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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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the murderer's death, by the hand of the exe-
cutioner. Does not the preceding clause say,
as explicitly, that he requires the death of
every beast too who has sacrificed the life v(
man? And what nation in Christendom puts
the beast to death? Upon the principle of
such a law, the horse that kills his groom, or
his rider, should formally lose his life. It was
formerly, we know, a part of the retributive
law of the mother state to take deodands,
which were the forfeiture of the thing inflict-
ing the death, whether an inanimate thing or
an'^animated being. Not only the ox which
gored a man, was put to death, but the uncon-
scious wheel of a carriage was taken off" and
sacrificed as a deodand to God. This has



not belon^in- to the ceremonial and typical j stitious doctrine retained. It is exploded as you, a jolly sailor, are so abstemious ; it is
" " . . J ^ . . ■ ■ '•^r the light of the I rather an unusual thing, is'nt it ?" " NUiy,"



these, are still in force under the Christian

dispensation? Does ho mean to say that the

punishment of these, formed, as they unques- been long since repealed ; and neither in th

tionably do form, a part of the moral law, and | country nor in England, is the silly and supe

1 typical I stitious doctrine retained. I' - " "■ '

dered of' part of a system too dark for
nineteenth century.

The sixth now succeeds, constituting the final
verse of the passage, " Whoso sheddeth man's
blood, (by man) shall his blood be shed.'' If
this sentence be not also repealed, it is so
narrowed by the prevailing institutions of
Christendom, that its total abolition seems



(p. 10.) In this respect too the law is re-
pealed, since no nation of Christendom will, by
delivering the man-slayer to the indignant
hands of an outraged kinsman, or to the less
tender mercies of an excited and infuriate
mob, minister to the sentiments of cruelly or
the passion of revenge. If by our municipal
law the punishii.ent of death devolved as " of
old upon the next of kin," we should find the
penalty, except in rare instances, effectually
abolished. In no community of the nineteenth
century, except where passion assumed the
place of reason, or vengeance the dictates of
nature and of pity, would such a law, under a
Christian commonwealth, be carried into exe-
cution. If a law, interpreted as C. C. Cuyler
interprets it — a law denouncing death, for all
shedding of blood without distinction as to
kind, and without discretion as to pardon or
commutation, to be executed too as this law
was executed as of old, by the next of kin,
were to be revived or made a part of our
criminal code, — society would lake a retro- •
grade movement, and instead of advancing in
humane sentiment and moral feeling, would
retreat to those times of violence in which the
vindictive and strong arm would rule the na-
tions of the earth.

(To be concluded.)



A TEETOTAL SAILOR.

A Cruise of Real Enjoyment. — A sailor, a
short time ago, on his way from London to
Portsmouth, per coach, was observed, by a
fellow-traveller to take nothing to drink but
ginger beer. He being an amusing and talk-
ative companion, was asked : " How is il that



portions of that code, should be consp
binding obligation? If that be his meaning,
we are constrained to say, we do not agree
with him, since all Christendom has taken
away t"rom such offences such terrible penal-
ties.' There are many laws in that code, such
for example as those respecting circumcision,
and the eating of pork and other food, which
show that they had rclerence to cleanliness in
a peculiar climate, and to ej:isling diseases,
but are in no wise appl' ' ' ' '^



ble to a different
lother condition of society.
First, then we say, assuming the text i
Genesis to have been originally a precept, f.
the observance of man, that very little remains



gion or ai



necessary to preserve consistency.



If it be a



precept, all unlawful shedding of blood is des-
tined to the same dreadful doom. But have
not the legal institutions of all Christendom
made distinctions in killing? Some kinds of
shedding blood are visited with one punish
ment, and some with another. Manslaiigh



which is not rescinded by the universal prac \ l,r has its dinsions, and murder of

lire of Christendom. Secondly, that the years its rfe^rfrs, no homicide but the 7wos<
Christian dispensation has abrogated it cmu-Vfagrant and wicked is puni«'^^,'^;'''!''j'^.f^';
pkstely



First, then, we are to show how much of
this supposed rule is disregarded by the
almost universal practice of Christendom.
Here the division into verses is convenient for
the sake of reference. After giving to man-
kind in the third verso the use of vegetables,
the prohibition in the fourth verse is explicit.
" Bui flesh with the life thereof ic/iicA is the
blood thereof shall ye not eat." The eating



Nay all Christendom has placed a discrel
arv power in human hands to require or remit
the penally ; and murders not only of the infe-
rior grades, but thoS* of the deepest atrocity,
experience executive interposition. The text,
if a binding precept, places all felonious homi-
cides upoii°a common level, and supersedes or
paralizes the merciful prerogative of the civi'
magistrate. But who should be the execu
tioner under that law? Was the oflence



said the tar, " I never knew what real enjoy-
ment was till this present cruise ashore,
ome time ago I had the good luck lo go
ashore in Cornwall, and there, out of a lark,
went to a teetotal meeting. What I heard so
struck my mind that I joined the society.
Since then I have travelled from place to
place, determined to find out every relation I
have in England, poor or rich. I am now
going to Purlsmouth, to see an old uncle, a
pilot, whom I have not seen for many years,
and ¥ hear he's nearly aground ; and as t have
plenty of shots in the locker, I intend to_ serve
him as I have some others ; give him part of
what I have, thanks to the Cornwall meeting,
and what I should have got quit of in two or
three days, or a week at most, had I done as
I used to do. This, sir, is my first cruise of
real enjoyment." — Fraserburgh Beacon.



A poor man can be content, when the con-
tented man only is rich. We are not rich or
poor, by what we possess, but by what we de-
sire. For he is not rich that hath much, but
he that hath enough : nor he poor that haih
but little, but he that wants fnore. If God



THE FRIEND.



59



then make me rich by store, I will not im-
poverish myself by covetousness ; but if he
make me poor by want, 1 will enrich myself
by content.



Microscopical Researches as applied to Ge-
ology.

From an Address before the Association of American
Gaolugisls aiid NaturaUsls ul Uostun. — By Proiessor

SiLLIJUN.

The microscope has revealed to us the inti-
mate and concealed structure of fossil plants
— of petrified trees, whose delicate vessels
had been filled with mineral matter — silicious,
calcarious or metallic — or whose substance
had been converted into stone ; their resins and
gums stored away in the dark beds of coal, are
now, as it were, created anew, like beings of
yesterday, and thus we restore the vegetation
of remote ages. The microscope has brought
the most signal aid to comparative anatomy ;
by its assistance, thin sections of both fossil
and modern teeth and bones are compared,
and thus analogies and contrasts are establish-
ed between the ancient and the recent races of
animals. The earth is the grand mausoleum
of the beings that have lived and died upon
its surface, in its atmosphere, or in its waters.
The laws of carniverous, as well as of vege-
table regimen, and the ordinary course of
spontaneous decomposition, do, indeed, resolve
by far the greater number of living beings into
food, or into new forms of animated existence
— thus causing their elements to travel in
ceaseless circles of organic revolutions ; but
vast numbers of them, escaping from the ge-
neral ruin, are entombed without being
destroyed — their elements are not separated,
nor their inenibi;rs dissevered ; their forms,
filled in with and accurately copied by mineral
matter, are encased in solid stone, or frequent-
ly in metals, and thus unfold to our view — in
the firm rocks of our plains, hills, and moun-
tains — a lucid record of their chronology,
equally incapable of being falsified or misin-
terpreted.

Thus among the fossilized animals and
plants, we discover forms both of colossal and
minute dimensions; until the unassisted eye
ceases to distinguish between the organized
being, and the mineral matter by which it is
enveloped. And here it might well have been
supposed, that we had reached the ultimate
limit of optical research ; and little did our
predecessors, or even ourselves, until very
recently, imagine, that still another world lay
concealed in senseless mineral matter, and
that it would in due time be fully disclosed to
our inspection. Wonders on wonders had,
indeed, been revealed in former years by the
microscope, among the infinitesimal tribes, —
our living contemporaries, — that at this mo-
ment, in full activity, people the bodies of
plants and animals, the waters, the atmos-
phere, and the wide earth. But these are
only the successors of similar races now to a
great extent extinct, for we are convinced by
the evidence of our senses, that animalcules,
often of inconceivable minuteness, were not
loss numerous or various, in earlier aires, than
at present.



The microscope, in the hands of Ehrenberg,
of Berlin, and of his pupils and followers, and

of other students of microscopic analysis, ' ^"^ °^ ""■■ city papers republishes from
(among whom Professor J. W. Baily is the! ''"5 "Bangor Whig," the following remark-
most distinguished in this country,) has notp^lc instance of the force of conviction, upon
only passed in review the living infusorial!'"' "^'f^'^ened mind; it is oflored, if deemed of
aniraalculae, but has penetrated the veil that '*"'^'^''^"' "merest by the editor, for insertion
concealed the fossilized races, whose existence '" ''"-" columns of " 'i he Friend."
had not been even suspected. We are now I " On Thursday forenoon, during the session
enabled to s«e, not vaguely, but in accurate , of the court in this city, a personlsy the name
forms, and with appropriate organization, the! of Flint, of Lee, came into the court house,
th



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 23 of 154)