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a meeting, did more hurt tlian it niiglit in
smaller meetings. I also touclicd ii|)oii the
great duty of |nayer; requesting all to guard
against running into many words without
understanding, but carefully to mind the Spirit,
that they might pray with it, and with under-
standing also."

Thomas Story and Robert Barclay, Jr.
Some extracts from the life of Thomas
Story, concerning his visits at Urie, and travels
in company with K. Barclay, son of the Apo-
logist ; exhibiting further evidence of the
piety and devotion of that family, in those
bright days of the Society.

1696. — On the 7th of the Sixth month he
began his journey into Scotland, and on the
fourteenth, he says, " lodged at the widow
Barclay's at Urie ; and were next day, at a
Seventh-day's meeting, at Aberdeen, which
went from family to family by turns." He
proceeded to Woodland, Inverury, Kilmuck,
and back to Aberdeen, and had several meet-
ings, and parted with Friends there on the
24th. The journal proceeds — " that after-
noon went to Urie. Here we staid till the
26th, and then liad a meeting, which was
heavy for some tinie, but ended in a more
lively state, for which we were thankful; and
the next morning had a meeting in the family,
where we were comforted together, in the
springings in of the love of our Heavenly
Father, and greatly were we satisfied to find
his Divine presence so near the.n, not only
then, but also on the Sixth and Seventh-day's
following ; for they have a meeting every
morning among themselves."

Thomas Story, after this visit, went over to
America, and travelled there on religious
vice to a considerable extent. He married
and resided for several years in Philadelphia
performing many services both in civil and
religious Society ; being employed by William
Penn in several offices of importance. He was
the first recorder of the city. After the de-
cease of his wife, he returned to reside in his
native land ; and in the year 1717, engaged in
another visit to Scotland, the account of which
he commences as follows, viz. : —

" The fall of the year now drawing on, and
intending for Scotland, I therefore began to
travel more directly along the road, and ac-
cordingly went the day following to North-
allerton, and lodged at an inn." He mentions
being at New Castle, Emelton, Kelso, and
Edinburgh, and says, "On the lllh of Se-
venth month I crossed the Firth of Forth, and
went that night to Kenway, and the next to
the ferry at Montrose ; but the winds being
high, could not pass over that ni-^ht, and in the
morning following I went to Tayck, to the
widow Napier's, where I staid that night, and
next day went to Urie, to my friend Robert
Barclay's, where I stayed but that night,
thouch weary and feverish by the fatigue of
mv journey. For the course of the meet
fell out so that Aberdeen was most convenient
the day following, and being the First-day of
the week, Robert Barclay and I went thither,

and though too late for the forenoon meeting,

re with iheni in the afternoon."

r. S. went to Kingswells, Acquorihies, Kil-
muck, Inverury, and Lethinty ; at the last
place, he says, " We were courteously enter-
tained, .and the next day returned to Aber-
deen, and the day following back to Urie, with
Robert Barclay, who had given me his very
acceptable company all this time.

" Here I staid till the 25th, and had a meet-
ing with Friends there, and of Stonehaven,
and so spent the week in the family, (his
mother being still living,) where I had all
necessary refreshments and help, being then
uiider the exercise of a great cold, which
affected both my head and lungs : but, above
all, the help of the Lord was near, and made
all things easy and well.

" On the 29th, being the First-day following,
I was again at a six week's meeting at Urie
in the forenoon, which was large and open;
the Lord was with us to our comfort and help;
and in the afternoon, the same day, I was at
the meeting at Stonehaven, which was also a
pretty large open meeting, and in the evening
returned to Urie.

" On the 31st, having some remaining incli-
nations to see the Friends and people once
more at Aberdeen, I returned with Alexander
Jaffrey to Kingswells, (John Hall in compa-
ny,) and there I staid till the Fifth-day morn-
ing following, being at two meetings there in
the mean time; and my friend Christian,
wife of the said Alexander, and daughter of
Robert Barclay, deceased, being delivered of
the ninth son whilst I was there, in respect to
me, and the service I came about, they named
him 'I'homas.

" On the 3d of the Eighth month, I went
from thence to Aberdeen, to their Monthly
Meeting, where we had a comfortable time in
the Lord's goodness; and on the Seventh-day
following, was at a meeting at the old town of
Aberdeen, and that afternoon returned to the
widow Hall's, at New Town, with Andrew
J affray.

" On the 6th, I was again at the meeting at
Aberdeen, forenoon and afternoon. It was a
large and open meeting, and many things
were opened of great moment concerning the
law of the Spirit, and its strivings with the
old world, and also with Israel, as likewise
with the gentiles, and now with the nominal
Christians; and all guilty, by neglect and
opposition to this Spirit, and all means and
additions proposed; but such justified as be-
lieve and obey, to whom the same becomes a
law of life, and makes free from the law of sin
and death. This is that book and law written
in the hearts, sealed with seven seals, which
none in heaven, or in earth, or under the
earth ; neither angel, nor spirit of man made
perfect there, nor emperor, king, prince,
potentate, pope, prelate, priest, or presbyter,
satan, or any in the state of the dead, can open
or explain ; but the Lion of the tribe of Ju
dah, the Lord Jesus Chiiist, the mediator of
the new covenant, and writer and giver of this
law, whose law is light, and his command-
ment as a lamp that burnetii, and whose
glowing warmth comforts all who read there-
in, and are instructed of hi in who opens the seals.

" On the seventh I went again to Kingswells,
and staid that night, Robert Burcloy, his wife
and sister, being also there; and next day we
went all to Urie, where I staid with them till
the twelfth, and was at their week-day meet-
in the mean time, which was very small,
by reason of stormy weather.

" The same day, accompanied by Robert
Barclay, his son Robert, Alexander Jaffray,
and John Hall, I went to Tayck ; and next
day was at the meeting of Montrose, forenoon
and afternoon. There came in some people,
nd they behaved pretty soberly, being most
of the episcopal sect; and that night I return-
ed to Tayck.

On the fourteenth, I set forward towards
England, Robert Barclay, and his son and ser-
vant being with me, and that night we lodged
at Dundee. The next day we passed through
the Carse of Gourry, (a very rich and pleas-
ant country,) and lodged at the bridge of
Avin, where we went to taste some bitter phy-
sical waters, good against the rheumatism, '
scurvy, and some other distempers ; and next ^
day, in our road, called to see Sir Thomas
Bruce Hope, at his house at Kinross, near
Loch-Leven. He was religiously inclined,
and entertained us very courteously. His
house there is of well wrought white free-
stone, large, and well contrived, and near it,
in a little island in the Loch, is yet standing
the old square tower, wherein Mary, Queen
of Scots, (afterwards beheaded by Elizabeth,
Queen of England,) was some time prisoner.
And that evening, after sun-set, we passed
over the Firth of Forth, at the Queen's Ferry,
where we lodged that night.

" On the seventeenth, we went altogether to
the house of Aichibald Shaw, a Friend, near
Hopeton-House, belonging to the Earl of
Hopeton, where we staid together that day;
and our friend being gardener there, we had
the opportunity to see the gardens, and house
also, which was very neat and convenient.

" On the eighteenth, we parted there with
considerable reluctancy ; but as men are va-
riously stated in this world by Providence,
which separate! h the nearest friends, our dif-
ferent concerns obliging to it, we were made
easier to part, by the same who first made us
acquainted in the time of our youth."


Committee on Admissions. — John G. Hos-
kins. No. 60 Franklin street, and No. 60
North Fourth street, up stairs ; Isaiah Hack-
er, No. 112 south 'Ihird street, and No. 32
Chestnut street; Samuel Bettlc, jr.. No. 73
North Timlh street, and 26 South Front
street ; Charles Ellis, No. 95 South Eighth
street, and No. 56 Chestnut street.

Visiting Mann frers for the Month. — John
Elliott, No. 242 Race st. ; George R. Smith,
No. 487 Arch street; George G. Williams,
No. 61 Marshall street.

Sirpcrintcndents. — John C. and Lsetitia
Redmond. ,

Attending Physician. — Dr. Charles Evans,
No. 201 Arch street. "

Resident Physician. — Dr. Joshua H.


SBVESrTH-DAY, SSC02TS IttONTH, 18, 1843.

NO. 21.


Price two dollars per annum, payable in adva
Subscriptions and Payments received by



From Siliiman's Journal.

Geological and Miscellaneous Notices of the

Procince of Tarapaca. — By John H.


Terapaca, the southernmost province of
Peru, situated between latitude 19° and 21°
30' south ; the Andes on the east, which sepa-
rate it from Bolivia, and the Pacific Ocean on
the west.

This province possesses many points of
interest to the naturalist, and aftbrds perhaps
as interesting a field for research as any other
portion of the continent of South America of
the same extent. It forms a part of the great
desert of Adacama ; but though entirely des-
titute of vegetation, excepting in a few spots
which are irrigated by water derived from the
melting snow of the Cordilleras, it is much
less desolate and lifeless, in its general aspect,
than that portion to the South, which forms
the western part of Bolivia, and the northern
part of Chili, where the oases are more
widely separated, and throughout a large tract
of country no living thing is to bu found.

Two ranges of mountains and a plain, nearly
level, extend north and south throughout the
province; and between the Andes and the
eastern chain of mountains lies an extensive
plain inclined to the west. The surface of
this latter plain is broken by numerous streams
from the Cordilleras ; it is formed of debris
from the Andes, and is covered by huge an-
gular masses of feldspar and trachyte, and
numerous fragments of pumice and grains of
sulphur. Among the neighbouring mountains
are seven or eight volcanoes, some of which
occasionally emit a small volume of sulphu-
rous vapour. Parts of this plain afford sup-
port to coarse grass and bushes ; one kind of
cactus grows rankly, attaining the height of
eighteen or twenty feet, and a foot or more in
diameter. It is collected by the inhabitants,
and being split, serves for doors and rafters
for their houses.

The range of mountains bounding this
inclined plain on the west, and separating it
from the great Pampa, or plain of Tamaru-
gal, is composed of sand-stone, with beds of
gypsum, and is intersected by deep and abrupt
ravines, some of which extend to the sea,

while others terminate on the eastern border
of the plain. The range of mountains on the
western side of the Pampa of Tamarugal is
composed of feldspar-porphyry, resting on
granite. The base at the west, in many
places, is washed by the Pacific Ocean ; but
in parts of the coast, as at Iquique, a plain of
several square leagues intervenes, composed
of shells adhering together, and of the same
species, as now exist in great numbers on the
shore. The greater portion of these shells
are partially decomposed, and may be easily
crumbled to powder, while inany of them are
perfect, and bear no marks of abrasion. In-
land, toward the mountains, they form a com-
pact uniform bed, scarcely a trace of the ori-
ginal shells being discernable, and as we
approach the shore, the forms become gradu-
ally more distinct till we meet with the living
shells on the coast. Near the mountains the
plain is covered with fine siliceous sand, the
position of which is constantly shifting by the
wind, forming hills of considerable elevation,
and presenting a great variety of beautiful
plains and curves.

The Pampa of Tamarugal, lying between
the two ranges of mountains, before men-
tioned, is from three thousand to three thou-
sand five hundred feet above the level of the
sea. At the north it is bounded by a similar
plain of greater elevation, and at the south by
a deep and broad quehrada, through which
runs an inconsiderable river, called the Loa.
The surface presents clay, sand, gypsum, and
common salt, mixed with nitrate and sulphate
of soda. The three former substances, sepa-
rately, cover large tracts of country, as do
also the latter, united in various propoitions,
and nearly free from earthy matter. In some
parts of the Pampa, particularly at the south
and east, the beds of clay are many miles in
extent, and present a surface uniformly smooth
and level, and so hard that when riding over
it the hoofs of the inules make no impression.
On the eastern side, further north, the surface
is sandy, and scattered over with numerous
fragments of pumise, basalt, chalcedony, car-
nelian, and agate. 15etween Malilla and the
mountain of Chalacollo, the soil is covered in
several places with calcareous tufa for the
space of an acre or more. Shrubs are here
standing in the same position in which they
grew, the smallest twigs remaining, present-
ing the singular spectacle of a once rank and
luxurious thicket converted into stone. Gyp-
sum, more or less mixed with fragments of
shells and marl, constitutes a large part of the
surface of the Pampa at the north. In the
extreme northern part it presents a very re-
markable appearance, being in flat rounded
masses, slightly concave on the upper sur-
face, from five to fifteen inches in diameter,

and from one to two inches in thickness.
They are compact and hard, and contain a
few minute fragments of basalt. The same
form also occurs in the beds of salt, which
likewise constitute a large part of the northern
section of the Pampa, but in much Iprger and
less regular masses ; presenting on a general
scale the same appearance which is observed
when evaporating saline solutions, where pel-
licles form and fall to the bottom of the vessel.
These cakes of salt, many of them five or six
feet in diameter, and a foot thick, contain lit-
tle of insoluble matter; they lie piled one
upon another to the depth of several feet, pre-
senting a rough, white, and glistening surface,
over vhich the traveller may ride all day
without the horse's hoofs once touching the
soil. Although more abundant at the north,
these unmixed beds of salt are found in oilier
parts of the province.

In the western part of the Pampa, in lati-
tude 19° 50', at an elevation of about three
thousand five hundred feet above the sea, and
about two hundred feet above the adjoining
plain, limestone, containing shells, rises from
a bed consisting of pebbles and shells, which
are cemented together by salt, principally
nitrate of soda. Part of the shells are decom-
posed, while others are perfect in form, and
like those still found living on the rocks in the
inlets of the sea. The same variety of lime-
stone occurs on the opposite side of the moun-
tains, near Molle, and is traversed, as is also
the feldspar-porphyry of the neighbouring
mountains, by veins of the same salt which
unite the shells and pebbles of the plain.
Among the sandstone hills, on the opposite
side of the Pampas, particularly in the vicinity
of Pica, similar veins of an hydrous sulphur
of soda occur. Many of them are a foot wide,
and can be traced for several hundred yards;
they are compact, hard, and dry, and at a
little distance resemble veins of quartz.
Barely a trace of insoluble matter was found
in specimens taken from different parts of
several veins. Some of the cavities afford
small rhombic crystals.

In the northern and eastern parts of the
province are nunierons quebradas, or abrupt
ravines, commencing at the base of the Cor-
dilleras, and extending in a westerly direction ;
some of them intersect the Pampa, and both
ranges of mountains, others terminate at its
eastern border, dividing the eastern range
only. Numerous similar ravines intersect the
country, situated between the Andes and the
sea, both north and south of the province we
are describing. A remarkable feature dis-
closed by them is a difference of level on the
sides, which has evidently been occasioned by
the upheaving of the one, or the subsidence of
the other.


These quebradas vary in deptli from a few.
hundred feet to three thousand feet below the
level of tlie plain, and in width from a hundred ,
yards to five or six limes that distance. The
bottoms are covered with sand and pebbles,!
bowlders of perphyry, feldspar, and granite,^
and huge angular fragments of trachyte, sand-
stone, and gypsum. In various parts of these j
ravines, wliere the rock is exposed, both on i
the bottoms and on the sides, are deep scratch-
es or grooves, running in the direction of the
ravine. The sides present bold precipices.
On those of the quebradas, which terminate
at tine border of the Pampa, near the moun-
tain of Chalocoio, water lines are plainly dis-
cernible j^ and the crevices in the rock, at an
elevation of several hundred feet above the j
plain, are filled will) liie same kind of clay
which covers for miles this part of I he Pampa.

The quebradas are generally barren; but
in some parts of that of Pisagua, alfalfa is
raised in considerable quantity. In the eas-
tern parts of those of Camarones, Chisa, Pisa-
gua, and Tiliviche, are small streams which
take their rise in the Andes ; they are absorb-
ed or evaporated before they reach the sea.

Beneath the surface of a part of the Pampa,
lies an extensive forest of large trees, all of
which are more or less inclined to the south-
west. They are for the most part of the
Algarobo species. The wood is dark brown,
inclining to red, and very brittle ; it bjrns
freely, and with little smoke, although it con-
tains a large portion of resin. Parts of some
of the trees have the appearance of having
been charred. From latitude 20°, I have
traced this forest for nearly sixty miles in a
south-east direction. About thirty miles
further north, trees have also been discovered,
and it appears not improbable that the whole
of this now barren plain was once a fertile and
thickly wooded valley. In some places the
branches of the trees are near the surface ;
and often, receding from these points, in all
directions, they are found more deeply buried,
indicating an uneven surface of the valley in
which they grew.

By sinking wells through the saline soil of
the Pampa, water has been found in some
places at the depth of ten or twelve feet, while
in other parts excavations have been made
eight or ten times this depth without meeting
with it. In general, after passing a few yards
through marl, the wells terminate in a layer
of course sand. On the western border of the
Pampa are several wells which have been
sunk through trachyte, and brackish water
obtained at a depth of from twenty to thirty-
five feet. In the neighbourhood of Almonte,
during my visit to that place, workmen were
engaged in sinking a well, and had then at-
tained the depth of one hundred and fifty feet
without meeting with water. This well passed
fifty feet through marl and clay ; two feet
through coarse sand; eighty feet tlirough
clay; ten feet through fine gravel, and termi-
nated in a bed of coarse gravel and pebbles,
mixed with large water-worn stones.

In the vicinity of Pica are two hot-springs,
one of which is 92°, and the other 98° Fah.
The water contains a small portion of carbo-
nate of soda.


Among the hills which skirt the coast, and
at their base on the western side of the Pampa,
arc beds oi nitrate of soda, which cover a tract
of country not less than one hundred and fifty
miles in extent. They are slightly elevated
above the level of the plain, and covered by
light, dry, sandy marl, mixed with minute
fragments of shells. This covering yields
with a crackling noise to the pressure of the
feet while walking over it, and thus affords an
indication of the presence of nitrate of soda
beneath, and is a common guide for those
who are in search of it. Beluw this, and but
a few inches from the surface, there is usually
a layer of common salt, about a foot thick,
possessing a coarse fibrous structure. Under
this lies the nitrate of soda, resting on marl,
impregnated with saline matter, and mixed
with fragments of shells.

This salt, technically termed caliche, va-
ries in the quantity of nitrate of soda which
it affords, from twenty to seventy-five per
cent. With it there is generally more or less
insoluble matter, consisting of red marl, and
fragments of shells, in some beds amounting
to nine per cent., but averaging not more than
three per cent. It possesses a granular struc-
ture, arising from irregular rhombic crystals,
which vary considerably in size in different
localities. Some of the beds are exceedingly
compact, and when wrought, require to be
blasted with gun-powder ; while others are
easily broken with the aid of a pick and a
shovel. Cavities are occasionally found partly
filled with crystals, regular in form, and nearly
pure. The colour varies in different beds,
and in different parts of the same bed. Some
pecimens possess the whiteness of refined
loaf-sugar; others are reddish, brown, lemon
yellow, and gray. Every variety is found in
the same bed, but the compact white and yel-
low, is most abundant between the quebrada
of Tiliviche, and the point called Molina.
The composition of average specimens from
the beds which are worked, as determined by
A. A. Hayes, is as follows : —
Nitrate of soda, - - - 64.98

Sulphate of soda, - - 3.00

Chloride of sodium, - - 28.69

Iodic salts, - - - 0.63

Shells and marl, - - - 2.60

We are indebted to the same gentleman for
our knowledge of the presence of iodale of
soda, and chloro-iodate of magnesia, in com-
bination with this salt.*

(To be concluded.)

Benefts of Betirement. — He must know lit-
tle of the world, and still less of his own heart,
who is not aware how difficult it is, amid the
corrupting examples with which it abounds, to
maintain the spirit of devotion unimpaired, or
to preserve in their due force and delicacy,
those vivid moral impressions, that quick per-

* The ' mother' wnter, at some of llie refineries on the
Pampa, are very rich In iodic sails; their presence was
first observed by nolieing Ihc deep blue colour pro.
duced by some crumbs of bread wliich had accidentally
Allien into the vats.

ption of good, and instinctive abhorrence of
il, which form the chief characteristic of a
pure and elevated mind. 'J hese, like the
morning dew, are easily brushed off in the
ollisions of worldly interest, or exhaled by-
he meridian sun. Hence the necessity of
frequent intervals of retirement, when the
mind may recover its scattered powers, and
renew its strength by a devout application to
the Fountain of all grace Hull.

For "Tlie Friend."

The following pithy exhortations are select-
ed from an epistle written by one of the an-
cient martyrs, while he was detained in prison
waiting for his execution at the stake. Al-
though such execu'ions are not at the present
time perpetrated in Christendom, those who
are willing to suffer in the defence of the gos-
pel, are not without tribulation, and sonie-
limes even keen trials, I'rom those who ought
to be their comfort and joy in the Lord.
" When days are dark, and friends are lisw,"
it is well to recur to the cruel persecution and
death which those faithful martyrs of Jesus
endured, the constancy and patience which
they manifested in maintaining inviolate their
conscientious testimony to the Truth, as far
as it was opened to them, and the excellent
Christian counsel which, from living expe-
rience, they gave to their fellow believers.
" They loved not their lives unto the death,"
nor could the allurements of wealth and domes-
tic ease, draw them aside from their ranks In
the Lamb's army. Neither the love of popular-

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 60 of 154)