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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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four to five feet in height, with intense heat ;
and the sniell is the sanie as burning sulphur.
There are two jets in the field adjoining, and
three on the other side of the brook ; but they
are not so strong as the one passing through
the water. The effect by ni^ht is grand and
beautiful ; having the appearance of one mass
of large, brilliant, blue flames. This singular
phenomenon was accidentally discovered by
one of the men at the adjoining mill, about two
months since. Not having yet seen any ac-
count of it in print, I have sent you some par-
ticulars, colh^cted on the spot.

I am tkc. J. P.

High Si reel, Bristol.

Foreign Journal,

Frnm The Farmers' Cabincl.

As the time for planting fruit trees will
soon come round, I wish to call attention to,
and invite a more extended cultivation of the
quince tree. The fruit of this tree, either
green or dried, always commands a very
generous price, and the market is never over-
stocked with it. The quince produces the
finest fruit when planted in a moist soil, and
in a sheltered situation ; it may be propagated
by layers or cuttings, or by grafting. The
younger trees produce the finest fruit, and they
should be renewed every ten or twelve years,
as by that time they become aged, though
they will survive for a much longer period,
but not generally to produce fine and fair fruit.

The trees being small, they occupy but lit-
tle room, and arc not very liable to be injured
by cattle, if placed near a fence. A field of
ten acres, is C60 feet on each side, and at a
distance often feet apart, which will be sufli-
cient, will well accommodate 264 trees around
the fence, without interfering with the agri-
cultural operations within the enclosure. In
a few years, this number of trees would pro-
duce, on a very moderate calculation, sixty-
six bushels of quinces annually, which, at the

lowest price they were ever known to sell,
would net a sum, clear of all expense, far
greater that can be produced by any other
crop occupying the same space. The usual
price of the green fruit is from four to six
dollars per bushel, and the dried article sells
proportionably high. Why is it that the
West, which forwards so large an amount of
dried peaches and apples to our eastern cities,
sends no dried quinces, which would sell for
more than double the price ? A.

From the same.

Farmers should bear in mind, that lo

prices have always heretofore been followed i those at present grown
by high prices; and extravagant and high' "'' '

prices are uniformly succeeded by low ones ;
the oldest farmer living, cannot point out a
deviation from this rule ; in fact, it may
almost be said to be a law of nature ; it is the
way things have always worked throughout
the whole world ; where is the man that has
experience to contradict it? In times of de-
pression, it is a mark of wisdom to go ahead
and prepare for a better state of things.
Manure your land, and bring it into a belter
.slate of cultivation, now when it can be done


berries, may bo iiicreased to a much greater
degree than they are generally seen in our

The raspberry is as susceptible of improve-
ment as the strawberry; yet, while in the
latter we have the beautiful Keen's seedling,
and our own [Hovey's) variety, contrasting
with such marked superiority over the small
and inferior berries of the older sorts, the
same varieties of the raspberry are now culti-
vated that were common twenty or thirty
years ago, and they are still deemed the most
desirable sorts. The same attention bestowed
on tliis fruit, that has been devoted to the
gooseberry, would undoubtedly have resulted
in the production of varieties much superior to

The raspberry, like the strawberry,
native of low and partially shady situations,
growing in boggy or soft black soils, which
allow its roots to strike deep, and throw up a
free growth of its vigorous suckers. It is only
in such situations, in their wild state, that the
plants are found productive ; on light and thin
soils, and in high and exposed situations, the
growth of the suckers is limited, and the fruit
scarcely ever attains any size. Nature thus
teaches the proper mode which the cullivator
siiould adopt in the growth of the plants; and

should be his object to follow her, rather

cheaply, and be ready to set sail when thi

tide turns ; never wait till the market is up than to divert and thwart her in the cou
to begin to improve your land, or you will be she has pointed out for us to pursue
sure to have but little to sell when the day of
generous prices comes about again, which it
surely will do. It is best for a farmer always
to keep his hand in, as the saying is, and not
go to sleep on his dung fork, when his land
needs waking up with some stimulating nutri-
ment. Those whose memories are sutficiently
retentive to remember 1819 and 20, ma)' re-
collect the desponding of that period; all the
products of agriculture were low, very low
indeed, and many thought they would never
rise again — a gloom spread over the whole
country, and not a few sutTcred their farms to
deteriorate, thinking it useless to spend money
and labour in their improvement. Well, what
followed 1 — a time of prosperity, and money
getting and spending, to such an extent as has
rarely been known in any country. Something
like this may again happen ; at all events,
when our unwise law-niakers get tired of try-
ing foolish and pernicious experiments, and
permit the mechanics and manufacturers to
work for the farmers without too much com-
petition from foreigners, and the farmers to
feed them and to supply them with the raw
materials to work upon, we may look for more
prosperous times and belter prices for agricul-
tural products. W.

On the Cultivation of the Raspberry.
The raspberry, like the strawberry and cur-
rant, and other small fruits, the gooseberry
excepted, has been greatly neglected in its
cultivation. Though common in every gar-
den, and every where esteemed, next to the
strawberry, for its rich and handsome fruit,
yet few individuals have attempted improved
methods of growth, by which the size,
beauty, excellence, and productiveness of the

The plants are frequently set out in light
and poor soils, crowded together, left un-
trimmed, choked up with a profuse growth of
weak stems, and what little fruit they pro-
duce, nearly dried up, from the arid situation
in which they are placed. On thp conlrary,
in cool, deep, and moist soils, in a sheltered
and partially shaded place, the plants throw
up suckers to the height of six or eight feet,
and produce a profusion of large, handsome,
and well flavoured berries. So well assured
are the most eminent English cultivators of
the raspberry, of its love of a cool and moist
soil, that some writers have strenuously re-
commended the use of bog earth and rotten
leaves, in the place of the richest loam. We
are well assured that the many complaints
which are made of the meagre produce of
many raspberry plantations, may be attributed
wholly to the light and droughty soils in which
they are often planted.

Situation. — A cool aspect is of malerial
consequence ; and to secure this, the north side
of a fence or trellis, which will form a screen
from the sun, is the most favourable : on the
north side of a shrubbery, or row of fruit
trees, is also a suitable place. If neither of
these situations is to be had, an open spot in
the garden may be chosen, always being care-
ful to avoid the south or east side of a fence.
A temporary shade may be effected in the open
garden, by planting a row of running beans on
the south side. Having selected a proper
place, proceed to prepare the soil.

Soil. — A good soil is the most important
requisite. Having marked out the size of the
bed, if the earth is not naturally very rich and
deep, preparations should be made to trench
it. First cover the surface with three or four
inches of bog earth, if to be procured, or, in its


place, leaf soil, and if these are not conveni-
ently to be had, good old rotten hot-bed ma-
nure, which has lain at least six or eight
months: that from hot-beds made in April,
will do for use in the following October, and
if a portion of the bed was leaves, it is so
much the more to be preferred. Having spread
the manure upon the surface, it should then
be trenched in, two spades deep, or about
eighteen inches, placing Ihe manure at the
bottom of the trench. Level the surface,
and spade in an inch or two more of the
same kind of manure, and after allowincr a
week for the bed to sellle, it will be ready for

Procuring plants. — The success of planting
out, depends considerably upon a judicious se-
lection of plants. Suckers of all sizes are gene-
rally thrown up, and many cultivators would
naturally select the largest: such, however,
are not the best ; those of medium size, neither
too large nor too small, have the finest roots,
and spread more rapidly than the others. In
selecting, reference should be had to the roots
rather than the tops.

Planting out — Having prepared the beds
and secured a sullicient nundier of plants, pre-
parations may be made for setting out. A
spade, a rake, and a garden hoe will be the
proper implements to accomplish lliis. The
bed being marked out, stretch the line across
the bed, at the distance of two feet from the
walk : commence on either side of the line at
one end, by taking out the earth the width and
depth of the spade; place in the plant against
the line, and throw the soil out of the second
hole to fill up the first : in this way proceed,
until the whole bed is planted, treading the
soil lightly around each plant ; with the rake,
smooth and level the whole, and the work is
finished. The rows should be three feet
apart, and the plants three feet apart in the

Winter treatment. — On the approach of cold
weather, it will be necessary to protect the
plants for the winter. The best method of
doing this, is simply to bend the branches
down to the ground, and cover them with four
or five inches of the soil. Some cultivators
use leaves, and others coarse manure, but we
believe nothing answers belter than the com-
mon soil in which they grow.

Summer treatment. — As soon as danger of
cold weather is over, which is generally the
1st of April, the plants should be uncovered,
and a stake placed to each, to which the stems
should be securely tied : the first summer,
very little must be expected from the planta-
tion, and only a few suckers « ill be thrown
up from each plant ; but by the second year
they will be more numerous, and produce con-
siderable fruit. As soon as the plants are tied
up, proceed to level the ground, and give it a
neat finish with the rake: the only culture is
to keep down the weeds, and the surface loose,
by occasional hoeings.

Autumnal dressings. — Enriching the bed
at the time of planting, is not sufficient to keep
the plants in good condition. The beds should
have a dressing of two or three inches of com-
post every autumn. This should be laid on in
October, and lightly forked in, bearing in



I day to day liis ardent mind dwelt on the eubjcct

miiid that a mixture of bog earth, or leaf soil il'

and manure is better for the plants than all I _^^ ^^ ^^j^^^^ ^^^ ^.^ ^ ^^^,^^j

manure. This will encourage the growth ot ,^ g,f .

the roots, and in the spring, the suckers in inward. prayer and holy awe his spirit learned to
which are thrown up to form the bearini; | bow,

plants of the next season, will be much And soltncBs, as of infaney, was shed upon h.s brow.

~ III on the bed of suffering that mighty master lay,


Pruning — The raspberry can hardly be
said to need pruning, in the common accepta-
tion of that term. All that is required is to
shorten the most vigorous bearing stems, and
to cut away the old wood after it has produced
its fruit. The second summer after planting,
the plants will throw up a (luautily of suck-
ers : if numerous and small, four or five of the
best should be left their entire length ; if large
and strong, they should be shorted to four or
five feet, and the superfluous ones rooted up,
unless wanted to form hew plantations.

As the raspberry is a rapid grower after it
once takes hold of the soil, quantities of suck-
ers will spring up, which, in the course of
four or five years, will weaken the plants. On
this account new plantations should be made
every fifth or sixth year, and the soil trenched
and renewed by the application of the compost
already mentioned.

The' raspberry is rarely attacked by insects.
On this account, it requires very little care at
the hands of the cultivator. As a market
fruit, it is particularly worthy of attention,
requiring less care than the strawberry, easier
picked, and the finer sorts commanding a
.good price. — Hocei/s Magazine.

For " The Friend."

On the death of James Macintosh, author of the History
of England, c^-c.

To England's noblest statesman the last sad scene is

Yet unclouded is his intellect, and clear and keen his
eye ;

His thoughU are on eternity— but faith and vision

To trace the shapes of heavenly Ihmgs through death's
o'er shadowing veil.

He thirsted for the living springs which saints in glory

But knew not that Christ's wrestling seed partake their
streams below ;

The Spirit of his Lord from sin had saved him many
an hour,

Yet deemed he those enthusiasts who owned its pre-
sent power.

His was the wisdom of the sage, with stores of know,
ledge crowned ;

The wisdom of the babe in Christ his spirit had not
found ;

Still did he love on Christ to muse, and strove to com-

The path the Saviour trod in life, — that life's mysterious

rtyred saint,

His interest

all carlhly things
ng changc,-



A secret change,—

been wrought
For much of heaven and heavenly things his spirit had

been taught.
Brighter and brighter towards his close, untold the work

Till, as Death stretched his giant hands to gather him

A dear one whispered, " Jesus loves,'

brief reply,
"Jesus Christ, — Love,— they are the same,

sweetly beamed his eye.
He broke the silence, long and sad, which o'er the scene

was shed,
y gently uttering, " I believe !" — In God ? his loved

one said —
In Jesus !'■ — then one happy word proclaimed that he

was blest,—
And the warm tongue so eloquent was evermore at

-quick burst his



SECOND MONTH, 25, 1843.

By turns, he deemed the crucified as

— or God, —
Divinity he felt to burn along the path he trod—
He scrutinized and loved to think of what the Saviour

Still from the wisdom of the wise tlic saving truth was

Ah ! had he in his heart but bowed, the inner cross to

The spirit of the babe in Christ had been begotten

there ;
To whose sweet lispings after life, the streams of grace

are given,
And as its vision brightly clears, the myetcries of

heaven !

A late number of the British and Foreign
Anti-Slavery Reporter, contains the following
pleasing information relative to the improving
condition of several of the British West In-
dia islands : —

" Jamaica— the Cro/>.— We have been fa-
voured with a view of the statements of exports
from this island during the present year, and
have been delighted at perceiving the increase
which has taken place over those of 1841.
The statement is incomplete, not including the
exports from Port Maria, Lucea,aod Savanna
la Mar. Notwithstanding these omissions, it
appears that 13,221 hogsheads of sugar, and
1233 tierces of coffee, have been shipped in
1842, over and above the shipments of the
previous year. Our British, as well as Ja-
maica readers, will be gratified at the increas-
ed production of our staples which this state-
ment shows, and will join us in the anxious
iiope that they will continue to increase in the
like ratio every year, until our island has
reached that pilch beyond which increased
production becomes an evil.

" Dominica— the Crop.— We congratulate
the planters upon the very large crop which
has been taken off this year, and the expecta-
tion of doing the same next year. It is stated
that the crop will exceed 4000 hogsheads.
This island has not since the year 1832
shipped as large a quantity. — Dominican.

" Trinidad.— TUe. weather in Trinidad has
of late been highly favourable to the planters ;
and, from the improved and advanced state of
the cane-fields, an increase of sugar in the
next crop was looked forward to.

"The Jamaica planters, we observe, are
beginning to seek after improved modes of
cultivating their great staple, sugar

meeting of the St. Thomas in the Vale Agri-
cultural Society, held on the 17lh of Septem-
ber, a resolution was adopted, offering a prize
' to the overseer, attorney, or proprietor, who
shall make the greatest quantity of produce at
the least proportionate expense.' The prize
is to be a silver cup, value thirty guineas, to
be competed for on the 1st of November,
1844. The gentlemen will, of course, have
an eye to the quality, as well as quantity, of
the produce ; and will scarcely sanction any
attempt to seize the prize by enforcing re-
duced wages for labour."

We have received the Bristol (England)
Temperance Herald for the last and the pre-
sent month. From these it appears that the
Temperance cause is gaining strength with
increasing rapidity in almost every direction,
in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The num-
ber for the present month contains some par-
ticulars of a meeting which had recently taken
place at Exeter Hall, London, of the National
Temperance Society, staling, among other
matters, " that large room was crowded with
a most respectable assembly. We understood
that 6,000 tickets were issued, and so great
was the demand, as the time of the meeting
drew near, that in one instance, 10s. was
offered for a platform ticket." The meeting,
it is stated, was most agreeably conducted
throughout, and greatly exceeded the expec-
tation of those concerned in getting it up ; the
interest was well sustained, and scarcely any
person left the room before the chairman an-
nounced the dissolution of the meeting,
although it lasted upwards of four hours.

Our paper of last week concluded the me-
moir of John Wigham; the testimony of
Aberdeen Monthly Meeting concerning his
wife is published to-day — furnishing the read-
ers of " The Friend" with nearly all the mat-
ter of the English work. We believe its re-
publication has been very acceptable to our
subscribers generally.

To Subscribers in Great Britain and Ireland.

Thomas Hodgson, of Liverpool, having de-
clined the agency for "The Friend," an
arrangement has been made with Charles
Gilpin, 5 Bishopsgate without, London,
through whom our subscribers in Great
Britain and Ireland will be supplied. The
back numbers of the current volume will now
be forwarded, and it is hoped the work will be
received regularly in future.


A member of the Society of Friends is
wanted as an apprentice .to the brick-laying
business, by a Friend in this city. Apply at
this office.

At a

Died, at Venice, Cayuga county, N. Y., on First-
day, the 8lh of First month, Mary Huuson, wife of
John Hudson, aged near 84 years. She furnished the
consoling evidence that she was prepared for a better
state of being.


The Testimony of Aberdeen Monthly Meeting
concerning Elizabeth Wigham.
It having pleased the Lord to remove from
a state of probation, this our much beloved
friend, we deem it a duty incumbent on us to
give forth a testimony respecting her.

She was born at Ambroseholm, near Car-
lisle, in the county of Cumberland, in the
year 1748. Of the early part of her life few
incidents are recollected which appear likely
to aftbrd instruction. In 1769, she entered
into the married state with our valued friend
John Wigham, then of Cornvvood, within the
compass of Allendale Monthly Meeting, to
whom she was a true helpmate for upwards of
fifty-seven years.

A few years after her marriage, she came :
forth in public testimony, having
through much previous exercise, and'many
deep baptisms under the Lord's preparing
hand, for so important a work ; and by wait'
ing carefully in humility for the openings of
Truth, she grew in her gift, and met with the
unity of Friends in the exercise thereof.

About the year 1784, she united with her
husband in a concern and belief, that the Lord
called them to leave their native country,
and to go and reside in Scotland ; which they
did with the unity and concurrence of the
Monthly Meeting to which tliey belonged,
having then a family of seven children. This
with other movements in Scotland proved a
great trial of their faith, and subjected them
to many privations and difficulties, to which
she piously submitted, trusting in Him, who
she believed had called them to so great and
weighty a service. On her first removal into
Scotland, she resided in the neighbourhood of
Edinburgh for about two years, and after-
wards came to live within the compass of this
meeting; and after a subsequent removal
again to Edinburgh, in the year 1803, she
finally returned to us in 1807, and remained
our member till her decease.

In (he love of the gospel, and under an
apprehension of duty, she was at several
times engaged, with tlie concurrence of her
Monthly Meeting, to visit the meetino-s of
Friends in various parts of England ,-" and
twice those in Wales and Ireland. She also
felt herself engaged several times to take up
a temporary residence within the limits of
Particular Meetings : these services were to
her, we believe, rendered very weighty and
awful ; yet she evinced her dedication, by
yielding in faith and simple obedience ; thus
furnishing an instructive and encouraging ex-
ample to others, who may be called to Tread
in a similar path. On these occasions, as
well as in her more distant travels, we have
cause to believe, that her gospel labours were
to the satisfaction of those whom she visited,
and yielded the reward of peace to her own


When not engaged in religious service from
home, a large family of children necessarily
occupied much of her attention; and she
manifested an earnest and affectionate so


thing in them, which might lead from the
simplicity of Truth. Yet she did not suffer
these cares (important as they are) to prevent
her from going forth, when and where, she
believed her Divine Master called her; and
on her return from these engagements she
cheerfully entered again into her domestic
concerns, in which she was a pattern of indus-
try and frugality.

She was a diligent attender of our religious
meetings; and even in her declining years,
when labouring under the pressure of much
bodily infirmity and weakness, she was a
striking example of perseverance in the per-
formance of this important duty.

Her ministry was lively and fervent, and
although not adorned with much learning, was
clear, sound, and pertinent ; an evidence at-
tending, that it proceeded from the right
spring. In the exercise of her gift, she was
often favoured to speak with great clearness
to the states of those whom she addressed, as
divers can testify, on whose minds she has left
seals of her ministry.

During the forepart of her illness, she ex-
pressed but little; indeed her day's work
seemed to be done, and that she only was
waiting to be released from the shackles of
mortality : but it was evident to those about
her, that her faith was fixed on the immutable
Rock, and her soul anchored on her God. On
one occasion, after a season of conflict, she
broke forth in the following expressions, " O
death! where is thy sting? O grave ! where
is thy victory?" and then added, " I believe
the grave will have no victory over me ; for
the eternal God is my refuge, and his ever-
lasting arm is underneath ; and that is more

to me than thousands of gold and silver,

blessed and praised be his holy name." At
another time, she said to one of her children,
" I believe I am wearing away fast, at least I
hope so ;" and on taking leave, said, " Fare-
well, my dear ; and mayest thou fare well in
the Lord thy God ; and this is the desire of
my heart for all my children."

As the tenor of her life appeared to breathe
her Creator's praise; so in her death we be-
lieve she was of the number of those, who are

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 64 of 154)