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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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viduals kept watch at the bell during the
whole of the three hours, and were per-
fectly sattsfieii that no supply of vital air was
conveyed to Dr. I'ayerne from above.



Now that this surprizing feat, so long re-
g;arded as of the class of physical impossibili-
ties, has been at last accomplished, every one
(as usual) is discovering how easy it is. It is
only to take down with you something that
will absorb the carbonic acid gas as fast as
you generate it, and something else (with a
lucifer match or two to heat il) from which
you may get free oxygen enough to keep you
alive. Doubtless these are the main condi-
tions of the experiment — and there are seve-
ral well known substances which do possess
these two requisites. Pure polassa, fur ex-
ample, will absorb neaily half its weight of
carbonic acid gas; and chlorate of [lolassa
gives out, when heated, 3915 parts per 100
of oxygen.

In these experiments, we perceive the dawn-
ing of a new era in the ventilation of crowded
buildings, and, perhap-;, in the sanatory laws
of cities, and domestic precautions against
epidemics.

SINGULAR EFFECT OF MADNESS.

I travelled in 1815 through the south. of
France. Something put it in my head to visit
a prison. It contained besides the ordinary
prisoners some who wore deranged. One of
them whose madness v/as extremely inoflen-
sive, enjoyed a sort of liberty in the interior
of the prison. He had been accustomed to
this sort of existence, and never dreamed that
it was possible to live any other way. On my
entry into the court-yard, he came up to me
and saluted me with much politeness. " Good
day, sir," he said, " how do you do?" " Very
well," " how are you ?" " You see my head?"
" And what of that ?" " Ah ! you do not know
my histonj. My head, like many othys, was
cut off;Jthe execution was 'sca'rcely finistied,
when llie officer was informed that I had been
guillotined by mistake. Immediately he took
up a head from a pannier, which unfortunately
was not mine, and placed it on my neck. It
is well attached, as you may see." And the
unfortunate man threw himself about to con-
vince me that his head was solidly fastened to
his shoulders. " It holds well, sir — it looks
perfectly natural ; but, nevertheless, there is
something wrong. How unfortunate that they
were mistaken in the head." And went otT
weeping, again to tell his story to the first
visiter he should meet. I inquired into his
history. He had been condemned to death,
and his pardon had arrived at the moment of
cutting off his hair. He had felt the coldness
of the scissors. That case of madness was
explained; but who will account for this?
The same prison contained another madman,
who had been a sea-captain. He passed his
life in culling, seasoning, and eating salad.
He commenced as soon as he was awake, and
only ended when sleep closed his eyes. He
never cat any thing but salad, culled and
seasoned by himself, spoke to no one, and
never answered any question, being always
too much hurried to finish a labour which was
incessantly renewed. The family of this
poor man had placed an old servant with
him whoso only occupation consisted in
bringing him salad, and sweeping away the



refuse parts. — JSote Book of a French ()£i.



STATISTICS OF fllUSClXAR POWER.

Man has the power of imitating every mo-
tion hut that of flight. To effect this, he has,
in maturity and health, sixty bones in his
head ; sixty in his thighs and legs ; sixty-two
in his arms and hands; sixty-seven in his
trunk. He has also four hundred and thirty-
four muscles. His heart makes sixty-foiir
pulsations in a minute; and, therefore, three
thousand eight hundred and forty in an hour
— ninety-two thousand, one hundred and sixty
in a day. '1 here are also three complete cir-
culations of his blood in the short space of an
hour. In respect to the comparative speed of
animated beings and of impelled bodies, it
may be remarked, that size and construction
seem to have little influence; nor has com-
parative strength, although one body giving
any quantity of motion to another is said to
lose so much of its own. The sloth is by no
means a small animal, and yet it can travel
only fifty paces in a day ; a worm crawls only
five inches in fifty seconds ; but a lady-bird
can fly twenty million times its own length in
less than an hour. An elk can run a mile and
a half in seven minutes ; an antelope a mile in
a minute ; the wild mule of Tartary has a
speed even greater than that; an eagle can
fly eighteen leagues in an hour ; and a Canary
falcon can even reach two hundred and fifty
leagues in the short space of sixteen hours.
— Bucke.

EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY.

I have been used for many years to study
the history ol other times, and to examine and
weigh the evidence of those w ho have written
about them : and I know of no one fact in the
history of mankind, which is proved by better
and fuller evidence of every sort to the under-
standing of a fair inquirer, than the great
sign which God has given us, that Christ died
and rose again from the dead. But where the
evidence of other facts ends, that of our great
sign of Christ crucified and Christ risen may
be said only to begin. I might convince your
understandings, as I own mine has been con-
vinced long since, that the fact is proved ac-
cording to the best rules of testimony ; but if
our belief rest here, %ve do not know the full
richness, the abundant and overflowing light of
our Christian faith. The evidence of Christ's
apostles, preserved to us in their writings, is
very strong, very full, very irresistible : hear
it fairly, and we cannot believe that Christ is
not risen. But the evidence of Christ's Spirit
is much more strong, more full, more pene-
trating our whole nature. He who has this
evidence, not only believes that Christ rose,
and was seen of Peter, and of the other apos-
tles; Christ has manifested himself to him
also; he knows in whom he has believed.
Life and death are no longer a great mystery,
beyond which our faith dimly catches the
light of resurrection ; Christ is with us now,
and life is clear, and death is peaceful, and
resurrection is the natural end to which both



THE FUIEND.



139



lead us. There are thousands and tens of
thousands who have gone through this blessed
evidence also ; who doing Christ's will daily,
have learned by experience the niauiluld
riches of his grace, who have received his
Spirit and life, in a continued consciousness
of his presence and his love ; to whom there
is no need that they should pray for the sky
to be opened, that they may see and hear
God. God dwelleth in them already, and
they in God. The heaven is opened, and the
angels of God are every hour ascending and
descending on that son of man, who, through
a livino- faith in Christ, hath been adopted
through him to be a son of God. So per-
fectly may the sign of the Prophet Jonah,
the sign of Christ's death and resurrection,
be rendered to each one of us all that we
could desire in a sign from heaven. — Ar-
nold.

THE LLAMA.

The llama is the only animal associated
with man and undebased by the contact. The
llama will bear neither beating nor ill-treat-
ment. They go in troops, an Indian walking
a long distance ahead as a guide. If tired,
they stop, and the Indian stops also. If the
delay is great, the Indian, becoming uneasy
towards sunset, after all sorts of precautions,
resolves on supplicating the beasts to resume
their journey. He stands about tifty or sixty
paces off in an attitude of humility, waves his
hand coaxingly towards the llamas, looks at
them with tenderness, and at the same time,
in the softest tones, and with a patience I
never failed to admire, reiterates ic-ic-ic-ic.
If the llamas are disposed to continue their
course, they follow the Indian in good order,
at a regular pace, and very fast, for their legs
are extremely long ; but when they are in ill-
humour, they do not even turn Jheir heads
towards the speaker — but remain motionless,
huddled together, standing or lying down, and
gazing on heaven with looks so tender, so
melancholy, that we might imagine these sin-
gular animals had the consciousness of another
life, of a happier existence. The straight
neck, and its gentle majesty of bearing, the
long down of their clean and glossy skin,
their supple and timid motions — all give them
an air at once noble and sensitive. It must
be so in fact ; for the llama is the only crea-
ture employed by man that he dares not strike.
If it happens (which is very seldom) that an
Indian wishes to obtain, either by force or
threats, what the llama will not willingly per-
torni, the instant this animal finds itself af-
fronted by words or gesture, he raises his
head with dignity, and without attempting to
escape ill-treatment by flight, (the llama is
never tied or fettered,) he lies down, turning
his looks towards heaven. Large tears flow
freely from his eyes, sighs issue from his
breast, and in half or three quarters of an
hour, at most, he expires. Happy creatures,
who appear to have accepted life on condition
of its being happy ! The respect shown these
animals by the Peruvian Indians amounts to
reverence.

When the Indians load them, two approach
and caress the animal, hiding his head that he



may not see the burden on his back. If he did
he would fall down and die. It is the same
in unloading. If they exceed a certain weight,
the animal throws itself down and dies. The
Indians of the Cordilleras alone possess
enough patience and gentleness to manage
the llama. — Foreign Quarterly Review.



DETECTION OF FRAUD.

It is now a great number of years since an
attempt was made to defraud a very worthy
individual out of a large properly to which he
had succeeded, by means of a forged deed,
purporting to have been executed by the per-
son from whom the property had been inherit-
ed, a short time previous to his death. This
deed was contested in the Court of Chancery,
and the suit on the part of the heir conducted
by his son, who had embraced the profession
of law. The deed purported to have been
witnessed by four individuals; but at the time
of the hearing but one of these alleged wit-
nesses was alive ; he, however, was produced,
and testified most positively to the execution
of the deed, by the person whose signature
purported to be attached. He underwent a
long and severe cross-examination by the
counsel, without at all contradicting, or in
any way weakening his testimony, until, at
last, in answering a question, which he did
with an air of exultation, as though it would
elTectually destroy all doubts of the authen-
ticity of the deed, he gave what he represent-
ed to be the circumstances attending the sign-
ing of the deed, and the words of the jiarty
signing it. These were to the effect, that
anticipating the authenticity of the deed would
be disputed, and in order to put its genuine-
ness beyond doubt, he put a six-pence under
the seal, and called the witnesses' attention
particularly to the purpose for which it was
put there.

The paper on which the deed was drawn
had previously been closely examined, but the
water mark bore a date previous to that of the
deed. 'I'he judge now ordered that the seal
should be broken, and below it was found the
six-pence as indicated by the witness. The
six-pence and the deed was handed to the judge,
and they went the round of the gentlemen of
the bar, every one considering the truth of the
witnesses testimony, who was a very old, gray
headed man, to be conclusively and trium-
phantly sustained, and inwardly congratu-
lating him on his having come out, unscathed,
from the fiery ordeal to which he had been
subjected. The young lawyer had, at last,
the six-pence and deed handed to him, and
after looking at the deed, he attentively re-
garded the six-pence, and then handing it to
the judge, and looking fixedly at the witness,
said : —

" Old man, j'ou arc on the verge of the
grave, and must shortly appear in the pre-
sence of your Maker, with this awful con-
sideration before you — do you now swear in
the presence of that God who sees all hearts,
that that six-pence was placed under the seal
by the person whose signature appears as at-
tached ?"

The witness appeared to tremble a little at



this solemn method of putting the question,
but answered,

" I do."

The counsel then requested the judge to
look at the date of the deed, which he did;
and then he desired him to look at the date of
the six-pence, which he found to have been
coined several years later than the deed pur-
ported to have been executed. The witness,
on this fact being announced, fainted away ;
and the counsel for the party claiming, and
the claimant himself, quickly disappeared.
The right of the father of the young lawyer
to the property was thus indisputably con-
firmed, and he received the hearty congratu-
lations of all present. — N. York Sun Morn.
NetEs.



The Ilitano. — The following description of
this new article of traffic from South America

is taken from a letter from Wheelwright

to the Secretary of the National Institute at
Washington.

" The huano, of which you have specimen
No. 2, has recently attracted great attention,
no less than 40,0tJ0 tons having been shipped
to England during the last fifteen months as a
manure. Much discussion has arisen as to its
nature ; but the received opinion at present is
that it is bird's dung. It is found on the
islands adjacent to the coast of Peru in such
enormous quantities as to induce scepticism as
to its origin ; in some places it lies from 80 to
ICO feet in depth ; feathers and egg shells are
frequently found deeply buried in it ; it was
used as a manure by the Indians long before
the conquest, and without it the valleys of
Peru would be almost desolate ; it is pungent
in the extreme, and, if used in large quanti-
ties, burns and destroys vegetation, while in
smaller quantities, it vivifies and gives extra-
ordinary rapidity to growth. I have not its
analysis before me, I am sorry to say, to for-
ward 3'ou."

For " The Friend."

Abolition of Slavery in Tunis.

By accounts recently received from the
Barbary States, we have the cheering intelli-
gence, that " the Bey of Tunis has, by a deci-
sive, comprehensive decree, struck off" the
fetters of every slave in his dominions; shut
up every slave market, and declared the entire
extinguishment of human slavery."

Thus has a Mahoinmedan government,
which Christian America has regarded as
despotic, arbitrary, and inimical to the rights
of man, outstripped us in the race of freedom,
and gained a pre-eminence in justice and hu-
manity. What a noble example, and what a
severe reproach to all professedly Christian
governments that continue (o hold mankind in
cruel bondage ; and surely the cheek of every
American citizen should burn with shame, that
the District of Columbia — the capital of this
country — boastingly dedicated to fre^om,
should remain a mart for the traffic in human
" chattels;" and that within a few days a re-
solution offered in Congress to prohibit the
buying and selling of slaves in the District was
refused a consideration. J.



140

F..r ■• The Friend."
J-DWAllD HRO\Vi\E.

(Concluded from pngc i:ui.)

Disappointment and trouble followed him
to Ireland, where he found himself left, bj' the
sudden decease of his father, almost penny-
less among strangers ; which, added to the
conllicts and distress of his mind for his past
misconduct, brought him very low, and he
thus pours out liis mournful exercises to his
sister-in-lasv, in a letter dated Cork, 18tli of
Fourth month, 1730; which is fraught with
instruction, and worthy of a serious peru-
sal, viz. : —

" Dear sister, Barbara Smith, — A kind let-
ter from thee, amidst my calamities and mis-
fortunes, would have been refreshing as the
reviving beams of the sun to the drooping
plants, after a cloudy and wet season. 'I'hough
I have missed that favour, and have been left
to bear my grievous alHiclions alone, like a
pelican in the wilderness, whilst my friends
and kinsfolk stood afar otf, yet having ever
had a dear love for thee, which I still retain,
thou hast been often in my mind, and the
sweet and edifying conversation we have so
often enjoyed together, and particularly that
discourse which passed betwixt us, near our
last parling at thy house ; which, alas ! 1 little
then thought should have been for so long a
time, occasioned by such great distresses fall-
ing on me. As one part of thy dream or
vision then mentioned, that thou hadst con-
cerning me, is fulfilled in my bitter sufferings,
so I hope the Lord, in his own lime, will also
accomplish the other part, by delivering me
out of all my troubles; and praised be his
name, though I am unworthy, yet I find his
Divine goodness near to comfort and sustain
me through and over them all, or else I should
have fainted ere this day, under the piercing
anguish and heavy burden thereof. I have
been as with Jonah, at the bottom of the
raging deep, where the weeds, as it were,
wrapt about my neck; but the merciful Lord
forsook me not ; the breath of life found me
out, and through its inspiration, preserved me
alive ; his everlasting arm reached me, and
brought me up again from the horrible abyss,
and set my feet in the land of the living, on
the Rock of salvation, to celebrate and mag-
nify his ever worthy and glorious name !

" He quieted the tumnlls of my mind,

Cry'd, ' Peace, t)C still,' and calmed the stormy wind.

" I doubt not but thou heard of the addi-
tional affliction I met with here, at my arri-
val, by my father being taken off with an apo-
plectic fit, a few days before ; and instead of
meeting with a kind reception from an affec-
tionate fiither, and a comfortable provision for
my subsistence, which he had given me to
expect, I found a house filled with mourning
and tears for his death, which was so sudden,
that it gave no time for altering his will, as he
designed, so one he had made about five years
ago^ame in force ; and, at that time, he, sup-
posW^ me to be in a thriving way, left his
substance, both real and personal, to his young

son K , a minor, now but little more than

ten years of age. I shall not particularize
the distress this further calamity brought me



THE FBIEND.

into, knowing thy good sense and sympathizing
nature will readily suggest to thee the deplo-
rableness of being in a strange country in
such melancholy and necessitous circum-
stances, not having so much money left as to
pay for my passage. Ah 1 how have I been
tossed about, what anguish has filled my
breast, since thy dear sister, my lovely Mar-
gery, was snatched from me ! Oh ! she was
the joy of my heart, and delight of my eye !
her precious dear idea is continually betbre
me: — I shall ever have the truest and dearest
affection for her memory, and shall regret
with deep sighs, to my last breath, my un-
speakable loss in that lovely, pleasant, virtu-
ous consort, who, if she had been spared,
might have been instrumental to preserve me
from these dismal disasters; but whilst I
grieve under these racking sorrows in this
vale of tears, she is happy on the celestial
shore, beyond the reach of all disquiet, which
is a consolation to nie ; and the hope that the
time will come that I shall rejoice with her in
that endless felicity, is an exhilarating cordial
to cheer my sinking spirits.

" I am much grieved that any should lose by
me, I can honestly say, more than at my own
great losses and suffering. I was in hopes my
father would have put me in such a way, that
in a little time I might have made up what
was deficient to my creditors, but being dis-
appointed of that, makes my loss the heavier
to bear. Yet if ever I am able, or favoured by
Providence to be of capacity, it is my firm
resolution to make up what my effects fall
siiort, to them and theirs ; nothing in the
world I desire more — therefore I hope if I
never have the substance to do it, the will
may be accepted for the deed, by Him who
looks at the sincerity of the heart, as also by
all tender persons who are sensible of uiy
calamitous condition for my failings.

" In particular, I am heartily sorry that
thou shouldst suffer by thy extraordinary
kindness and affection towards me, which
when I was last with thee was far from my
thoughts, having given M. S.* security which
he declared he was satisfied with, and vowed
and protested in the most solemn manner that
he would not execute the power I had com-
mitted to him, and thinking myself safe from
all others, and that I might in a little time
clear them off, made me judge my circum-
stances very hopeful. And whatsoever calum-
nies or accusations may be vented against me,
(of which the unfortunate, though ever so
innocent have generally a share,) I can truly
say, I designed no wrong to any, and have
this comfort, that my conscience does not
accuse me of having ever wilfully injured any
person, though I have suffered much injustice
and oppression. I look upon my failure to be
rather the effect of Divine displeasure for my
unfaithfulness in what the Lord for some
years required of me, than the ill slate of my
affairs ; for had not the Almighty, who has
the hearts of all mankind in his hand, pcr-

• " Menburn Smith was a coal owner, to whom E.
firowne was in arrears, it is understood abont XS.OOO,
when he was induced to give a bond for the amount,
which, having obtained, he put it in olinost immediate
execution."



mittcd M. S. to deal so treacherously and
cruelly by me, I might have succeeded very
well, n)y business being in such a posture, as
would in all human probability have brought
in above 5001. a year, at a moderate compu-
tation. But since I would not give up to be
one of Christ's fools, I am now justly one of
the world's, and am made a poor spectacle
both to angels and men. I wish that others,
by taking warning by me, may happily escape
the harms and evils I have endured, by not
letting their minds out after the glory and
riches of the world, when they should have
their hearts in deep humility, retired to the
heavenly gift in themselves, and through the
ability thereof be doing the Lord's busi-
ness. Oh, it is a very dangerous state and
great infelicity, for men to be doing their own
things, and neglecting the things of the Lord
Jesus, who laid down his life and suftered hia
most precious blood to be spilt, that he might
redeem poor mortals from these corruptible
objects. Therefore it is very just in him, and
I believe merciful too, to sweep all these
things away from nie, that so I might trust in
nothing but the living God. There were
divers testimonies delivered in a prophetic
manner in our meeting at Sunderland, which
seized my spirit with a sense of their belong-
ing to me. Oh, how signal and remarkable
have been the Lord's merciful dealings and
visitations towards me a poor creature, not
worthy of the least of his mercies and truth!
Neither time nor paper could contain a rela-
tion thereof; but this I shall notice, that John
Turner, from Ireland, signified in Samuel
Maude's parlour, (I being there with some
few Friends after meeting,) that the Lord
would require of some there, to bear a public
testimony to his name and truth ; and that if
obedience were not yielded thereto, severe
judgments would be inflicted on them, and it
would go ^ear to cost them the natural life.
John Appleton, Joseph Fotheringham,and Ma-
ry Hutchinson also, did all at sundry times de-
clare, in a very particular manner, that there
was a person in that meeting whom the Lord
called to come forth and promulgate his
blessed Truth, and that if obedience were
yielded, a blessing should follow upon all his
concerns ; otherwise, losses upon losses, dis-
appointments upon disappointments, confusion
and desolation should fall upon him, and all
that he took in hand should be blasted ; and
out of the meeting they gave me to understand
that their concern related to me, and that /•
?f a« the man !

" A letter I received soon after from Mary
Hutchinson which 1 have now by me, is clear
as to her part ; Joseph Folheringham impart-
ed his mind to me to that purpose, in my little
parlour, Francis Flower being with us some
part of the time. And the summer before that
deplorable winter, wherein destruction came
upon me like a whirlwind, because I had not
answered when the Lord called, Mungo Bew-
ley, another Friend from Ireland, was at- our
meeting, and was much concerned therein to
declare thai son)e great distress and calamity



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 52 of 154)