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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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interests, that they keep a constant eye upon



their plants, and live, eat, and sleep in their
gardens. Their food consists of dry bread,
onions, and sometimes warm cabbage-broth,
which they cook in the open air, or under their
wretched tents. Whenever a sunbeam peeps
from behind the clouds, the mats are removed,
so that the plants n)ay benefit by the genial
fresh air ; and at every shower of hail or fall
of snow they are again covered up. In this
manner the little green-house is pulled to
pieces and reconstructed twenty times in a
day. In spring, when the weather becomes
somewhat milder, the gardeners sleep in the
open air, wrapped in their sheep-skins, and
covered with straw mats, so that they may be
in readiness to adopt the requisite precautions
against frost. A thermometer would be use-
less to these people. They employ one of their
own invention, which not only clearly marks
the freezing point, but, at the same time,
awakens the sleeper, and reminds him of his
duty. On lying down to rest, they leave one
foot uncovered by the sheep-skin, and exposed
to the air; the foot, therefore, is frostbitten
as soon as the plant, and whenever the gard-
ener feels the tingling pain, he starts up to tend
his plants. I once asked a German gardener
how it happened that the Germans could not
equal the Russians in the production of early
vegetables. " Because," replied he, " the Ger-
mans cannot live like dogs."

But though the Russians are such active
and watchful cultivators of onions and cab-
bages, yet they are by no means adepts in sci-
entific gardening. Indeed all the superior
kind of gardening in Russia is in the hands of
the Germans; and, throughout the whole em-
pire, all pleasure-grounds and ornamental plan-
tations are exclusively consigned to the super-
intendence of German taste and science. It is
a singular fact, and a subject of general re-
mark, that the Russians, who make such
wonderfully successful beginnings in any art or
craft, cannot gradually advance in dexterity,
till they approximate to something like per-
fection. A Russian carpenter, with his sim-
ple three-toothed saw, will work with wonder-
ful expertness, using his rude implement, not
merely as a saw, but also as an axe, a gimlet,
a plane, &c. ; but place a regular set of car-
penter's tools in his hands, even of the best
English make, and he will shatter them to
pieces without producing any good work. In
like manner, give a Russian a musket, in the
space of a couple of weeks he will be a tho-
rough exercised soldier; give him a flute, and
in fourteen days he will be able to play a part
in the band ; give him a pen, and in a fort-
night he will be a tolerably fair writer; but
he will never be a virtuoso, an improver, or a
reformer in any art.

The Russians are the cleverest traders in



378

the world, but they never rise to the height of
great merchants, speculators, and bankers. If
I wanted any work executed cleverly and expe-
ditiously — if, for example, my travelling car-
riage broke down on a country road, and I
possessed the wishing-cap of Fortunatus, I
could not think of any thing more desirable
than to summon a few Russians. They would,
to a certainty, very speedily and expertly re-
pair the damage, whatever might be its extent,
and place the carriage in a condition to con-
vey me to the next stage, or even further if 1
required it. The Russians have talent and
aptitude for any thing, but no genius. They
are endowed, in a high degree, with pliant and
ready dexterity, but they are incapable of fol-
lowing up any undertaking with active perse-
verance and energy. 'I'hey commence an
agreeable task or enterprise with great spirit,
and shrink from nothing so much as finishing
it. Thus it happens that the Russian garden-
ers, using their feet as thermometers, accom-
plish wonders in the way of growing conmion
vegetables, while they leave all the superior
kind of hot-house gardening to foreigners : the
latter, stimulated alike by the obstacles of the
climate, and the high pecuniary remuner-
ation which they obtain in Russia, are, in
many instances, more skilful there than at
home.

As the wealthy Russians spare no expense
when the object is to gratify a caprice or to
make an ostentatious display, and as through-
out the whole country excellent arrangements
prevail in all that relates to fuel and heating,
it will naturally be believed that the hot-houses
of Petersburg are among the most perfect
establishments of their kind. They are usu-
ally divided into a number of small compart-
ments, so as to condense the heat as much as
possible. Peas, beans, cucumbers, &,c., are
sown in small pots, like ornamental plants, by
which means they are easily moved from place
to place, and turned so as to catch the foster-
ing rays of the sun. 'I'he hot-houses are some-
times glazed with thick plate-glass; and the
plants being placed close under the windows,
the effect is much tlie same as if they were
under burning-glasses. Every blossom is an
object of the gardener's especial attention ;
for, if it bears fruit in winter, it is a sure source
of good protit.

During the month of December, when there
is no sun in Petersburg, there is consequently
no fruit; for, without the fostering influence
of the sun's rays, all the efforts of art are un-
availing. But no sooner do a few bright
beams shine forth in the months of January
and February, than fresh vegetables, such as
spinach, asparagus, and salad, appear on the
tables of the rich, who, at that early season of
the year, obtain such luxuries only from their
own hot-houses, or those of their friends. For
a very few leaves of green salad the gardener
receives an equal number of blue bank-notes.
Towards the middle and end of March, red
strawberries and cherries make their appear-
ance. They are exhibited in the windows of the
fruiterers' shops in the Perspective, set out in
rjeat plates, each strawberry and cherry being
numbered, and having its price marked in a
book kept within, as if they were so many



THE FRIEND.

pearls. A few more sunshiny days and they
become plentiful ; they are then freely pur-
chased, though their price is never lower than
from ten to twenty rubles per plateful. In
April, strawberries and asparagus begin to go
out of season, and therefore they are no longer
seen on fashionable tables. They give place
to beans, cherries, and unripe apricots, which,
not for their excellence, but for the sake of
their names, and the distance whence they are
brought, are purchased at a price almost equi-
valent to their weight in gold. In the month
of May, when the produce of the hot-house is
well-nigh exhausted, and every body is getting
tired of gooseberries and plums, the Messina
vessel, which frequently has been cruising for
some time in the Gulf of Finland, awaiting the
breaking up of the ice, arrives with its cargo
of figs and oranges. I know not how it hap-
pens, but in Petersburg these southern fruits
are obtained earlier, in greater abundance,
and cheaper than with us.

The hot-houses and orangery of the Taurian
palace, which are among the most spacious in
Petersburg, supply the imperial table. I visit-
ed them on the 28th of February. Thirty
rooms of various dimensions were filled with
flowers, vegetables, and fruit trees. The vines
are planted in long rows, and form alleys of
luxuriant overhanging foliage, resembling
those of the vineyards of the Rhine. They
were partly in bloom ; from some the blossom
had gone off, and the small grapes were set.
These grapes were expected to be ripe in the
beginning of June ; and during that month it
was estimated that fifty hundred weight of
fruit would be gathered. In other alleys
were ranged rows of apricot and peach trees in
full blossom. All these plants are fostered
with unremitting care, and kept in the most
perfect order. Among the many millions of
leaves on the trees, not one was crushed or
injured in any way ; and the leaves were turn-
ed aside, so that each head of fruit might re-
ceive the necessary degree of sunshine or
shade. It was expected that twenty thousand
apricots would be ready for gathering by the
end of May. There were fifteen thousand
pots of strawberry-plants, most of them bear-
ing fine fruit; and the gardener had already
sent two crops to the imperial palace. The
beans, of which there were six thousand pots,
were in fine condition, with good large pods.
The steward of the imperial kitchens had be-
spoken ten pounds of beans for the following
day. There were between ten and eleven
thousand pots of stocks and other flowers, all
blowing in full beauty of colour and fragrance.
I however remarked, that there were no roses
among them, a circumstance which the gar-
dener explained by informing me that, when
the roses begin to blow, they are sent to the
empress, her majesty having a particular par-
tiality for that queen of flowers. Without doors
the winter snow, like nature's winding-sheet,
was to overspread the ground for the space of
six weeks longer, whilst, in the magical pa
terres within, magnolias and lilies, like flak<
of summer snow, were peeping from among
verdant leaves, and looking as though they
had been accid'ntally dropped in the rude
north from the cornucopia of Flora.



Similar examples of abundance, early ma-
turity, and scientific skill, are observable in the
hot-houses of wealthy private individuals, who
not only in Petersburg, but at their summer
residences and remote country estates, seek,
by the products of artificial gardening, to
compensate for the scanty and monotonous
vegetation that adorns their grounds. There
is, however, a marked distinction between
these Russian hot-houses and those belonging
to persons of fortune in England, where great
expense is devoted to gardening. A first-rale
English hot-house usually contains specimens
of most of the rare and beautiful plants col-
lected by botanists and florists in the old and
the new world ; while a Russian hot-house
contains only such plants and flowers as are
employed in decorating the ball-room or the
table.



For '• Tim Friend."

A ChitiTa First Lessons in Falsehood, \

The following, taken from the " Mother's '

Assistant," by W. Williams, contains seri- |

ous caution to parents and others who have ]

charge of children ; — and believing that its !

further circulation would be useful, I have ■■
sent it for insertion in " The Friend," if the

editor should approve thereof. J. |

It may not occur to many parents that they
themselves have taught their own children to
utter falsehoods. I have recently been led to
examine this subject seriously, as it was for-
cibly presented to my mind by some circum-
stances which I witnessed. Hoping the nar-AJ
ration of it may be the means of awakening I
mothers, and those who have any intercourse ■
with children, to beware how they lead their j
young and tender minds astray, I have con-
cluded to give you an account of it. |

Not long since I passed an evening at the 4
house of a friend. While the older members ■
of the family were engaged in conversation, a j
bright little boy, of about four years, was |
amusing himself at the back part of the room ;
with tossing a ball. Frequently it would re- :
bound, or roll into the midst of the circle seat- j
ed round the fire. Upon one of these occa- |
sions it was caught by his mother, who, upon
his looking in that direction, pretended to j
throw it across the room. The little fellow j
went in the direction indicated by the motion 1
of his mother's hand, and searched for the 1
ball, but in vain. He then came back to his
mother, and in a respectful manner asked for
it, believing she had the ball. Judge of my I
surprise, when liis mother replied, "Why,
John, I threw it across the room ; and if you |
wish for it, you must look there for it." John '
returned to his search, but hardly reached the
farthest part of the room, when bounce came |
the ball, thrown from his mother's hand. He
picked it up and returned to his play, appa- |
rently not thinking of the subject. His mother, j
if she thought of it at all, supposed, I presume, '
that it was all play, and could do no harm.
But we will see. Presently the ball again
enters the circle, and is seized by the mother.
She again pretended to throw it across the j



room. Now mark the result. John stands
looking in that direction, but starts not. He
is doubtful. And has he not a reason to doubt?
His mother had deceived him once, and why
may she not again?

" Mother, you hav'nt thrown it ; you said
you did before, but you didn't," was John's
remark.

Now, young as John was, he knew that his
mother had told that which was not true.
And could he after this place as much confi-
dence in her word as before ? Could he be
blamed if he did not? If he had once been
deceived, might he not ever after expect the
same result?

But was this all the harm it did? I would
it were. But no : much as it was — much as
it would tend to pierce that mother's heart in
after years, to think that that son would doubt
her word, it was not the most agonizing.
There was still a greater evil which grew
out of this. John knew that his mother had
told that which was not true. For aught he
knew it was manly, or a mark of wisdom.
And he, too, had caught the infectious disease.
Presently a thimble rolled from the work,
stand upon the floor, which was no quicker
observed by John than pocketed. Upon being
asked for it, he replied, with a roguish smile.
" I havn't got it." 1 immediately called hirr
to me, and began to talk to him of the sin of
telling that which is not true. The little fel-
low listened attentively a while, and then said
" Why, mother does."

Now I do not wish to infer that the mother
had wilfully taught her little boy to tell lies.
In fact, in a conversation with her upon the
subject afterward, she remarked, that she had
never before thought of it in that light. She
said she was in the habit, frequently, of play-
ing with her little boy, and when she did, she
would often deceive him, as in the case men-
tioned. It had never occurred to her that she
was losing her character for veracity, or teach-
ing her little boy to tell falsehoods.

Now, is it not to be feared that many
mothers, and other persons who have the
charge of children, are in the habit of amusing
themselves in this way, at the risk of making
those children liars? And they do this, too,
without giving one passing thought to the evil.
O ! ye mothers, look upon those blooming lit-
tle ones. Do you love tiiem ? Is it your wish
that they, too, should love you ; and would you
draw out their hearts in unison with your own?
Would you have them place implicit confi-
dence in your word? Above all, would you
train them for happiness and heaven? Would
you at the last great day see them stand among
those who " have a right to enter through the
gate into the city," there to dwell forever and
ever? speah the truth then. Never let your
children hear aught but the trvth, even in
play. " Let your yea be yea, and your nay,
nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh
of evil."



Who is wise? He that learns from every-
one. — Who is powerful? He that governs his
own passions — Who is rich ? He that is con-
tent. — Colton,



THE FRIEND.

SIZE OF THE EARTH.

The earth is a globe, whose diamete
nearly 8,000 miles, and its circumference
about 2.5,000 ; and, consequently, its surface
contains nearly two hundred millions of square
miles — a magnitude too great for the mind to
lake in at one conception. In order to form
a tolerable conception of the whole, we must
endeavour to take a leisurely survey of its dif-
ferent parts.

Were we to take our station on the top of a
mountain, of a moderate size, and survey the
surrounding landscape, we should perceive an
extent of view stretching forty miles in every
direction, forming a circle of eighty miles in
diameter, and 2.50 in circumference, and com-
prehending an area of 5,000 square miles. In
such a situation, the terrestrial scene around
and beneath us — consisting of hills and plains,
towns and villages, rivers and lakes — would
form one of the largest objects which the eye,
or even the imagination, can steadily grasp at
one time.

But such an object, grand and extensive as
it is, forms no more than the forty thousandth
part of the terraqueous* globe ; so that before
we can acquire an adequate conception of the
magnitude of our own world, we must conceive
40,000 landscapes, of a similar extent, to pass
in review before us ; and, were a scene of the
magnitude now stated to pass before us every
hour, till all the diversified scenery of the
earth were brought under our view, and were
twelve hours a day allotted for the observation,
it would require nine years and forty-eight
days before the whole surface of the globe
could be contemplated, even in this general
and rapid manner.

But such a variety of successive landscapes
passing before the eye, even although it were
possible to be realized, would convey only a
very vague and imperfect conception of the
scenery of our world ; for objects at the dis-
tance of forty miles cannot be distinctly per-
ceived ; the only view which would be satis-
factory, would be that which is comprehended
within the range of three or four miles from
the spectator.

Again, I have already stated that the sur
face of the earth contains nearly 200,000,000
of square miles. Now, were a person to set
out on a minute survey of the terraqueous
globe, and to travel till he passed along every
square mile on its surface, and to continue his
route without intermission, at the rate of c
miles every day, it would require 13,264 years
before he could finish his tour, and complete
the survey of " this huge rotundity on which
tread ;" so that, had he commenced his
excursion on the day on which Adam was
created, and continued it to the present hour,
he would not have accomplished one-third part
of this vast tour. — Dick.



379



He who shows to another the error of his
ways, is as a light shining in the darkness;
for it loses none of its brightness, while at the
same time it dispels the surrounding obscurity.
—Ennias.

• Terraqueous, from two Latin words, meaning land
nd water. Terraqueous globe, a land and water globe,
-the globe on which we live.



For ■• The Friend.'
CIUI.DREN OP THE CROSS.

From the German.
Ye children of the Cross give heed !

In meekness and in love draw near,
VVilliin you is the perfect seed,

Then let the ripening fruit appear.
Your heavenly Father guards his own ;

A walcli o'er all your ways is set ;
His Spirit is within you known :

O never then his Love forget.
Come ! bring your thankful hearts to Him,

And in his presence seek delight.
To whom the highest Cherubim

Are singing praises day and night.
Then boundless grace shall bless your way.

Then by his Spirit kept and taught,
Temptation shall no more betray

To sinful act, or evil thought.

O, Jesus is in every need

A treasury of lull supply ;
He came to make us rich indeed ;

Then lift to Him an asking eye.

When sufferings without number rend.

When storms upon your paths alight, —
When untried grieli) liy day attend,

And new-born tears and pains by night ; —
O tlien to Him in spirit turn,

Lay at his feet with patience true ;
Then shall his joy within you burn,

His blessing shall your peace renew.
When pleasure beckons where the gay

Would fain of grief the heart beguile,
Turn not for fleeting joys away

From Mercy's everlasting smile.
Give up the perfect heart to Him !

Walk in the path which he makes known ;
When pleasures brighten, sorrows dim.

Seek still for safety at his throne.
Then love embraced and kept each day,

Ye shall partake of heavenly springs.
And death who spoils your frames of clay.

Shall give your spirits angcl-wings I



ANTIQUARIAN



For " The Friend.'"
RESEARCHES



Among the Early Printers and Publishers of
Friends' Books.

(Continued from page 374.)

Our early Friends were indefatigable in
their endeavours to spread the books which
advocated their doctrines, and defended their
principles and practices. Not only did they
distribute them as they found occasion, where
they thought they might be useful, but placed
them for sale at the principal bookstores,
whose masters were willing to vend them, and
they employed women to sell them throughout
the streets of London. I have met with more
than one allusion to this practice, but the fol-
lowing extract of a letter from Richard Hub-
berthorn to George Fox, dated London, 31st
of Fifth month, 1060, is positive on the sub-
ject.

" As for that book thou mentions, which is
gainst us, which was in the newsbook, it is
answered, and the answer printed twelve days
since. Some of them are gone abroad in
Whitehall, and others of them are sold in
divers shops, and some of the women cry them
about the streets."

George Fox writing about one of his books,
says, " and they sing them about the streets."

In the year 1661, John White published a



ooQ TIIE FRIE>».

work written by George Vox, with the title, | of Seventh month, 1664, was again arrested j be) before they go to the press ; that nothing
" A Declaration to the Jesvs." In the ini-iat the Bull and Mouth meeting, and with one but what is sound and savoury, that will an-
print, J. NV.'s shop is said to be " at the back- hundred and four others, sent to Newgate. ,s\ver the witness of God in all people (even in
" '■ When Alderman Brown, who had when our adversaries) may be exposed by us to pub-

lord mayor committed her and her husband to lie view." The amount of close labour per-
prison, inquired what her name was, she re- formed by Ellis Hooks in the tianscriptioo of
plied, "Instead of my name, write thus, j the suHerings of Friends, in the preparation of
AJjiict not the widow and the fatherless — and j legal documents connected with their release
far exceeded any thing they had as yet been then when ye look over the roll, ye may see ,froin prisons, in the extensive correspondence
called on to bear in that city. About this ' your duty." Alderman Brown at this struck j he was obliged to maintain with Friends in
time it became customary to issue periodicals, ! her violently in the face with his clenched ' different places, and in the superintendence of
for the dissemination of information, whether ; list, and kicked and otherwise abused her. j the press, was very great, and appears to have
foreign or domestic, and it appears that some The Society having very much increased proved prejudicial to his health. His letters
Friend concluded to adopt that mode in spread- 1 in numbers, and being spread throughout 1 speak of his weakness, and of being thereby



side of the Old Exchange."

During the years 1601 and 1662, Richard
Brown was Lord .Mayor of London, and being
a man of fierce and vindictive passions, the
suflerings of Friends under his administration



...^ the history of their sufferings. To effect England, Wj
this, a printed sheet was issued with the title, ; the Wcsl Ind
" A {Monthly Intelligence, relating the affairs
of the People called Quakers, in and near
about the city of London, concerning the vio-
lence and pursecution daily brought forth
against them ; from the first day of the Sixth



Scotland, Ireland, Holland
, and some of the North Ameri-
can colonies, it was thought desirable that
a common central spot should be chosen,
to which accounts of tlie sufliirings of its mem-
bers, and other interesting information should
be forwarded. London being deemed the



month, called August, until the first day of the j most eligible place, the various matters were
Seventh month, called September." This is j directed to be sent to Ellis Hooks, who had
the only number ever printed. It was proba- been appointed recording clerk for Friends in
biy discontinued, because of the increasing London, and who had his office in the upper
difficulty attendant on such a publication. The rooms of the Bull and Mouth meeting-house,
new law restricting the freedom of the press This station was filled by Ellis Hooks for
was now in force. By its provisions, no book twenty-four years. It appears from hints in
treating on law could be published, witjiout divers letters remaining extant, that many



the sanction of the Lord Chancellor of Eng-
land, the chief justices, or chief baron ; none
on divinity, physics, philosophy, or science,
unless approved by the Archbishop of Canter-
bury, the Bishop of London, or one of the



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 140 of 154)