ba-
laam, have brought the world, since the
apostles' days, to be like a sea. Such as these,
I saw, might deceive now, as they did in
former ages; but it is impossible for them to
deceive the elect, who were chosen in Christ,
who was before the world began, and before
the deceiver was ; though others may be de-
ceived in their openings and prophecies, not
keeping their minds to the Lord Jesus Christ,
who doth open and reveal to his." — George
Fox^s Journal.

' What ;


these which are arraved in wii

: Ihey .'" Rev. 7lh cliap. 13lh ver.
Oh ! these are they, the tried and proved, of every age

arth — Redeemer they are

The patient sufferers of

thine '.
Through tribulations they have come, trusting in thee

Clotlied with thy righteousness, they stand, faultless
before the throne 1

All nations, kindreds, and tongues — one bright assem-
bly seem I

Salvation through thy name and power, their never end-
ing theme I

And thou wilt lead aud feed them there, and wipe away
their tears,

For pure and perfect happiness, eternally is theirs.

These mid a vain and wicked world, have borne their
daily cross,

And all the treaiures of tlie earth, esteemed they but
as dross :

lis empty pleasures — vain pursuits — its honour and re-
nown —

They sought a more enduring prize — a never-fading
crown I

Affliction was their portion here, amid reproach and

Yet, they accounted it all jny, to suffer for thy name.

And now, all they endurtd below, — these light afllio-
tions seem

Compared with all thia endless joy — a momentary

These, these have overcome the world — they conquer-
ed in thy might, —

On harps of gold they sing thy praise, and walk with
thee in white !

There they enjoy forevermore, in that bright world of

A more than ample recompense, for all the toils of this !

And shall we murmur, doubt or faint? — Oh I rest as-
sured there lice,

Within each faithful Chriitian's reach, the same all-
glorioun prize;

From the same blessed source obtained — a Fountain
full and free. —

Oh 1 draw our hearts in faith and hope. Redeemer unto
thee :

Philadelphia, Fifth mo. 30th, 1843.



SIXTH MONTH, 10, 1843.

The communication annexed has been re-
ceived from a correspondent : —


The Yearly Meeting of New York com-
menced on Seventh-day, the 27th ult., with
the Meeting of Ministers and Elders ; and that
for the business relating to the members at
large, on the 29th. Epistles were received
from all the co-ordinate bodies with which it
corresponds, tending to preserve a liarinonious
feeling with the ditierent sections of the Soci-
ety. Several new and important propositions
were presented by one of the Quarterly Meet-
ings, which obtained distinct and deliberate
attention. That to institute a new Quarterly
Meeting in Michigan, after receiving the in-
vestigation of a committee then appointed,
was adopted, to be denominated Adrian Quar-
tcrl)' Meeting, composed of two Monthly
Meetings in that state, and to be opened in
the Ninth month next; to attend which a num-
ber of Friends were deputed. Farniington
Quarter, on behalf of itself, Le Ray and Pel-
ham Quarters, and the Half-Year's Meeting in
Canada, informing the Yearly Meeting they
had united in the belief that the period was
approaching, when it would be for the inter-
ests of the Society, and the promotion of the
cause of Truth, to embody them and the pro-
posed new Quarter at Adrian, as a Yearly
Meeting, the subject was taken up, and with
much calmness deliberated on. The nature
and importance of the measure appeared to
impress the minds of Friends with proper
weight, and after imparting some feelings and
sentiments upon it, the subject was with entire
unanimity placed upon the minutes, and re-
ferred to a future Yearly Meeting.

At the conclusion of this matter, the clerk
stated that however painful, it was his duty to
inform the meeting, he had in his possession
a document purporting to be a communication
from a body calling itself the Indiana Yearly
Meeting of Anti-slavery Friends, which had
separated from Indiana Yearly Meeting.
Having just disposed of a proposition to insti-
tute a new Yearly Meeting, the great impor-
tance of which, and the caution and clearness
requisite to go into such a measure still rest-
ing upon the minds of Friends, the juncture
seemed peculiarly appropriate to introduce
such affecting intelligence, and but little time
or expression was needed to show that a com-
munication from persons, who had rent them-
selves from the Society, and in violation of the
order and practice of Friends, attempted to in-
stitute themselves a distinct Yearly Meeting,
could not be received.

By the records of the last year, was intro-
duced the proposal to alter the fourth Query,
which relates to the use of ardent spirits, so
as also to include fermented liquors; and it was
again given to a committee. Their report
stated it was the prevailing sense of the com-
mittee, that the change should be made, but
in condescension to those who were not pre-

pared, they proposed it should be deferred ; this
occasioned a protracted and earnest discussion,
in which it was manifest that while a part of
the meeting desired the alteration, not a few
were decidedly averse to it. After putting the
report on minute, the subject was dismissed.

Reports on the management and condition
of the Boarding School, the Murray Fund, aud
the joint committees of this and New England
Yearly Meeting, to meliorate the condition of
the Western Indians, were read; all of which
embraced points of interest. The latter was
accompanied with a detail of the statistics of
several tribes and bandsof Indians west of the
Mississippi river, who had been visited by two
of the conmiittee, and which it was expected
would be printed.

The subject of school education, and the
large proportion of Friends' children taught in
the district schools, occupied the attention of
the meeting some time. Although the diffi-
culties in giving them such a guarded educa-
tion, as it is essential to their preservation,
and the welfare of the Society they should
have, appeared to be insurmountable in most
places, yet it was the desire of many Friends
that persevering efforts should be made to
carry into eflect the concern which has long
been felt to place the children under tutors of
our own religious Society, where their suscep-
tible minds would be einbued with sound prin-
ciples, and their habits formed consistent with
our religious profession.

A minute of advice on the attendance of
meetings for Divine worship, was adopted, and
directed to be sent down to the subordinate
meetings, exhorting Friends to more fervent
and faithful dedication to this indispensable
duty, — to the cultivation of Christian love,
in which soil neither jealousies nor detrac-
tion could exist, — to greater redemption
from the love of the world, — and a tender and
steadfast discharge of parental duties in the
home education and training of their children
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord,
that a succession of standard bearers, through
His mercy and goodness may be raised
among us.

A dissertation on slavery, and some of its
evils, designed to inforce the relinquishment
of the use of the products of slave-labour, as
incompatible with our testimony against hold-
ing our fellow-men in bondage, was sent up in
the reports of one of the Quarters, which was
taken on record, and resulted in encouraging
every legitimate scruple on this point — leaving
the matter for attention another year.

After reading and approving Epistles to the
Yearly Meetings, and a pause of solemn re-
freshing silence, the meeting concluded on the
afternoon of the 2d instant, to meet next year,
if consistent with Divine permission.

It may be well to mention, as a reason
for the late appearance of the London Gene-
ral Epistle for 1842, inserted to-day, that we
were not in possession of a copy until within
a few days. It will nevertheless be accept-
able to many of our readers who have not
before met with it.



. For " The Friend."


This faithful minister and remarkable wo-
man died on the 16th of the Third month,
1842, at Sudbury, England, in the sixty-ninth
year of her age.

The following incidents of her early life
were related in this country by a Friend who
knew a(jd loved her.

An Irish Friend and his wife, more than
half a century ago, while attending a Yearly
Meeting in London, found a little girl with
■whom they were so much pleased, lliat they
had her bound to them, and took her home
with them to Ireland. This was Sarah Lynes.
After a time they found that she used to as-
semble the little children on First-day after-
noons, and preach to them ; which her mis-
tress forbade her doing. When quite young,
she would exiiort in family opportunities ; and
while yet a child in years in public meetings.
At about seventeen years of age, she was re-
commended as a minister.

At one time her master and mistress were
going to Dublin to attend the Half-Year's
Meeting, and she informed them she felt a
concern to go also. Her mistress would not
grant her consent, and they drove away with-
out her. Immediately upon their departure,
she dressed herself, packed up her bundle, put
on her bonnet, and placed herself at the front
door of the house. Her mistress had not pro-
ceeded far, before she felt so uneasy as to be
constrained to send back for Sarah. When
Dublin Half-Year's Meeting was over, she
thought she must go to the Yearly Meeting
of London, and in great fear mentioned it to
her mistress ; who positively denied permis-
sion. But Thomas Scattergood and George
Diihvyn being at Dublin, took the matter in
hand, and not only carried her with them to
London, but to some of the Quarterly Meet-
ings after its close.

Whilst yet quite young, she felt a concern
to go to the theatre, and there addressed the
multitude assembled. She several times spoke
at the market-places. She afterwards mar-
ried John Grubb.

In the London Yearly Meeting of 1832, she
came into the men's meeting, under a deep
sense of wrong things among some in high
standing, who, she said, would have to be

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 108 of 154)