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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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men, apprentices with D. Lee, a grocer and
tea-dealer in Drewsbury, were taking a short
walk down the side of the river Calder, their
master's ware-house dog, which was accom-
panying them, strayed into an adjoining field,
and on seeing an ass, which was grazing, sud-
denly fell upon it, worrying it in a most fero-
cious manner. A number of men being at a
short distance, and seeing the dog likely in a
short titne to worry the poor ass to death,
went and commenced a fierce attack upon the
dog with hedge stakes, but without succeeding
n getting him off' the ass, which he was muti-
lating in a shocking manner. A horse, belong-
ng to George Fell, of Earlsheaton, had wit-
nessed those proceedings evidently under most
itated feelings, and, as if conscious the poor
ass must perish unless he interfered, made a
rush through the hedge, cleared off the men
who were trying to liberate the ass, and in a
most furious manner seized the dog with his
teeth and dragged him off"; it is supposed he
would have despatched him in a few minutes.
When the horse had accomplished his feat, he,
with head and tail erect, scampered about the
ass in a noble and most dignified manner, as if
proud of having effected a mighty conquest, and
manifested evident tokens of pleasure, as if sen-
sibly feeling that he had performed an act of
benevolence. All who beheld this wonderful
deed of G. Fell's horse, were powerfully
struck with his evident intelligence and sym-
pathy for his fellow-brute. — Wakefield Jovr.

A Needle Manufacturer.— Among the curl-
ous things I was permitted to examine at Ha-
verstraw, nothing awakened so much interest
as the machinery for making needles,
every good housewife rejoice with me.
are no longer to be dependent on foreign coun-
tries for an article of such primary necessity
as needles. This, I am told, is the first at-
tempt of the kind in America, and is now
almost perfected. I saw needles in various
stages of the processes by which they are
made from the wire, prepared on the same
premises ; and was surprised at the facility
aflibrded by the curious machinery which hu-
man ingenuity has invented to lessen the
manual labour, and multiply the results of the
numerous operations. The wire is first cut
into lengths, which will make two needles
each, 'i'he depressions where the eyes aro
to be made, and where the grooves are found
in the finished article, are stamped in both
needles by a single stroke of the machine,
with which a single hand can turn oft'30,000 in
a day. It is then turned over to a boy, who,
with another machine, punches the eyes, and



Let
We



again another separates the two needles, and
smooths away any irregularities left or made
by the Ibrnier processes. But the eye of the
needle is still rough, and must be bored by
another process, which leaves it so smooth as
not to cut the thread. After this, a man
grinds a handful at a time on a common grind-
stone, holding them in his left hand, and
giving them a perpetual rotary motion with
the right, so that, when the operation is fin-
ished, they must be round as well as sharp.
They are now to be " case hardened," and
finally burnished, all which is done by simple
processes, in which immense numbers can be
subjected to the operation at the same time.
— Dr. Bond's Letters from Rockland.



Influence of Climate on the Frmtfvlness of
Plants.

The following article quoted from " a sen-
sible and eloquent American writer," we take
from the sixth number of the Farmer's Ency-
clopaedia. We have been delighted in its
perusal, and have no doubt our readers will
also enjoy it. There is a vein of sound phi-
losophy running through it, — an aptness of
illustration, and mellowness of feeling, which
characterize it, in our estimation, as of more
than ordinary interest. The writer might
have extended his speculations into the ani-
mal kingdom, and have been at no loss to pro-
duce numerous instances, corroborative of
similar views. — Farmer's Cabinet.

" The cultivated plants yield the greatest
products near the northernmost limit in which
they will grow.

" I have been forcibly impressed with this
fact, from observing the productions of the
various plants, which are cultivated for food
and clothing in the United States. The fol-
lowing instances will go far to establish the
principle.

" The cotton, which is a tropical plant,
yields the best staple and surest product in
the temperate latitudes. The southern parts
of the United Slates have taken the cotton
market from the East and West Indies, both
as regards quantity and quality. This is
partly owing to the prevalence of insects
within the tropics, but principally to the
forcing nature of a vertical sun. Such a de-
gree of heat developes the plant too rapidly —
runs it into wood and foliage, which become
injuriously luxuriant ; the consequence is, there
are but few seed pods, and these covered with
a thin harsh coat of wool. The cotton wool,
like the fur of animals, is, perhaps, designed
for protection ; and will be thick and fine in
proportion as the climate is warm or cool.
Another reason is to be found in the provi-
dence of the Deity, who aims to preserve races
rather than individuals, and multiplies the
seeds and eyes of plants, exactly as there is
danger of their being destroyed by the severity
of the climate, or other causes. When, there-
fore, the cares and labours of man counteract
the destructive tendency of the climate, and
guaranty their preservation, they are, of
course, more available and abundant.

" The lint plants, flax, hemp, &c.,are cult



THE FRIEND.

vated through a great extent of latitude, but
their bark, in the southern climates, is harsh
and brittle. A warm climate forces these plants
so rapidly into maturity, that the lint does not
acquire either consistency or tenacity. We
must go far north in Europe, even to the Bal-
tic, to find these plants in perfection, and their
products very merchantable. Ireland is rather
an exception as to latitude; but the influence
of the sun is so effectually counteracted there
by moisture and exposure to the sea air, that
it is always cool : hence, the flax and potato
arrive at such perfection in that region.

" It holds equally true in the farinaceous
plants. Rice is a tropical plant ; yet Carolina
and Georgia grow the finest in the world ;
heavier grained, better filled, and more merch-
antable, than any imported into Europe from
the Indies. The inhabitants of the East In-
dies derive their subsistence almost exclusively
from rice ; they must be supposed, therefore,
to cultivate it with all skill and care, and the
best contrivances for irrigation. Such is,
however, the forcing nature of their climate,
that the plant grows too rapidly, and dries
away before the grain be properly filled. In-
dian corn, or maize, if not a tropical plant,
was originally found near the tropics ; and
although it now occupies a wide range, it pro-
duces the heaviest crops near the northern
limit of its range. In the West Indies it
rises thirty feet in height; but with all that
gigantic size, it produces only a few grains
on the bottom of a spongy cob, and is counted
on only as rough provender. In the southern
part of the United Stales, it reaches a height
of fifteen feet, and will produce thirty bushels
to the acre ; in the rich lands of Kentucky
and the middle States, it produces fifty or
sixty bushels to the acre ; but in New York
and New England, agricultural societies have
actually awarded premiums for one hundred
and fifty bushels to the acre, collected from
stalks only seven feet high. The heats of a
southern sun develope the juices of this plant
too quickly. They run into culm and blade,
to the neglect of the seed, and dry away before
fructification becomes complete.

" Wheat is a more certain crop in New York,
the northern part of Pennsylvania, and Ohio,
and in the Baltic regions of Europe, than in
the south, either of Europe or America. In
the north, snows accumulate, and not only pro-
tect it from the winter colds, but from the
weevil, Hessian fly, and other insects that
invade it ; and in the spring it is not forced
too rapidly into head, without time to mature
fully, and concoct its farina.

" A cold climate also aids the manufacturing
of flour, preserving it from acidity, and enables
us to keep it long, either for a good market, or
to meet scarcities and emergencies. Oats
grow in almost every country; but it is in
northern regions only, or very moist or ele-
vated tracts, that they fill with farina suitable
for human sustenance. Rye, barley, buck-
wheat, millet, and other culmiferous plants,
might be adduced to illustrate the above prin-
ciple ; for all their habits require a more north-
ern latitude than is necessary to their mere
growth.

" The grasses are proverbially in perfection,



299

only in northern and cool regions, although
they will grow every where. It is in the north
alone, that we raise animals from meadows,
and are enabled to keep them fat and in good
condition, from hay and grass alone, without
grain. It is there the grasses acquire a suc-
culence and consistency enough, not only to
mature animals, but to make the richest butter
and cheese, that contribute so much to the
tables of the luxurious. The grasses which
so often in the south grow large enough, are
without richness and nutriment ; in hay, they
have no substance ; and w hen green, are too
washy to fatten animals ; the consequence is,
most animals in those latitudes, browse from
necessity, and are poor, and without size or
beauty. It is the same hot sun which forces
them to a rapid fructification, before they have
had time to concoct their juices. The sugar-
cane produces, perhaps, better where it never
seeds, than in the tropics ; for the juices will
never ripen so as to granulate, until checked
by frost or fructification. In the tropics, the
cane grows twenty months before the juices
ripen ; and then the culm has contracted a
woody, fibrous quality, to such a degree as to
resist the pressure of the mills, and yields but
little juice, and that to an increased effort. In
Louisiana, we succeed well with the sugar
culture; because, while the culm is succulent
and tender, a white frost checks the growth,
ripens the juices, and in five months gives us
a culm, tender, full of juice, easy to press, and
yielding much grain of sugar. When Louisi-
ana, therefore, acquires all the necessary skill,
she will most probably grow this article cheap-
er than the West Indies.

" Tobacco is a southern plant, but there it is
always light and chaffy ; and although often
well ffavoured, it never gains that strong nar-
cotic quality which is its only peculiar pro-
perty, unless you grow it as far north as Vir-
ginia. In the south, the heat unfolds its bud
or germ too soon, forces into full expansion the
leaf, and drives it to seed before the narcotic
quality can be properly elaborated. We may
assert a general rule applicable to all annual
plants, that neither the root, nor the leaf,
acquires any further size or substance after
fructification.

" The tuberose, bulbous, and other roots,
cultivated for human and animal subsistence,
are similarly affected by climate, and manifest
habits in corroboration of the above principle.
The Irish potato, although from or near the
tropics, will not come to perfection but in
northern or cool countries, or in moist, insular
situations, as Ireland. It is in such climates
alone, that its roots acquire a farinaceous con-
sistence, and have size, flavour, and nutriment
enough to support, in the eminent way in
which they are susceptible, animal life. In
the south, a forcing sun brings the potato to
fructification before the roots have had time
to attain their proper size, or ripen into the
proper qualities for nourishment. In Ireland
the plant grows slow, through a long and cool
season, giving time for its juices to be elabo-
rated and properly digested ; hence that fine
farina and flavour which characterize them.
The sweet potato produces larger, better fla-
voured, and more numerous roots in Carolina,



300



THE FKIE.XD.



where it never flowers, than in the West In-
dies. In the latter place this plant runs wild,
covers the whole tace of the earth with its
vines, and is so taken up in making foliage,
that the root Incomes neglected, and is small
and woody. In order to have the onion in
perfection, it must grow through two years,
swelling all the time its bulbs. In the south,
however, it seeds in one year, and before it
has made much bulb. Beets, carrots, pars-
nips, turnips, radishes, and other roots, are
equally aflected by a hot sun, and scarcely
worth cultivating far to the south. They all
fructify before they have formed perfect roots,
and make foliage at the expense of their bulbs;
hence they will always be articles of com-
merce ; the south will have to depend upon
the north for them."

(To be concluded.)



Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. — We are
gratified to stale that the Board of Directors
of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road Company
have given permission to Professor Morse to
use the track of the Washington road for the
purpose of carrying out the intentions of the
act of Congress in reference to his important
invention of the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph.
One station of the telegraph will be at some
appropriate place in the city of Washington,
and the other in the city of Baltimore, and the
communication between them will be effected
b\' properly prepared wires laid along the line
of the rail-road. The object of this arrange-
ment is to prove what Professor M. has already
most satisfactoril}' shown on a less extended
scale, that the length of the line of communi-
cation presents no obstacle whatever to the
instant transmission of intelligence between
the two extremes either by day or night. We
predict for this ardent votary of science the
triumphant success that he so well merits. —
Baltimore American.



To Gardeners. — If you wish to preserve
your cabbages from the ravages of the cut
worm, hill up the plant until the bud is cover-
ed with earth half an inch deep, which will
not injure the plant. Be sure to let the main
leaves stand up out of the ground. The worm
will then cut off the stems of the leaves instead
of cutting down the stalk, and the bud will
soon grow out of the ground uninjured by the
covering. This plan has been tried with suc-
cess in this place, when every other effort to
preserve the plants had failed. — Dahlonega
Times.



" The growth of men, animals, and trees,"
says Dr. Gregory, " is a daily miracle. We
do not, from its being common, feel all the
wonder it ought to inspire, but it is growth
that distinguishes, in a most striking manner,
the works of the Almighty from those of man.
The steam-engine, and all the noblest cre-
ations of science, as they leave the work-
man's hands, must forever remain in the same
state. It is for the Deity alone to give an ob-
ject, once formed, the power of growing and
of increase." — Dr. Gregory.



For " Th« f rieuu."

THE CL-OUDS.

' I have often humbly desired that I might he kept as si
luissive to (he Creator, us the clouds, ivliich he rais4:s a
tills with water, when he pleases, to pour forth showers
the earth, aud then pass into nothingness again." — Bariia

Gauze-like — devoid of form or will,
The valours on the wind are thrown,

Now eddying wild — now idly slill —
Now into forms tanlaslic blown.

Obedient to llie high command,

They marshal at the sovereign word ;
Weep gentle showers upon the land,

Or fly wJiere tempests wild are heard.
When the warm sun is in the sky,

Wlien not a zephyr moves the tree,
O'er vegetation parched and dry,

They cast no varying drape; y.

When mists rise upwards from the earth,
To fill tlic clouds that float on high,

They give the very blessing birth,

Thai does Iheir thirsty want supply : —

So incense from the heart that springs,

Rising belbre the throne above,
A sofX returning blessing brings.

In answer to its gilt of love.

Fuilh never casts a look on high,

But it receives fresh strength Irom thence ;

The burlhened heart ne'er vtnis a sigh.
But finds returning recompense.

Our Father walketh on the wind,
The clouds are chariots of his will ;

He chooseth — they are unconfincd —
He willeth — they at once are slill I

How awful when his chariot wheels

In thunders roll above the world,
When in the lightning he reveals

His power, » here shivering bolls are hurled 1

But, gently on the softened heart.

Rise gold-liinged clouds of summer even.

Gathering the thought troin earth apart,
And lilting to repose in heaven !

When glows the west with glorious fires.
The setting sun half hid Irom sight,

While upwards shoot the golden wires,
And hovering clouds have molten light, —

The enraptured heart, in fancy's glow.

As gloriously the scene is spread,
Could almost deem this radiant show,

Light from the golden city shed !

The object of their mission done,
The emptied clouds melt fast away,

Obediently they one by one,
The signal of tiieir Lord obey.

So wait his ministers to feel,

The quickening virtue fill the breast;

What he atiords them they reveal, —
Their purpose done, they sink to rest.

And haply, like the beauteous cloud,
Floating above the things of earth.

They raise the vision of the crowd.
Giving to heavenly longings birth.

And oft, when life is at its close,

Hope gilds the evening of their day : —

They shed a mellow light lor those.
Who follow where they lead the way !

He forms them for his blessed will,

He sends them, — and Ihcy gladly fly ;—

He beckons — they with virtue fill ;
He empties — they are weak and dry ;

They pour upon the earth his rain.

Then " pass to nothingness again !"



I Potatoes. — The Richmond Compiler give*
us the following circumstance connected with
the history of this valuable esculent. It says,
" X friend has sent us an old and queer look-
ing book, entitled ' The ancient and present
state of the county and city of Cork,' iSic, by
! Charles Smith, M. D. By a turned down
I leaf, we are directed to a paragraph in it rela-
jliiig to the introduction of potatoes into Ire-
I land. As we suppose, all know this vegetable
was transported from this country, where it
was in use by the Indians, to Ireland, by Sir
Waller Raleigh, and we learn from this old
book that he landed at Cork, where the first
potatoes were planted. The book says, ''J'he
person who planted them, imagining that the
apple which grows on the stalk was the part
to be used, gathered them ; but not liking the
taste, neglected the roots till the ground being
dug afterwards to sow some other grains, the
potatoes were discovered therein ; and to the
great surprise of the planter, greatly increas-
ed ; from those few, this country was furnish-
ed with seed.' "



A Colony of Ltinaiics. — A paper on insa-
nity was lately read by M. Moreau to the
French Academy of Science, recommending
the adoption in France of the Belgian mode
of treating pauper lunatics. In the village of
Gheel, in Belgium, it seems there is a colony
of 700 lunatics, established in the si.\th cen-
tury. These unfortunate creatures are treated
upon so admirable a system that they are per-
fectly harmless, and labour willingly in agri-
culture and manufactures. They become so
fond of their mode of life, that when cured
they are unwilling to Cjuit the place. In most
of the Asylums in this country such milder
methods have entirely superseded the old sys-
tem of coercion, and insanity is thus divested
of its greatest terrors.



Righteovs Decision. — Judge Mullanphy, of
Saint Louis, has decided that the constitution
of the United States guarantees to all persons
born in the United States, the right to enter
and reside in the State of Missouri without
reference to colour. The question arose upon
an appeal taken from the Recorder's Court
at St. Louis, by a free negro who had been
apprehended and fined for living in the state
without a license — the statute of 18;35 pro-
hibiting free negroes to reside there without
a license.

This decision is in the true spirit of the
constitution, and presents a gratifying con-
trast to the slavish spirit that pervades the
social action of the Southern States generally,
in relation to the rights of free men of colour.
We hope that the time will soon come when
the rights of all persons under the constitu-
tion will be maintained in despite of the op-
pressive legislation of particular states. —
Philad. Gaz.



Camellias. — A Parisian florist, famed for
his camellias, it is said, sells £500 worth
of that flower alone, during the season for
bouquets.



THE FRIEND.



301



For •■ The Friend."
GUAKDED EDUCATION.

The subjoined remarks are handed to the
editor for insertion in " The Friend," without
the authority of the venerable writer, a mem-
ber of New York Yearly Meeting. If they
tend to arouse the feelings and efibrts of the
readers in the cause of a sound, moral, reli-
gious and literary education, he will doubtless
approve of the liberty taken with his valuable
hints.

My mind was cheered in learning that your
Yearly Meeting had appointed a committee to
extend a general influence for the promotion
of a guarded education, hoping that their ser
vices may not be limited to schools. Within
forty years, great progress has been made in
instituting seminaries of learning amongst
Friends; but I am not certain that there is a
proportionate increase of disposition amongst
the young people to become consistent
Friends. I believe that a wiile field of labour
for our Society is ready for harvest in the
promotion of home improvement, more espe-
cially as regards the choice of reading for
the young, before the time of life when preju-
dices are apt to obstruct the good work of
imbuing their minds with the contents of the
Scriptures and the edifying matter of Friends'
books. From my observation, I am persuaded,
that in general the present family reading, in
some circles, is more calculated to alienate
than to make Friends of the children. Great
attention is given by other persuasions, in
issuing small volumes in an attractive form
for young readers. Those I see in the fami-
lies of Friends where I call. By a general
co-operation we could furnish those of a far
better quality; and, at the same time, an in-
fluence might be exerted on parents to awaken
and encourage them to a proper care in this
respect. We have had Bible and Tract Asso-
ciations, but some Friends being opposed to
all associations, independent of meetings for
discipline, they have declined. Should your
education committee devise a plan on as broad
a base as that of Friends' Library, and annu-
ally furnish every Preparative Meeting, with
a list of the books, and append to it a list of
the Bibles and Tracts published by Friends,
it is reasonable to suppose, that the plan
would be generally patronized, and have a
uniting and salutary effect. The usual volumes
of Friends' books are far less attractive to
children, than small neat volumes with inviting
titles, and especially adapted to their use.

The reports now received on schools, as
usual, represent a majority of our children
exposed in the district schools, where the
Scriptures are generally excluded, and the
reading books abound with history, and other
lessons calculated to excite the martial spirit;
those too find their way into some of our
schools ; while the most of home reading is, 1
presume, newspapers, and other publications
not favourable to Quakerism.

This state of things has induced me to pub-
lish many small things for children which
have been extensively circulated, to my relief
and satisfaction ; and, as far as I know, to the
general acceptance of both parents and chil-
dren ; but I am now too old to continue the



feeble endeavour, yet my sympathy with the
rising generation, and interest in our religious
Society remains strong, so that it would be a
great relief to my declining moments, to see
a general plan in operation lor furnishing
such reading as will be inviting and edifying
to the precious children, and means used to
awaken the attention of parents in co-operating
with the concern and efforts of the Society.



For " The Friend."
HANNAH SCARNELL.

The Annual Monitor or Obituary of the
Members of the Society of Friends in Great
Britain and Ireland, for 1842, notices the de-
cease of Hannah Scarnall, of Earlham, near
Norwich, aged eighty years, and gives the



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 111 of 154)