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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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truth of appeal, or the moral lesson which it
taught. — Dr. Jones's Lecture.



The Knife Grinder. — All here remember,
no doubt, the little knife grinder with his large
black mastitrthat drew his grinding apparatus
about, in whose proceedings we used to take
interest. We are never to see him more. He
has quit knife grinding, emancipated his dog
forever from harness, and with him and his
wife — who was a silent partner in the concern
— gone to France, his native land, there to
pass the evening of his days, and to lay his
bones after death. He took with him some
S10,000(!) a sum that will enable him to live
most easily and comfortably in France ; and
we are glad to learn this; for after travelling
from Maine to Georgia and hack, perhaps
more than once, grinding his way through all
sorts of weather, he deserves rest; and we are
further gratified to learn that his faithful dog,
who shared in his toils, will now share his
luxury and ease.

Another fact in the history of our no longer
" needy knife grinder," which is interesting,
as well for the filial affection it displays in him,



as for the instance it offers in illustration of
French character, is the following: when he
departed from France with his wife, to come
to America, his mother remained behind him.
When his wealth became so great that he
determined to give up his vocation, inclining to
settle in America, he sent for her. But she
clung to France, and would not come away to
join her son. His affection for the old lady
changed his whole plan : he took passage in
the next ship for France, and with his wife
and dog, and gold, set sail, and long since
safely reached the end of his voyage ; mother,
son, wife and dog, are all, no doubt, quietly
and happily living together, enjoying, in a
manner unknown to any but a French family,
the fruits of the labours of the knife grinder
and his dog in America. — Long life to them I
Richmond Compiler.

A Profitable Refection. — If winter height-
ens our enjoyment of spring, summer, and
autumn, let us be thankful for winter. If the
darkness of the night enhances, in our estima-
tion, the brightness of the day, let us be
thankful for the midnight gloom. Nothing
can be clearer than that the shade is as neces-
sary as the shine, and deprivation as salutary
as enjoyment. The trials and perplexities of
life are an essential part of God's mercies ;
and a Christian man should never ponder on
the gloom of earth, without contrasting it with
the glory of heaven. — Old Humphrey.



Poverty. — Be not ashamed to be, or be es-
teemed poor in this world ; for he that hears
God teaching him, will find that it is the best
wisdom to withdraw all our affections from
secular honour and troublesome riches, and to
place them upon eternal treasures, and by
patience, by humility, by suffering scorn and
contempt, and the will of God, to get the true
riches. — Jeremy Taylor.



" We earnestly caution and entreat all such
among you, as find themselves concerned to
exhort and admonish others, that they be espe-
cially careful of their own conduct ; that by
circumspect-walking in all holiness of life
and conversation, they may become living
examples of the purity and excellence of the
advices they recommend." — Advices, 1748.



THE FRZEND.



EIGHTH MONTH, 19, 1843.



It is known to those conversant with the
history of the times, that after the noble and
magnanimous act of the British government,
abolishing slavery in its West India colonies,
that there still remained a vast amount of sla-
very and cruel oppression within the limits of
its Asiatic possessions. To remove this enor-
mous weight of evil, the energies of British
philanthropists have with increased vigour
been directed for several years past, and me-
morials and petitions to Parliament, and
appeals to the people have been urgently and



abundantly pressed, 'i'he British and Foreign
Anti-Slavery Reporter of Seventh mo. l:;ith,
now before us, contains an abstract of the
report of the committee of the British and
Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, presented to
the public meeting held in Exeter Hall on the
21sl of Sixth month last, from which we ex-
tract as follows: —

" 'i"he committee have now the satisfaction
of laying before their friends the copy of an
act which has become law, in which it will be
seen that the assurance of the government has
been fully realized. It is as follows: —

" An act for declaring and amending the
law regarding the condition of slavery within
the territories of the East India Company.

" 1. It is hereby enacted and declared, that
no public officer shall, in execution of any de-
cree or order of court, or for the enforcement
of any demand of rent or revenue, sell, or
cause to be sold any person, or the right to
the compulsory labour or services of any per-
son, on the ground that such person is m a
slate of slavery.

" 2. And it is hereby declared and enacted,
that no rights arising out of an alleged pro-
perty in the person and services of another,
as a slave, shall be enforced by any civil or
criminal court or magistrate, within the terri-
tories of the East India Company.

" 3. And it is hereby declared and enacted,
that no person who may have acquired pro-
perty by his own industry, or by the exercise
of any calling, art, or profession, or by inher-
itance, assignment, gilt, or bequest, shall be
dispossessed of such property, or prevented
from tak.ing possession thereof, on the ground
that such person, or that the person from
whom the property may have been derived,
was a slave.

" 4. And it is hereby enacted, that any act
which would be a penal offence, if done to a free
man, shall be equally an offence if done to any
person on the pretext of his being in a condi-
tion of slavery."

Appended to this are the following re-
marks : —

" By this act, slavery is legally abolished in
British India; and if it be followed up, as we
sincerely trust it will be, by a firm and con-
scientious determination, on the part of the
authorities, to give it a positive and practical
effect, it will be worthy of being recorded
among the greatest events in modern history.
Millions thereby will be emancipated from a
bondage which reckons its existence by cen-
turies; millions will be born free, who other-
wise would have followed the degraded condi-
tion of their parents; and millions more, born
free, will be prevented from becoming slaves
by sale and purchase, to perpetuate that sys-
tem of cruelty and sin."

London Friend and British Friend.
Persons wishing to procure either of the
above papers, can be supplied, by sending their
address, and remitting to George W. Taylor,
No. 50 North Fourth street, free of expense
to him, one dollar and seventy-five cents, per
copy, per year.



For " The Friend."
LETTERS OF S. FOTIIEKGILL.

I forward two of the letters of Samuel Foth-
ergill, written soon after his reformation, ex-
tracted from G. Crostield's Memoirs, &.C., of
his life. T.

Samuel Folhergill to John Kouth.

llth of Twelfth mo., 1736-7.

I write to thee as to one who art regarded
by the Almighty, and who hast, by regarding
that visitation, which I too long slighted, been
preserved from the snares and temptations of
the enemy, and hast, though young in years,
attained to a good stature in the Truth ; which,
oh! that it may be my chief care to press
after, to seek, far above all, is at present, and
I hope will continue to be, the earnest intent
of my heart ; and though I find it my place
often to be brought low, and very poor, as it
is at present, yet I desire to wait my appointed
time, until he please to dispel those darksome
clouds, which, at limes, bring me yet near to
a melancholy drooping state.

But I desire to be entirely resigned to his
will ; that he may, if he please, again and
again turn his hand upon me, until he hath
purged away all my dross, and made me what
best pleases him, and not myself nor others.
But the Lord, who has done wonderful things
for my deliverance, has mercifully regarded
and reached unto me, while in a state of open
defiance to his tenderly-striving Spirit.

Samuel Fothergiil.
Samuel Fothergiil to his Sister.

Warrington, Second mo. 9lh, 1737,

I could have been glad to have written
few lines to thee, but considering the distance
my past behaviour had justly placed me at,
iu respect to my friends and relations' favour,
I was somewhat doubtful of its kind reception,
But, dear sister, I have found it is the want of
inward peace that is more grievous than the
want of my friends' favour, though that be very
desirable. I found, upon examining my state,
that I was upon the very brink of destruction
and ruin, and it pleased the Lord to kindle in
my soul earnest desires to be delivered from
my dreadful condition, which the Lord in
mercy showed to me as it really was, thereby
bringing me into deep and unutterable anxiety
of soul, that I often was ready to conclude my
transgressions were more and greater than
any one's else, and my state worse than any
ever were in before. Oh ! the anguish of that
day, the weight of sorrow I daily laboured
under was more than I can express, or any
not acquainted with the operation of the Spi-
rit of judgment and of burning can conceive.

It is like repeating an idle story to any that
are unacquainted with it; but I have a differ-
ent opinion of thee, and thou hast, I hope,
known a degree of the heart-cleansing power
of Truth, thou thou hast been preserved from
those pollutions that hinder us from beinn-
properly acquainted with the Almighty, and
finding thereby love and solid peace. But
through infinite mercy I can now say, with a
humbly thankful heart, it was a repentance
never to be repeated of; for notwithstanding



THE FRIEND.

my open rebellion and defiance to the ten-
derly-striving Spirit of grace, that long strove
with me, in order for my recovery, I have, in
degree, witnessed favour from the Almighty,
and the knowledge of acceptance with him,
which is more to me than any thing else.
Great is my reason to be humbly thankful for
his many mercies, which my soul desires
never to be unmindful of, but, by a yet more
humble walking, and closer seeking after him,
seek to redeem my former misspent and lost
time, by redoubling my diligence, with hum-
ble thankfulness to press after him to find my
peace. Yet more and more confirmed, now the
Lord has given me to know they are not yet
hid from my eyes, but yet may be in a greater
degree attained, upon my humble resignation
to his Divine will, and proper and frequent
application to him for the further discoveries
of It, and strength to perform it acceptably to
him. Many yet continue to be the deep and
humbling times I go through; many the anx-
ieties of soul I have to pass under ; yet the
Lord in mercy is at times helping me over
every thing that would hinder my spiritual
progress, and giving me to find times of re-
i'reshment in his Divine presence. Oh ! that
it may be our care, dear sister, to seek pro-
perly after him, in order to find renewing of
strength, and acquaintance with him, that we
may thereby witness strength to withstand the
enemy of our souls, in all his attempts. May
it continue to be my care, above all things, in
true thankfulness, to wait for his appearance,
though it may be at times as a refiner with
fire, and as a purifier of silver. May^e suf-
fer him to work effectually in our hearts;
great will be our satisfaction thereby to wit-
ness that the Lord's regard is to us, and his
love is near to us. I cannot with too great
earnestness recommend this to both our con-
sideration and practice, as one knowing the
judgment of the Lord for sin, and by his help,
a learning to forsake it, and following him in
the ways of his requiring; this brings a true
and lasting peace. May I seek after him again
and again, and enter into covenant with him ;
if he will but indeed be with me in my way,
and direct me aright, I will fully follow him.
So marvellous and wonderful is the goodness
of God to my soul, I cannot sufficiently admire
it, nor too often repeat it, for I am as a monu-
ment of that mercy that would have none lost,
but that all should come to the saving know-
ledge of himself.

Samuel Fothergill.



ANTIQUARIAN



For '• Tlie Friend."
RESEARCHES



Among the Earhj Printers and Publishers of
Friends' Books.
When George Fox first believed himself
called on to address the community in which
he lived, through the medium of the press,
there were none among the printers or book-
sellers who held with him in religious faith.
In the commotions consequent upon the over-
throw of Charles First, the restriction on the
press was abolished, and each one published, at
his pleasure, without fear or control. It was



373

in the year 1G03 that George first appeared
as an author; but as I have been unable to
find a copy of the original edition of either of
the four works he published,! have no means
of ascertaining who was the bookseller or
printer. Of his publications issued in the year
1653, I have met with several. They all
have in the title page, " Printed for Giles
Calvert, and sold at his shop, at the Black-
spread Eagle, at the west end of Pauls."
George Fox had not yet visited London, and
the agent employed in getting at least one of
his works printed appears to have been Isabel
Buttery, who, towards the close of 16.53, had,
with a companion, passed from the north of
England to that city on religious service.
They held " private meetings at Robert
Dring's house in Watling street, and at Simon
Driiig'sin Moorfields; where they did now and
then speak a few words." (William Crouch's
Memoirs.) Alexander Delamain, in a letter
under date of Fourth mo. 20th, 1654, (Letters
of Early Friends, page 9,) writes to Thomas
VV'illan,of Kendall, that on the previous First-
day, Isabel Buttery, and a maid of Robert
Dring's, were arrested, whilst returning from
Westminster to the meeting of Friends at
Simon Dri.Tg's. He says, " they were com-
mitted for letting people have their books,
which our Friends have been moved to pub-
lish. Isabel bid me inform our Friends that
there are some books to be sent down. 'The
Way to the Kingdom,' [written by George
Fox,] with an addition to it, is come forth.
Send by the next post where they shall be sent
to, and by whom, and to wiiom."

Giles Calvert continued to publish and sell
Friends' books from 1653 to 1659. The pub-
lications with his imprint, during these six
years, are very numerous. In the years 1658
and 1659 several books were printed for Mary
Westwood, and to be sold at the Black-spread

Of the religious opinions or personal his-
tory of this first publisher of Friends' books I
find no trace ; and am inclined to believe, that
he never became a member of the religious
Society, whose works he caused to be circu-
lated so widely. In 1659, his book-store, per-
haps rendered vacant by his death, was taken
by Robert Wilson, who continued to publish
the same kind of books. His imprint was,
" Printed for Robert Wilson, at the Black-
spread Eagle and Winde-Mill, in Martin's,
near Aldersgate." In 1662, the press was
shackled, by the appointment of Licensers,
without whose approbation the law prohibited
ihe publication of any work. As these Licen-
sers would scarcely ever sanction any religious
writings of dissenters, such for the next
twenty years were rarely published with
either the bookseller or printer's name attach-
ed. A few books put forth in 1663 have the
imprint of Robert Wilson.

In the year 1655, William Crouch says,
" The Lord having encreased the number of
his people, about this time, some part of an
ancient great house, or building within Al-
dersgate, was taken for a meeting-place, the
other part of it, with a yard, being made a
public inn, for carriers and travellers ; which
having fjr a sign the Bull and Mouth, occa-



37-



THB FKIEND.



eioiied the meeting held there to be known
and distinguished by the name of Bull and
-Mouth." Somewhere in this building Thomas
Simmons, from 1656 to \0&i, had a book
store, from which he vended many Friends'
books. His imprint was, " London, printed
for Thomas Simmons at the Bull and Mouth,
near Aldersgate." During the years from
1656 to 1660, he appears to have published
the greater proportion of the writings put forth
by members of our religious Society. It would
seem that Thomas Simmons was not a mem-
ber himself, and that he was publisher for
Richard Baxter. John Dunton, who has left
a description of the publishers and printers
who flourished in London from 168:2 to 1700,
thus speaks of Thomas Simmons: —

" He, as well as his father, printed for the
famous Baxter, and was a most accomplished
bookseller. His conjugal virtues have de-
served to be set as an example to the primi-
tive age ; they approach so near to singularity
in our's, that I can scarce speak of his love to
his wife, witiiout a satire upon others. If any
difference is, it is who of the two shall be
most obliging ; so that if all be true that I
have heard of them, I am ready to conclude
they are a pair of angels sent below to make
marriage amiable in their persons. And lastly,
if I consider him as a father, how tender he is
of his children ! He takes care to form the
minds of his daughters by the principles of
virtue, and to set out his sons in the fair way
to heaven ; and none are too great to follow
this pious example, for it is the duty of pa-
rents, from the highest to tlie lowest, to see
their children brought up in the fear of God."

The next bookseller in course who I find
engaged in the publication and sale of Friends'
writings is " Thomas Brewster, at the three
Bibles by Pauls." He published several in
the year 16.t9. He was no Friend, and con-
cerning his after-life, I find the following in-
formation. In the year 1663, a publication
appeared in London, entitled " A Treatise of
the Execution of Justice, is as well the peo-
ple's as the magistrates' duty ; and if the ma-
gistrates prevent judgment, then the people are
bound, by the law of God, to execute judg-
ment without them, and upon them." This
work was supposed to be written in justifica-
tion of the execution of King Charles First.
For the publication of this book, John Twynn,
printer, was indicted for high treason, and
Thomas Brewster, bookseller, Simon Dover,
printer, and Nathan Brooks, book-binder, for
misdemeanors. Twynn was condemned, and
after barbarous mutilations of the body, was
executed. The other three, who were also
indicted for publishing the dying speeches and
prayers of the judges, who were put to death
for passing sentence on Charles First, were
treated more leniently. The following speech
was made by Chief Justice Hyde on the occa-
sion.

" You three, Thomas Brewster, Simon Do-
ver, and Nathan Brooks ; you have been seve-
rally indicted for a heinous and great offence.
Brewster, you have been indicted for two seve-
ral books, as full of villany, and slander, and
reproach to the king and government, as pos-
sibly can bo. And I will tell you all three, it



is the king's great mercy you have not been
indicted capitally ; for every one of these are
books filled with treason, and you for publish-
ing of them, by strictness of law, have for-
feited your lives and all to the king. It is his
clemency towards you. You may see the
king's purposes; he desires to reform, not to
ruin his subjects. The press is grown so com-
mon, and men take the boldness to print what-
ever is brought to them, let it concern whom
it will, it is high time examples be made. 1
must let you and all men know, by the course
of the common law, before this new act was
made, for a printer, or any other, under the
pretence of printing, to publish that which is
a reproach to the king — to the stale — to his
government — to the church — nay, to a par-
ticular person, it is punishable as a misde-
meanor. He must not say he knew not what
was in it ; that is no answer in law, I sptak
this, because I would have men avoid this for
time to come, and not to think to shelter them-
selves under such a pretence. I will not
spend time in discoursing of the nature of the
offence, it hath been declared already ; it is
so high, that truly the highest punishment that
by law may be justly inflicted, is due to you.
But, Thomas Brewster, your offence is double :
therefore, the judgment of the court is,

" That you shall pay to the king, for these
offences committed, an hundred marks. And
for you, the other two, Simon Dover and Na-
than Brooks, you shall pay, either of you, a
fine of forty marks to the king.

" You shall, each of you, severally, stand
upon the pillory, from eleven to one of the
clock, in one place at the Exchange, and an-
other day (the same space of time) in Smith-
field ; and you shall have a paper set over
your hats, declaring your offence, for printing
and publishing scandalous, treasonable, and
factious books against the king and state.

" You shall be committed till the next goal
delivery, without bail ; and then you shall
make an open confession and acknowledgment
of your offences in such words as shall be
directed you.

" And afterwards you shall remain prison-
ers during the king's pleasure. And when
you are discharged, you shall put in good se-
curity by recognizances, yourself 400/. a-piece,
and two securities, each of you of 200Z. a-piece,
not to print or publish any books but such as
shall be allowed of."

N. E.

(To be continued.)



For "The Friend."

The Society of Friends and Abolition.
It has become common of latter time, for
rsons calling themselves abolitionists, and
who seem disposed to appropriate to them-
selves and their party whatever credit is due
to pleading the cause of the slave, to assail the
Society of Friends with various accusations,
culated to make the impression that it has
changed its ground, and from an opponent of
lavery, has become one of its favourers.
These charges have been suffered to pass un-
answered ; partly because the uniform course



jof the Society is a standing practical contra-
diction of them; and partly because their
improbability would deprive them of their in-
tended effect among such as were acquainted
with the proceedings of the Society, and the
{character which it has nobly sustained for
nearly a century as the firm and unflinching
advocate of the cause of the oppressed negro.

There is some danger, however, that charges
which are suffered to be again and again re-
peated, without contradiction, however im-
probable or unfounded in themselves, or ques-
tionable as to the source whence they origi-
nate, may obtain a degree of credit ; and they
therefore demand a notice, of which they would
otherwise be wholly unworthy.

It is painful to those who sincerely wish
success to the righteous cause of negro eman-
cipation, to see its pretended advocates spend-
ing their time and strength in dealing out
unfounded accusations against those, who dif-
fer from Ihem in opinion, as to the mode by
which this great work may best be promoted.
If we look through the abolition papers of the
present day, we shall find many of them dis-
figured with acrimonious reflections upon other
abolitionists, who happen not to belong to the
party in whose interest the papers may chance
to be, and who are dealt with in terras of
reproof or censure, little if any less severe
than the slave-holder himself. Truth and
Christian charily are alike sacrificed in order
to prop a parly, or carry out some favourite
notion, while the enemies of the cause of free-
dom are presented with a spectacle calculated
to strengthen them in their views, and to fur-
nish matter for exultation and triumph.

At the late anti-slavery convention held in
London, we learn that several of the speakers,
and especially Arnold Buffum, made a variety
of statements derogatory to the reputation of
the religious Society of Friends in America,
in reference to the subject of slavery.

If the views those persons entertain on that
subject permit them tlius publicly to assail, not
merely individual character, but that of a large
body of Christian professors, who were not
present to defend themselves, they must be at
variance with the plainest precepts of the
gospel, by the influence of which alone we can
hope to see slavery and the slave-trade abol-
ished. Can we availingly ask the slave-hold-
er to practice toward the suffering negro the
benign precept of the Saviour, " Whatsoever
ye would that men should do to you, do ye



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 138 of 154)