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British service, and were colonized there,
gave evidence to the British Parliament, more
than twenty years since, as follows : — " I do
not think that sugar estates could bo carried
on entirely by free labour, in the manner the
work is done at present ; making large quan-
tities of work in a given time ; in many in-
stances, working eighteen hours out of twenty-
four, which constant labour the free settler
will not submit to." Happily British West
India slavery has now ceased, and with it this
oppressive labour.

The motive which induces the holding of
-slaves is every where the same — the desire of



G.3



wrongful gain to the holder — wrongful as
taking from the holden their moral and natu-
ral rights. Under this motive, the question
of how much labour may be exacted from the
slave, without prejudice to his human exist-
ence, will soon degenerate into one of how
much that life is worth, not to the man — but
to the holder of him, and not to him in its
moral, but in its productive aspects ! This is
the evident result of the downward tendency of
a bad commencement. Hence we are not to
look any where for a very different condition
of the slave in similar subjects of culture, and
with the spur to the extortion of labour, which
commercial competition furnishes. The " law
of trade" is but followed out, when men,
coming to regard their fellow-beings as mere
chattels, so " use them up," as to get out of
them the greatest possible amount of pro-
duction.

It belongs especially to the coerced sugar
cultivation to be prodigal of human life, —
every where prodigal, yet with such varia-
tions of amount as the cost of the human im-
plement, and other adventitious circumstances
may demand. Do we expect a system of
sugar cultivation in our Southern country by
slave-labour, which shall be essentially more
benignant than that which we find is exerted
elsewhere? Are our planters more humane
than those of Cuba, Brazil, and oilier foreign
places where slave-sugar is produced ? What
says for their clemency, the burning of ne-
groes alive, and the protection given by the
public sentiment, and even the courts of jus-
tice, to the perpetrators of such horrid trage-
dies? We err, if we expect to separate from
the American system the evils which belong
to universal slavery. What the true facts are
of the sugar cultivation in Louisiana, the state
in which it most abounds, in reference to the
abridgment of human life, is stated below
in the language of David Lee Child.

In 1631, the Secretary of the Treasury
made a report to the House of Representa-
tives, embracing the statements of a great
nuinber of sugar planters of Louisiana, and
other states, concerning the expenses and pro-
fits of their business. There was a statement
by the central committee of the sugar plant-
ers of Louisiana; one by a committee of the
parish [county] of Plaquemine, containing an
immense table of the expenditures and pro-
ducts of twenty plantations in that parish;
one from the Agricultural Society of Baton
Rouge, and several from individuals, including
J. S. Johnston, then a senator from Louisi-
ana in the Congress of the United States.
All these, with the exception of the Baton
Rouge Society, set down the annual loss of
slave-property, on the sugar plantations, at
five per cent. That society says, " two and a
half per cent.; but this'answer, in form,
relates to "slave-property," in general, and is
not confined to the sugar estates. On the
other hand, I have been informed that some
sugar planters have admitted, that they " use
up" seven -per cent, of their hands every year.
The loss to which I refer, is placed in the
Secretary's report, and in the communications
from Louisiana, under the heads of " risk,"
" decreased value," " death," and " deterio-



64



TUE FRIE.VD.



ration." The cliasms thus made are to be
filled up will) new cargoes, and coffles from
Maryland, Virginia, Nortli and South Caro-
lina, Kentucky, Tennessee, &c.

In order to appreciate and apply these ad-
missions of the adversary, it is necessary to
consider that the annual increase of the popu-
lation of the United States is about four per
cent. — in other words, the vacancies caused
by death are supplied, and four per cent, net
gain is added ; therefore, on the sugar plan-
tations of the South, a positive loss of " five
per cent." must be added to the negative loss
of four, making an outright waste of human
life, or downright massacre, of nine slaves to
every hundred, every year ! The amount on
the sugar plantations of Louisiana, to pass
over those of Florida, Arkansas, Georgia,
Alabama, and Mississippi, is three thousand
one hundred andffty per annum. These are
just as much murdered as if they were shot
en masse, anH indeed more inhumanly, inas-
much iis death by torture is more terrible. In
this single branch of slave employment, there
is a greater destruction of human life, every
year, than there was in the wliole French
Revolution, bloody as that has ever been
deemed.

Who wants to buy New Orleans sugar?
P.

now OLD ARE YOU?

From 01(1 Humphrey's " Thoughts for Uie Thouglilful."

" How old are you ?" said a woman to an
aged man, who was leaning upon two sticks.
I lingered to hear the old man's reply. " 1
shall he fourscore," said he, " if 1 live till
next Easier."

Many a word dropped by the way-side has
been picked up and pondered on with advant-
age in an after hour ; let me, then, ask you,
" How old are you ?"

Are you ten ? because if you are, you have
ten thousand sins to repent of, and ten thous-
and mercies to be grateful for. What a
thought ! Did you ever think of it before ? If
not, it is worth your while to think of it now,
and very seriously too; bearing in mind that
youth is the time to serve the Lord ; that a
good beginning bids fair to be followed by a
good ending; that " dust thou art, and unto
dust shalt thou return." Gen. iii. 19 ; and that
" we shall all stand before the judgment seat
of Christ." Rom. xiv. 10.

Are you twenty or thirty ? If so, you have
still more sins to forsake, and more mercies
thankfully to acknowledge. You are in the
meridian of your day, the prime of your life.
If you have allowed your youth to pass unim-
proved, run no further risk, try to make amends
for the past. Up and be doing; call upon the
name of the Lord. Though you forget a
thousand things, never forget " It is appointed
unto men once to die ; but after this the judg-
ment." Heb. ix. 27.

Are you forty or fifty ? If this he the case,
there is no'time to lose. You must look about
you, lest the shadows of night overtake you.
What have you done for tlie glory of God?
What are you doing? What do you intend to
do? More than half your life is gone by, even



though your days should be long in the land.
If you have not yet made up your mind to
forsake sin, and to cling to the cross of the I
Redeemer, read, mark, learn, and inwardly 1
digest the following passage of the Holy Scrip-
tures : — " The wages of sin is death ; but the
gift of God is eternal life through Jesus
Christ our Lord." Rom. vi. 23.

Are you sixty or seventy? Do you answer,
yes. 'I'hen I hope that while your feet are
on tiie earth, your eyes and your heart are
fixed upon heaven. Is it necessary to remind
you, that your days are drawing to a close,
that your life is as a spider's web? "The
days of our years are threescore years and
ten ; and if by reason of strength they be
fourscore years, yet is their strength labour
and sorrow ; for it is soon cut oft", and we fly
away." Psa. xc. 10. Death is at the very
door. Flee from the wrath to come, and
ponder on the passage, " Blessed are the dead
which die in the Lord." Rev. xiv. 13.

If to the question, " How old are you ?"
You can give the same reply as the old man
did, " / shall be fourscore if I live till next
Easter;" you are absolutely beside yourself
if you are not daily looking forward to eter-
nity. If the warning voice whispers to youth,
and speaks audibly to manhood, it cries aloud
to you. Not only with your mouth, but with
your heart you should say, " There is but a
step between me and death." 1 Sam. xx. 3.
If you have not long ago flbd for refuge to the
cross, and obtained mercy from the Saviour
of sinners, go now, even at the eleventh hour:
think of the innumerable, the heaped-up trans-
gressions of your youth, your manhood and
old age. Lose not a day, an hour, a moment,
in applying to Him who " is able to save them
to the uttermost that come unto God by him,
seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for
them." Heb. vii. 25. Since you first drew
breath, more than four thousand weeks have
passed away. The sun has risen and set
between twenty and thirty thousand times,
and thousands of millions of human beings
have passed from time into eternity. Still
there is mercy !

But, if your treasure and your heart be in
heaven, why then, be of good courage ; though
flesh and heart fail you, God will be the
strength of your heart, and your portion for
ever. Go on, traveller; for you may even
now see the end of your journey. You have
borne the heat and burden of the day ; you
have passed through briers and thorns ; you
have but a little further to travel ; endure to
the end, and you shall be saved. The older
you are, the nearer to heaven ! the heavier
your load, the greater your deliverance ! The
darker your path-way below, the brighter
your glory above. Sin, and tears, and sorrow
shall pass away; and " when Christ, who is
our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear
with him in glory." Col. iii. 4.



Affectation, in the present day, is decidedly
out of fashion; yet, so great is our fear of
being aflected, that many people affect nature
— Lady Chatterton.



JEWS' STREKl', FK.4ACFOKT.

All, from an old woman selling apples at a
conunon stall, to the jewelled head of a young
beauty leaning out of the window above — from
the man in a ragged coat, drawing a wheel-
barrow, to the two usurers gravely discussing
some money transaction — all seemed to belong
to one family. Indeed, the members of few
Christian fumilies resemble each other so
closely as the Jews do each other. The
words, " Come out and be ye separate, and
marry not the daughters of the land," were
plainly engraven on the countenances of all.
Here, in their own home, they sought not
either to disguise their names or appearances,
or to imitate the habits of others.

There was something to me inexpressibly
awful in thus finding myself among those living
witnesses of the truth of our religion, of the
fulfilment of prophecy ; in seeing over the
door of a common eating-house, those sauie
characters in which the commandments were
inscribed by the finger of God, on the tables
of stone — in which was written the most
ancient history that has been transmitted to
us; in hearing from the lips of a dealer and
his customer that language in which the Cre-
ator of all things, the great Jehovah, spoke to
the father of his people.

In this lugubrious region, where the very
smell and the atmosphere seemed difiercut
from the rest of the world, old Roths-
child still lives, the mother of thai powerful
family whose very name expresses riches —
who possess palaces in almost all the capitals
of Europe, and hold in their hands the destiny
of nations. Yet this ancient dame still resides
in a house undistinguished from any of its
sombre and dingy companions. It is said the
motive which induces her to do so is a super-
stitious one, in some way connected with the
prosperity of her descendants. Poor woman !
it seems rather hard that when one of her
sons possesses in this very town such a resi-
dence as might excite the envy of a monarch,
she should be doomed, by superstition and
prejudice, to this gloomy abode.

It is probable, however, that the interior of
the houses are better — their appearance indi-
cates that it is still the failing or habit of that
cautious people to appear wretched and mean.
This part of the town is still as it existed in
the fifteenth century, and is very well des-
cribed in Spindlcr's Der Jude. — Home
Sketches and Fortisn IlccoUections.



Died, on Uic 25th ult., in llic 7 1st viar of licr ugr,
Sarah Morris, widow of the lute Isaac W. A'orris;
she was a consistent and useful member of the Soulli-
crn Disirict Montlily McLting, in this city, and for
many years in the station of on overseer, tlie duties of
which important and responsible ifBce she endeavoured
to discharjie with meekness ard gentleness, combined
with integrity and firmness. Slie was remarkable lor
the uprightness with which she adliered to the reli-
gions princii les and Icslinioi iis of the Society to wliieh
she belonged, endeavouring to enforce them by a cor-
respondent life and conversation; and when the solemn
close drew near, was favoured with evidence that her
work was done, and that a crown of righteousness
awaited her in that kingdom wliich ^hall never have an
end.

PRINTED BY JOSEPH &, WILLIAM KITE,
Seventh and Carpenter Streets.



A RELIGIOUS AND LITERARY JOURNAL.



VOL. XVI.



SBVEBTTH-IDAY, ELEVENTH MONTH, 26, 1842.



xro. 9.



EDITED BY ROBERT SMITH.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY.

Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance.

Subscriptions and Payments received by

GEORGE W. TAYLOR,

NO. 50, NORTH FOURTH STREET, UP STAIRS,

PHILADELPHIA.



Tlie Iinpropricly of
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.S.

(Report of Committee concluded from page 58.)

In the examination of the passage of which
C. C. Cuyler's text forms only a part, we have
first considered it by the grammatical rules of
language and verbal analysis. These do not
show it to be a command. In the second place,
supposing it to be preceptive, we have shown
that the Two laws connected with it, that for-
bidding the eating of blood, and that con-
demning the beast which had killed a man, to
death, are totally disused and unobserved
throughout Christendom. Next we have
shown that by our having legally restricted
the injunction in the doctor's text to a single
crime, and essentially altered the ancient
mode of administering it, the Christian woild
do nut adopt the passage as an obligatory law.
We further say, that if the law in regard to
eating blood and killing beasts is repealed, the
law in regard to shedding blood is also rescind-
ed ; since it is inseparably connected with the
preceding, and that the xchole passage con-
sidered as an existing institution, must stand
or fall together.

Though the affirmative reasons assigned by
C. C. Cuyler, and those of his school, are thus
capable of being disproved, he assumes in the
sermon that he has made out his position to a
demonstration, and proceeds to show that the
verses in Genesis, as he understands them,
are the law of the Christian code at the pre-
sent day. He observes in page 22, that no
man can point him to the book or to the page
of the New Testament in which the repeal of
that denunciation is written. He seems to
require a direct repeal of this particular law,
and intimates that if the punishment which is
so emphatically denounced were abolished, the
repeal would not be left to conjecture or con-
struction, but be the direct subject of positive
interdict. Now at the base of this reasoning
lies the pervading error, that the text in
Genesis is a precept directed to man — a con-
clusion at which our limited faculties cannot
arrive. In the next place it seems to be sup-
posed, that Christ would abolish a law like a
repealing statute, with reference to chapter
and verse. C. C. Cuyler is too learned a



theologian, not to know that this is seldom
done in the New Testament. For example,
the early Christians set the example of assem-
bling on the first day of the week for the
purpose of worship. This example has been
imitated throughout Christendom (except per-
haps by the Seventh-day baptists) without any
formal or verbal repeal of the seventh day,
which was expressly set apart as the Sabbath
of the Lord. Will C. C. Cuyler point us to
the page and the chapter, which releases
Christians from the obligation to observe the
seventh day 1 It is impossible for him to find
any direct or formal rescission of a law, which
he lymself, as we humbly conceive, very pro-
perly observes, on another day, in common
with the great mass of Christians.

We have seen by the text in Genesis, that
the eating of blood was forbidden in the time
of Noah. This offence was denounced as a
capital crime in the time of Moses, and yet
Christians universally, without scruple or
compunction, eat the blood of animals. Can
the repeal of this law be pointed out by C. C.
Cuyler? Christians lay no more stress on this
prohibition, enforced as it is by the fearful
satiction of death, than they do on the Mosaic
injunction to abstain from various fishes and
animals, (such for example as the fiesh of
swine,) which are forbidden in Exodus. N
can he find any distinct and positive repeal of
the sanguinary laws set forth in the Pen-
tateuch. But here we are aware that we
tread upon dangerous ground. It is more
than a possible thing, that the author con-
siders the whole of these laws, not merely the
prohibitions, but the sanctions of this code, as
of binding efficacy, since he quotes them
against murder, and contends that the typical
and ceremonial parts only are expunged. It
is a sequence of his doctrine, that he would
have idolatry also punished with death, for he
thinks the Divine nature held this in greater
repugnance than murder. He says, "ex-
cepting idolatry which is dreadfully debasing
to the heart of man, and which God declares
his soul abhors, there is no other crime which
appears to be so reprobated in the word of
God, as murder." (Page 33.) Still whatever
may be the sentiments of C. C. Cuyler on this
subject, he must admit that without an abso-
lute and explicit repeal, referring to chapter
and page, the Mosaic sanctions are taken to
be rescinded by almost all Christian legisla-
tors, because esteemed to be inconsistent with
the tenor, genius, and spirit of the Christian
scheme.

But the question as to a repeal of the Noahic
canon, supposing it to contain the denuncia-
tions insisted on, is of easy solution, if we do
not require the distinct and formal utterance
of a decree, pointed directly as to chapter and



verse at the text in Genesis. C. C. Cuyler
takes the affirmative side of the question, that
his text denounces a punishment, which is not
affected by the Christian dispensation. As a
logician, he must take the burthen of the argu-
ment, and explain the meaning of the texts
which seem to conflict with such a position.
He must explain the inapplicability to mur-
der, of that passage in the New Testament,
which enjoins us to " recompense to no man
evil for evil," and that in which Christ re-
vokes the ancient lex talionis, of " an eye for
an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." It will not
do to mislead us, on this subject, with imper-
fect resemblances or with false and flimsy
comparisons. For example, the principle of
restoration in robbery presents no just analo-
gy, in the nature of things, to the retaliatory-
punishment insisted on, in the case of murder.
I The thief who is compelled to return the
property stolen to its owner, to give back
what is not his own, is made to perform an act
of simple justice, of plain and unalloyed retri-
bution. The party injured is remitted to his
original rights, and the party injuring is de-
prived of that which he has dishonestly appro-
priated. But has this case any similitude in
principle, to that which is denounced by the
Saviour and his apostle, as above quoted ? If
a man, who has torn out an eye, or knocked
out a tooth, be condemned in atonement of the
crime, to lose his own, his penalty maims
himself, but does not recompense the evil he
has inflicted. He does not suffer on the prin-
ciple of retributive jvstice, but of vnmixed
retaliation ; not from a sentiment of right, but
on the ground of revenge. The punishment
does not restore the loss or repair the injury;
it doubles the offence which before was single ;
and human society in imposing it, becomes as
culpable as the original offender. As then,
we are expressly taught that such a punish-
ment is wrong, we apply the doctrine in its
legitimate scope and true spirit, to the case of
punishing murder by death, — an infliction
which does not go upon the principle of sim-
ple retribution, since no second death can pro-
duce a resurrection of the murdered victim,
but only upon the ground of retaliating the
crime, ui avenging the enormity.

C. C. Cuyler must also explain in a more
satisfactory way than he has yet done, the
example of the Saviour, when the woman was
arraigned befiire him on a charge, for which,
by the laws of Moses, she would have suflered
death. The inquiry propounded to him,
respected not the guilt or innocence of the
accused, but simply the description of her
punishment. He did not condemn her to be
stoned, but induced those who sought her
death, to abandon their object, by a most cut-
ting reproof. When he commanded the one



66



THE rUIEND.



who was '■^ free from guiW lo llirow (lie first
stone, he conveyed tlic admonition tliat the
guilt and sin o!" lier offence were not of liuman
cognizance, and that human society in punish-
ing the crime should check the evil, so as to
prevent its recurrence, by the reformation of
the criminal. He told her to go and sin no
more. May it be doubted that his conduct
would have been diill-rent, if the woman liad
been charged with murder ? It is hard to
believe that he would have distinguished be-
tween the two offences, since her crime and
that of homicide, were involved in the same
punishment — that of death — by the Jewish
law. Will C. C Cuyler explain the meaning
of another |ii— iige? Christ was not received
by the t^amaiitans, and two of his disciples
wished to consume them by means of fire
from heaven, after the manner of Elias.
When Ihey waited for his aulhority for this,
they were rebuked, and reminded that the Son
of man is cijuie nut to destroi/ men's lives, but
to sui-c them. Is it not here announced that
to save the life of man was one of the objects
of the Saviour's mission? Will C. C Cuyler
say that the language is to be understood spi-
ritJally, when the occasion required that he
should spealv in a literal sense ? Will he allege
that the verb to som, has a spiritual meaning
unconnected with the petition of the two dis-
ciples? The Greek text has



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 25 of 154)